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Sino-Japanese War: Japanese reserves marching along the railway line to Nanjing at the Wuxi station in front of Nanjing, December 1937
The " Incident at the Marco Polo Bridge "
triggers the Second Sino-Japanese War .
First page of the encyclical “With burning concern”, edition from the diocese of Speyer, with a resolution from Bishop Ludwig Sebastian, printed in the Jäger's printing house in Speyer, which was therefore expropriated
Pope Pius XI publishes
the encyclical
With Burning Concern .
Nikolai Yezhov
In the Stalinist Soviet Union the " Great Terror " begins by Nikolai Jeschow .
The burning Hindenburg
The " Hindenburg catastrophe "
heralds the temporary end of commercial aviation.
1937 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1385/86 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1929/30 (September 10-11)
Baha'i calendar 93/94 (March 20/21)
Bengali solar calendar 1341/42 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2480/81 (southern Buddhism); 2479/80 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 77th (78th) cycle

Year of the Fire Ox丁丑 ( since February 11 , before that Fire Rat丙子)

Chuch'e ideology (North Korea) Chuch'e 26
Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1299/1300 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4270/71 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1315/16 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1355/56 (March 13-14)
Japanese calendar 昭和Shōwa 12;

Koki 2597

Jewish calendar 5697/98 (September 5-6)
Coptic calendar 1653/54 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 1112/13
Minguo calendar (China) Year 26 of the Republic
Seleucid era Babylon: 2247/48 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2248/49 (turn of the year October)

Suriyakati Calendar (Thai Solar Calendar) 2479/80 (April 1)
Tibetan calendar 1683
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1993/94 (April)

In 1937, the civil war raged in Spain , in which numerous foreign powers intervened directly or indirectly. The German Air Force is rehearsing several war criminal air raids such as the air raid on Gernika for the Great War already planned by Adolf Hitler .

In the Soviet Union , the Great Terror under Josef Stalin reached a climax: high-ranking officers were convicted and executed in several secret trials. The “beheading” of the Red Army will turn out to be almost fatal for the country in the next few years.

In Asia, the incident at the Marco Polo Bridge triggers the Second Sino-Japanese War . The Imperial Japanese Army has little difficulty with the quarreling Chinese troops and occupies large parts of China in a short time , with war crimes such as the Nanking massacre occurring here as well.


Politics and world events

German Empire

  • January 1 : In order to meet the needs of the armaments industry, the use of stainless steel for other items is banned in the German Reich .
Law on Greater Hamburg and other area adjustments
Poster for the exhibition The Eternal Jew , "with the attributes of usury, a scourge and a world map of Bolshevism"

Spanish Civil War

Battle of Guadalajara
The War in the North (March – October 1937)
The Gernika destroyed by the Condor Legion
  • April 26th : Air raid on Gernika : The German aircraft squadron Legion Condor destroys the Basque city of Guernica .
  • May: Republican units under the orders of the Polish communist Karol Świerczewski try in vain to break out of besieged Madrid .
  • May 3 : The party struggle in the Spanish Frente Popular (Popular Front) escalates. In Barcelona, ​​200 police officers, led by communists loyal to Stalin, storm the telephone switchboard of the Spanish Post Office, which had previously been run by radical left forces. This resulted in unrest against the Stalinist-dominated central government throughout the city, which lasted for several days.
  • 4. - 8. May : The events of May in Barcelona it comes to fighting Republican units themselves.
  • May 29 : Over 30 seamen are killed and more than 70 injured in an air raid by the Frente Popular on the German armored ship Deutschland off Ibiza. The ship was on an international order for maritime control off Spain.
  • May 31 : The German armored ship Admiral Scheer destroys a coastal battery of the Popular Front near the Spanish city of Almería as a punitive action for the attack on Germany with air support .
  • June 3 : General Franco's deputy and commander for northern Spain, Emilio Mola , is killed in a plane crash near Burgos .
  • June 19th : War in the north : Bilbao falls into the hands of the nationalists.
Map of the Battle of Brunete

Soviet Union

Great Britain


Éamon de Valera , the spiritual father of the constitution


Other events in Europe

Turkey / Middle East

Dersim Province 1937
King Faruq in the Egyptian Parliament
  • July 29th : Faruq is crowned the second king of Egypt . The 16-year-old monarch then made a public radio address to the nation. It is the first time a ruler of Egypt speaks directly to his people during his enthronement. The young monarch implements a comprehensive economic reform program and, because of his secular and laicist attitude, comes into conflict with the Islamic clergy, which leads to a strengthening of the Muslim Brotherhood .
  • November 17 : The leader of the Dersim uprising , Said Rıza , and his six comrades from Dersim are executed in Elazig (Mazra) (Turkey-Kurdistan).

China / Japan

Japanese soldiers on the walls of Tongzhou on July 30th
  • July 29 : In the Tongzhou incident during the Battle of Beijing-Tianjin, soldiers from the Chinese East Hebei Army attack their Japanese trainers and Chinese officers collaborating with the Japanese. The Hebei district commissioner is arrested. Only Japanese reinforcements can put down the uprising and free the commissioner.
  • August: The Japanese army and their Mongol allies are victorious in the Chahar operation .
House fighting in Shanghai, August 1937
Chinese units at Pingxingguan Pass
Newspaper article about the Hyakunin-giri Kyōsō

Latin America

United States of America


Memorial stone for the opening of the inland railway in Kåbdalis

science and technology



Amelia Earhart in June 1937 in front of her Lockheed Electra
  • After a flight from Oakland to Miami , Amelia Earhart announces another attempt to circumnavigate the world and starts on June 1 with her navigator Fred Noonan from Miami towards Brazil. After stopping over in Brazil , West Africa , Calcutta and Rangoon , she arrives in Lae in New Guinea on June 29 , after having covered around three quarters of the distance , and takes off from there on July 2 , around the last stretch - the Pacific - get over with. She flies to Howland Island , where she wants to make one last stop, but never arrives there.
  • July 19 : The large-scale search for the Lockheed Electra with Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan on board is discontinued. Two years later, the two are officially declared dead.





Polar research


Opening of the Golden Gate Bridge

Technical records


Visual arts


The dog of Baskerville - logo
Logo To new shores
Snow White screenshot


Music and theater

Excerpt from the program of the Night of the Amazons 1937




News article 1937, Universal News
Historical footage of the accident

Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Catastrophe .

nature and environment


Nobel Prizes

price person country Reason for awarding the prize image
Nobel Price for physics Clinton Davisson
United States 48United States United States "For their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals" Clinton Davisson
George Paget Thomson
United KingdomUnited Kingdom United Kingdom George Paget Thomson
Nobel Prize in Chemistry Walter Norman Haworth
United KingdomUnited Kingdom United Kingdom "For his research on carbohydrates and vitamin C " Walter Norman Haworth
Paul Karrer
SwitzerlandSwitzerland Switzerland "For his research on carotenoids and flavins as well as vitamins A and B2 " Paul Karrer
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Albert von Szent-Györgyi Nagyrápolt
Hungary 1918Hungary Hungary "For his discoveries in the field of biological combustion processes , especially in relation to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid " Albert from Szent-Györgyi Nagyrápolt
Nobel Prize in literature Roger Martin du Gard
Third French RepublicThird French Republic France "For the artistic power and truth with which he portrayed human contrasts and essential aspects of contemporary life in the novel series 'Les Thibault'"
Nobel Peace Prize Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood
United KingdomUnited Kingdom United Kingdom Founder and President of the International Peace Campaign Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood



Shirley Bassey, 2006


Rita Süssmuth, 2011
King Harald V, 2010



George Takei (1996)
Jack Nicholson (2008)
Saddam Hussein (1997)



Morgan Freeman
Roberto Blanco, 2012
Herbert Feuerstein, 2005







Jane Fonda, 2007
Dieter Thomas Heck
Anthony Hopkins, 2010

Exact date of birth unknown


January February

March April

Wallace Carothers

May June

John D. Rockefeller (around 1875)

July August

George Gershwin, 1937
Guglielmo Marconi, around 1907

September October

Richard von Hertwig, 1930
Ernest Rutherford

November December

Ramsay MacDonald, around 1900
Erich Ludendorff
Maurice Ravel, 1925

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1937  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Frank Siegmund: Alemanni and Franks. Supplementary volumes to the Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde Volume 23 (edited by Heinrich Beck, Dieter Geuenich, Heiko Steuer). Walter de Gruyter Verlag, Berlin, 2000, p. 367.