from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Portal history | Portal Biographies | Current events | Annual calendar

| 18th century | 19th century | 20th century |
| 1810s | 1820s | 1830s | 1840s | 1850s | 1860s | 1870s |
◄◄ | | 1844 | 1845 | 1846 | 1847 | 1848 | 1849 | 1850 | 1851 | 1852 | |►►

Heads of State · Elections · Nekrolog · Music Year

The National Assembly in the Paulskirche
The National Assembly in the Paulskirche in Frankfurt am Main .
Title page of the original publication of the Communist Party Manifesto
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels write the
Communist Manifesto .
The contract in English (left) and Spanish
The Guadalupe Hidalgo Treaty reorganizes the border between the United States and Mexico
after the Mexican-American War .
1848 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1296/97 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1840/41 (turn of the year 10/11 September)
Baha'i calendar 04/05 (turn of the year 20/21 March)
Bengali solar calendar 12532/54 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2391/92 (southern Buddhism); 2390/91 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 75th (76th) cycle

Year of the earth-monkey戊申 ( at the beginning of the year fire-sheep丁未)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1210/11 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4181/82 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1226/27 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1264/65 (November 26-27)
Jewish calendar 5608/09 (September 27-28)
Coptic calendar 1564/65 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 1023/24
Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire) 1263/64 (March 1)
Seleucid era Babylon: 2158/59 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2159/60 (turn of the year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1904/05 (turn of the year April)

1848 is a year of bourgeois revolutionary uprisings across Europe against the restoration powers ruling at the time and their political and social structures. Fanned by the French February Revolution , the revolutionary mood spread to the states of the German Confederation , the Habsburg Empire , Italy and even Brazil .

At the same time, through victory in the Mexican-American War and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo , the US wins the territories between Texas and California , and the California gold rush breaks out.


The wave of revolutionary unrest was initially - after the first uprisings in Sicily against the rule of the Spanish Bourbons and in Lombardy against that of the Austrian Habsburg Empire (January 1848) - with the French February Revolution of 1848 and the proclamation of the Second French Republic as the “ initial spark “Triggered. In individual regions, events escalated to interstate wars (in northern Italy in the first Italian War of Independence and in Holstein / Schleswig / Denmark in the first Schleswig-Holstein War ) or took on civil war-like proportions (e.g. Vienna: October 1848 , during the Imperial constitution campaign in Baden: May to July 1849 , Saxony: May 1849 or the Palatinate: May / June 1849 , and in Hungary: 1848/1849 ). The surveys were of different intensity and duration in the respective states and regions. In October 1849 at the latest, the last revolutionary struggles ended with the final surrender of the Hungarian independence movement of that time.

In addition to France, the states of the German Confederation ( March Revolution , including Prussia , Baden , Holstein , Saxony , Bavaria , the Free City of Frankfurt , Austria and its crown land of Bohemia ), the Italian peninsula (including Tuscany , Lombardy and Veneto , Sardinia-Piedmont ) apply in particular , the Papal States , Naples and Sicily ), the tripartite Poland (there mainly is under Prussian rule Posen ), and at the Austrian- Habsburg belonging Empire, striving for independence Hungary as major centers of "European revolutions" of 1848/1849 . In Eastern Europe, the uprisings spread to the Danube principalities , to Transylvania , Wallachia and Moldova . The Switzerland again established after the Sonderbund War of 1847 already democratic in the following year State .


Politics and world events

The events in Europe

February Revolution in France
Alphonse de Lamartine (center of the picture, with his arm raised) prevents Social Revolutionaries from entering the Hôtel de Ville with the red flag
German Confederation
Barricade fight on Alexanderplatz in front of the house with the 99 sheep's heads
Empire of Austria
Flag of the Repubblica di San Marco
The shooting of Caesar Wenzel Messenhauser
Reminder sheet for the entry into force of the first federal constitution on September 12, 1848
Jonas Furrer


Assignments of Mexico to the United States in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo




  • The Munich Beer War : Citizens defend themselves against excessive beer prices
At the turn of the century, regional disputes arose over beer prices, the distribution of beer and serving permits. That is why such “events” are called “beer wars”, in which the aim was to define prices or to allow foreign beers to be served.

science and technology

Phineas Gage with iron bar


Visual arts

Museum of Fine Arts Leipzig
Pompejanum Aschaffenburg, south
  • The Pompejanum in Aschaffenburg, built according to plans by court architect Friedrich von Gärtner , will be completed after eight years. The "ideal" replica of a Roman villa is not intended to serve as a royal villa, but as an object that should enable art lovers in Germany to study ancient culture. The building is a testament to the enthusiasm for antiquities of the 19th century.
Barricade in the Breite Strasse
Spitzweg: Gnome, looking at the train


Music and theater




nature and environment



January February

Hugo de Vries



May June

Otto Lilienthal
Self-portrait , Paul Gauguin , 1893

July August

September October

November December

Exact date of birth unknown


January to April

John Quincy Adams

May to August

Annette von Droste-Hülshoff, 1838
Jöns Jakob Berzelius
George Stephenson

September to December

Robert Blum, painting by August Hunger, between 1845 and 1848

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1848  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files