|National Assembly in the Paulskirche in Frankfurt am Main .|
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels write the
Communist Manifesto .
Guadalupe Hidalgo Treaty reorganizes the border between the United States and Mexico
after the Mexican-American War .
|1848 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1296/97 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1840/41 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Baha'i calendar||04/05 (turn of the year 20/21 March)|
|Bengali solar calendar||12532/54 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2391/92 (southern Buddhism); 2390/91 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||75th (76th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1210/11 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4181/82 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1226/27 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1264/65 (November 26-27)|
|Jewish calendar||5608/09 (September 27-28)|
|Coptic calendar||1564/65 (September 10-11)|
|Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire)||1263/64 (March 1)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2158/59 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2159/60 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1904/05 (turn of the year April)|
1848 is a year of bourgeois revolutionary uprisings across Europe against the restoration powers ruling at the time and their political and social structures. Fanned by the French February Revolution , the revolutionary mood spread to the states of the German Confederation , the Habsburg Empire , Italy and even Brazil .
The wave of revolutionary unrest was initially - after the first uprisings in Sicily against the rule of the Spanish Bourbons and in Lombardy against that of the Austrian Habsburg Empire (January 1848) - with the French February Revolution of 1848 and the proclamation of the Second French Republic as the “ initial spark “Triggered. In individual regions, events escalated to interstate wars (in northern Italy in the first Italian War of Independence and in Holstein / Schleswig / Denmark in the first Schleswig-Holstein War ) or took on civil war-like proportions (e.g. Vienna: October 1848 , during the Imperial constitution campaign in Baden: May to July 1849 , Saxony: May 1849 or the Palatinate: May / June 1849 , and in Hungary: 1848/1849 ). The surveys were of different intensity and duration in the respective states and regions. In October 1849 at the latest, the last revolutionary struggles ended with the final surrender of the Hungarian independence movement of that time.
In addition to France, the states of the German Confederation ( March Revolution , including Prussia , Baden , Holstein , Saxony , Bavaria , the Free City of Frankfurt , Austria and its crown land of Bohemia ), the Italian peninsula (including Tuscany , Lombardy and Veneto , Sardinia-Piedmont ) apply in particular , the Papal States , Naples and Sicily ), the tripartite Poland (there mainly is under Prussian rule Posen ), and at the Austrian- Habsburg belonging Empire, striving for independence Hungary as major centers of "European revolutions" of 1848/1849 . In Eastern Europe, the uprisings spread to the Danube principalities , to Transylvania , Wallachia and Moldova . The Switzerland again established after the Sonderbund War of 1847 already democratic in the following year State .
Politics and world events
The events in Europe
February Revolution in France
- February 21 : In Paris , the ban on a banquet for electoral reform by the citizen-king Louis Philippe of Orléans leads to public protests that escalate into the February Revolution .
- February 24 : The French King Louis-Philippe of Orléans is deposed in the February Revolution of 1848. The Second French Republic is proclaimed.
- November 4th : After the February Revolution, the French National Assembly adopts the Constitution of the Second Republic, which provides for the election of a president .
- December 10th : After the February Revolution, Louis Napoléon Bonaparte , the nephew of Emperor Napoleon I, is elected President of France.
- February 9th : Due to fights between the population and the student bodyguard of his concubine Lola Montez , the Bavarian King Ludwig I orders the immediate closure of the University of Munich and calls on all students to leave the city. This triggered strong protests in the city the next day.
- February 21 : Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish the Communist Manifesto .
- February 27th : The spark of the French February Revolution jumps over to the Grand Duchy of Baden and triggers the Baden Revolution : a petition with four demands to the government is passed at the Mannheim People's Assembly .
- February 28th : A people's assembly in Mainz raises demands for freedom against the Hessian government in Darmstadt. Heinrich von Gagern files an application for “convening a national representation” and for “renewing the federal head”.
- March: March revolutions in most German states and other European countries
- March 5 : The Heidelberg Assembly resolves to set up a committee of seven , an important preliminary decision for the establishment of the Frankfurt National Assembly .
- March 9 : The Bundestag of the German Confederation makes black-red-gold the German federal colors.
- March 18 : outbreak of the revolution in Berlin . Attack of the cavalry on the people in front of the Berlin Palace
- March 19 : The construction of the barricades begins on Neue Königsstrasse in Berlin.
- March 19 : Street battles in Berlin claim 187 deaths.
- March 20 : King Ludwig I of Bavaria abdicates in favor of his son Maximilian II. Joseph .
- March 21 : King Friedrich Wilhelm IV rides through Berlin behind a black, red and gold flag.
- March 22nd : The coffins of fallen Berliners are laid out on the steps of the cathedral.
- March 30 : Entry of the pre-parliament into the Paulskirche in Frankfurt
- April 2 : The Karlsbad resolutions of 1819 against liberal efforts are repealed by the German Bundestag .
- April 12 : Friedrich Hecker and Gustav Struve proclaim the republic in Baden
- April 13th : The Hecker train begins. Revolutionaries from Baden set off from Constance to the capital Karlsruhe.
- April 20 : Battle on the Scheideck . Friedrich von Gagern is killed, the Hecker train blown up
- April 27 : The Baden Revolution as part of the March Revolution fails: In the battle near Dossenbach , the German Democratic Legion, led by the revolutionary poet Georg Herwegh, is defeated by counterrevolutionary troops from Württemberg .
- May 18 : The first all-German parliament , the Frankfurt National Assembly , opens in the Paulskirche .
- June 4th : Foundation of the first German Reichsmarine
- June 12 : At the second Wartburg Festival, students, addressed to the Frankfurt National Assembly , demand the transfer of universities to national property, academic self-government and state funding.
- June 14th : During the German Revolution , the Berlin arsenal was rushed , where the crowd was getting weapons.
- June 14 : In the Schleswig-Holstein survey, the German National Assembly decides to set up a Reich fleet as the first all-German navy
- June 28 : The Frankfurt National Assembly declares the Bundestag (German Confederation) dissolved.
- July 11 : Entry of the Reich Administrator Archduke Johann into Frankfurt
- September 2nd : Manifesto of the German workers' congress
- September 18 : September riots in Frankfurt am Main : The members of the National Assembly Hans von Auerswald and Felix Fürst Lichnowsky are murdered, 30 insurgents and 12 soldiers die in barricade fighting.
- October 16 : The Berlin vigilante fires at insurgent workers.
- November 10th : With the invasion of Prussian troops under General Field Marshal Friedrich von Wrangel , the end of the revolution in Berlin begins .
- November 12 : The Frankfurt National Assembly passes the law on a German war and trade flag , which for the first time prescribes the colors black, red and gold as a national symbol.
- November 15 : In Prussia , the military ordered by King Friedrich Wilhelm IV dissolves deliberations of the Prussian National Assembly , which is reluctant to move the seat from revolutionary Berlin to the city of Brandenburg. The king also rejects - like various Conservative MPs - the draft constitution, the Waldeck Charter .
- December 5th : The rebellious Prussian National Assembly is dissolved by a decree by King Friedrich Wilhelm IV . On the same day the regent enacts the constitution imposed on Prussia according to his ideas .
- December 28 : Proclamation of the basic rights of the German people in the Reich Law Gazette
- The Association of German Cigar Workers is founded in Berlin .
Empire of Austria
- March 13 : With the storming of the Ständehaus in Vienna, the revolution in Austria breaks out against the authoritarian rule in Vormärz . State Chancellor Klemens Wenzel Lothar von Metternich resigns and flees to London.
- March 13th : The St. Wenceslas Committee of 1848 is established in Bohemia , and shortly afterwards it is renamed the National Committee .
- March 15 : In the course of the March Revolution , Emperor Ferdinand I promised the Austrians the adoption of a constitution.
- March 15th : Beginning of the Hungarian uprising and freedom struggle against Austrian rule.
- March 22nd : As part of the March revolutions in Central Europe, Daniele Manin and several companions occupy the arsenal in Venice , an important safeguard for the proclamation of the Repubblica di San Marco on the following day.
- June 2 : A Slavs congress begins in Prague, chaired by the historian František Palacký . Until the outbreak of the Whitsun Uprising in Prague, the assembly deliberates on the desire for a federal transformation of the Danube monarchy .
- September 7th : The so-called hereditary servitude , similar to serfdom , is repealed in the Austrian Empire by a patent by Ferdinand I.
- October 6th : The Vienna October Uprising of 1848 breaks out when units mutiny.
- October 23 : Vienna, which was hit by the October uprising during the German Revolution , is surrounded by counterrevolutionary troops under the command of Joseph Jelačić von Bužim and Alfred I. zu Windisch-Graetz . The October uprising ends on October 31st when the imperial troops march into Vienna. Wenzel Messenhauser , the most important leader of the rebels, and the journalists Alfred Julius Becher and Hermann Jellinek were executed in the following days. Robert Blum , a member of the Frankfurt National Assembly , will also be executed on November 9th .
- December 2 : Franz Joseph I becomes Emperor of Austria .
- December 15 : The Hungarian Reichstag declares the abdication of Emperor Ferdinand I invalid and protests against Emperor Franz Joseph I's accession to the throne . Lajos Kossuth's government receives support.
- Romanian Revolution of 1848
- January 12th : After several weeks of unrest, an uprising against the Bourbon rule in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies begins in Palermo .
- May 30th : In the Battle of Goito , the Sardinia-Piedmont army under King Karl Albert prevailed against the Austrian troops under the command of Field Marshal Radetzky as part of the Italian Wars of Independence .
- November 24th : Revolutionary republican activities in Rome lead to Pope Pius IX. leaves town. He flees to Gaeta .
- September 12 : The history of the Swiss Diet ends after more than 500 years. The first federal constitution comes into force. The Switzerland is constituted as a parliamentary state in place of the former State Union .
- November 16 : First Federal Elections in Switzerland: Jonas Furrer , representatives of the radical liberal group is organized by the Federal Assembly for the first President elected, but asks for time to think. Only after the capital city issue has been clarified does he accept the election.
- November 27th : In Switzerland , Bern is elevated to the seat of the federal government, but not the capital, but the federal city.
- January 20th : After the death of his father Christian VIII. Frederick VII becomes the new King of Denmark . As king he soon followed the request of the liberals to have a general state constitution drawn up for the entire monarchy, including the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein .
- March 24th : The surprise of the garrison in Rendsburg by soldiers and students from Kiel marks the beginning of the Schleswig-Holstein uprising .
- January 24th : James W. Marshall discovers the first gold nugget at Sutter's Mill in California , the construction site for a sawmill on the New Helvetia ranch of the Swiss Johann August Sutter . As the ranch workers divulged the find despite Sutter's instructions, the first people from California soon came to the gold fields. The San Francisco press reported the gold discoveries in March and the New York Herald on August 19 . The California gold rush begins.
- February 2 : The United States and Mexico sign the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo : After the Mexican-American War (1846–1848) Mexico loses around a third of its national territory (California, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah and parts of Colorado, Wyoming and Kansas) to the USA.
- May 29th : The previous Wisconsin Territory is incorporated into the United States as the 30th state under the name Wisconsin .
- August 14 : The unorganized territory created in 1846 after the Oregon Compromise by the division of the Oregon Country between the United States and British North America is placed under the US federal government as Oregon Territory . In terms of area, the area roughly covers today's US states of Washington , Oregon , Idaho , as well as western Montana and Wyoming .
- November 7th : Presidential election in the United States, 1848 : Former General Zachary Taylor ( Whig Party ) is elected new president, an office he takes up on March 4, 1849. Incumbent James K. Polk ( Democratic Party ) did not run for a second term. It is the first presidential election to take place nationwide on the same day.
- January 3 : Joseph Jenkins Roberts is the first President of Liberia in Africa.
- January 6th : In a race against a French expeditionary force, Spain conquers the uninhabited Islas Chafarinas , a small group of islands off the coast of Morocco .
- November 22nd the Battle of Ramnagar takes place between the British East India Company and the Sikh Army of the Punjab in the Second Sikh War .
- June 1 : The first edition of the Neue Rheinische Zeitung , founded by Karl Marx in Cologne, appears.
- July 3 : The first edition of the daily newspaper Die Presse, founded by entrepreneur August Zang , appears in Vienna .
- July 11th : In London, Waterloo station goes into operation.
- August 19 : The New York Herald newspaper reports gold discoveries in California, triggering the California gold rush .
- September 3 : A workers' congress that is coming to an end founds the General German Workers' Brotherhood , one of the nucleus of the workers' movement . Stephan Born has made a decisive contribution to this.
- October 15 : The Hamburg-American Packetfahrt-Actien-Gesellschaft starts regular services between Hamburg and New York with the sailing ship Germany .
- October 28 : The first railroad on the Iberian Peninsula runs on the Barcelona - Mataró line in Spain .
- December 29th : The New Haven Line opens.
- The Munich Beer War : Citizens defend themselves against excessive beer prices
- At the turn of the century, regional disputes arose over beer prices, the distribution of beer and serving permits. That is why such “events” are called “beer wars”, in which the aim was to define prices or to allow foreign beers to be served.
science and technology
- September 13 : Railroad worker Phineas Gage survived an accident in a blast that drove a three centimeter thick iron bar through his head. With his behavior until his death in 1860, Gage provided brain research with new knowledge.
- September 16 : The Saturn moon Hyperion is discovered by the astronomers William Cranch Bond , George Phillips Bond and William Lassell .
- December 22nd : The galaxy NGC 258 in the constellation Andromeda is discovered by the astronomer William Parsons .
- The College of Bytown , precursor to the University of Ottawa , is founded.
- August 6 : In Dusseldorf is following the the Association for democratic monarchy conducted celebration of the German unit participate, at which numerous artists, the artists association Malkasten founded. The 112 exclusively male founding members of the association include not only academy professors such as the history painters Theodor Hildebrandt , Heinrich Mücke and Karl Ferdinand Sohn , but also the painter and editor of the political-satirical Düsseldorf monthly Lorenz Clasen and the painters of the Düsseldorf painting school Johann Peter Hasenclever , Joseph Fay , Johann Wilhelm Preyer , Peter Schwingen and the American painter Emanuel Leutze , who played a key role in the development of a “free” art community independent of the Academy and the Art Association.
- December 10th : The Museum of Fine Arts on the Moritzbastei in Leipzig is opened by the Leipziger Kunstverein , in which around one hundred collected and donated works of predominantly contemporary art are exhibited.
- The Pompejanum in Aschaffenburg, built according to plans by court architect Friedrich von Gärtner , will be completed after eight years. The "ideal" replica of a Roman villa is not intended to serve as a royal villa, but as an object that should enable art lovers in Germany to study ancient culture. The building is a testament to the enthusiasm for antiquities of the 19th century.
- Eduard Gaertner paints barricades after fighting in the Breite Strasse as a watercolor pencil drawing on paper.
- around 1848: Karl Spitzweg paints the picture Gnome, looking at the train on the lid of a cigar box.
- May 7th : The satirical magazine Kladderadatsch appears for the first time.
- Adalbert Stifter's story Die Pechbrenner appears. He later took it over in a greatly modified version as granite in the Bunte Steine collection (1853).
- Friedrich Gerstäcker publishes The Mississippi River Pirates .
Music and theater
- March 18th : World premiere of the opera Allan Cameron by Giovanni Pacini at the Teatro La Fenice in Venice
- May 21 : Die Liebe Anverwandten , a farce with vocals by Johann Nestroy , fails the audience and criticism.
- June 16 : World premiere of the opera L'Apparition by François Benoist in Paris
- August 31 : World premiere of the Radetzky March in Vienna
- November 11th : World premiere of the comic opera Le Val d'Andorre by Jacques Fromental Halévy at the Opéra-Comique in Paris
- November 30th : World premiere of the opera Poliuto by Gaetano Donizetti at the Teatro di S. Carlo in Naples
- April 27th : Abolition of slavery in France and the French colonies (Martinique finally on May 22nd)
- July 15th : Foundation of the Kösener Senior Citizens' Convention Association on the Rudelsburg
- January 6th : In the encyclical In suprema Petri , Pope Pius IX. a push for reunification between the Catholic and the Orthodox churches and directs an appeal to the latter.
- February 17th : A patent from the King of Sardinia-Piedmont , Charles Albert I, grants the Waldensians religious and ecclesiastical freedom and civil equality with the Catholic population.
- July 16 : In Roman Catholicism and Voodoo is pilgrimage to Sodo in Haiti founded.
- October 3 : The general assembly of the Catholic Association of Germany begins in Mainz , the first Catholic day .
- August 24th : The Bark Ocean Monarch goes up in flames off Llandudno on the Welsh coast . Nearby ships can save 208 people, but 178 passengers and crew are killed.
nature and environment
- April 2nd : Foundation of the German Gymnastics Federation at the 1st German Gymnastics Day in Hanau
- May 1 : In Esslingen is Swabian Gymnastics Federation established, the oldest trade association in Germany in sport.
- July 15 : First foundation of TSV 1860 Munich
- July 26th : An article in Märkisches Sprecher leads to the founding of the Bochum gymnastics club the following year.
- At the University of Cambridge are Cambridge Rules for the game of football development.
- January 2 : James Benton Grant , American politician († 1911 )
- January 4 : Katsura Tarō , Japanese Prime Minister († 1913 )
- January 5 : Wilhelm Anton Michael Graf von Attems-Petzenstein , Austrian field marshal lieutenant († 1916 )
- January 6 : Teobaldo Power , Spanish composer († 1884 )
- January 10 : Paul Tschackert , German church historian († 1911 )
- January 13 : Lilla Cabot Perry , American painter († 1933 )
- January 13 : Franz von Soxhlet , German agricultural chemist († 1926 )
- January 15 : Raphael von Koeber , German-Russian philosopher and musician († 1923 )
- January 16 : Otto Techow , German architect († 1919 )
- January 18 : Ioan Slavici , Romanian writer († 1925 )
- January 19 : Leonid Alexandrovich Arbusow , Russian historian († 1912 )
- January 19 : Matthew Webb , British long-distance swimmer, first person to swim the English Channel († 1883 )
- January 21 : Henri Duparc , French composer († 1933 )
- January 27 : Jakob Baechtold , Swiss literary scholar († 1897 )
- January 27 : Tōgō Heihachirō , Japanese admiral († 1934 )
- January 29 : Maecenas Eason Benton , American politician († 1924 )
- January 30 : Henry C. Hansbrough , American politician († 1933 )
- January 30 : Ferdinand Mannlicher , Bohemian inventor and weapon designer († 1904 )
- February 2 : Ludwig Dill , German painter († 1940 )
- February 3 : Jørgen Løvland , Norwegian liberal politician from Venstre († 1922 )
- February 4 : Jean François Victor Aicard , French poet, novelist and playwright († 1921 )
- February 4 : Hermann von Hatzfeldt , Prussian politician and civil servant († 1933 )
- February 5 : Belle Starr , American robber bride († 1889 )
- February 5 : Joris-Karl Huysmans , French writer († 1907 )
- February 5 : Louis Schmeisser , German weapons designer († 1917 )
- February 6 : Wilhelm von Finck , German banker († 1924 )
- February 7th : Adolf Weil , German medic († 1916 )
- February 13 : Hermann von Eichhorn , Prussian military leader († 1918 )
- February 13 : Karel Klostermann , Austrian writer in German and Czech († 1923 )
- February 16 : Hugo de Vries , Dutch biologist († 1935 )
- February 16 : Octave Mirbeau , French journalist, art critic and novelist († 1917 )
- February 19 : Bruno Piglhein , German painter and sculptor († 1894 )
- February 22 : Karl Grillenberger , German Social Democrat, Nuremberg workers' leader († 1897 )
- February 25 : Wilhelm II , King of Württemberg († 1921 )
- February 26 : Emil Deckert , German geographer († 1916 )
- February 27 : Hubert Parry , English composer († 1918 )
- March 3 : Joseph Peter Audebert , German naturalist and ethnologist († 1933 )
- March 3 : Gustav Adolf Fischer , German Africa explorer († 1886 )
- March 4 : Samuel Byrns , American politician († 1914 )
- March 6 : Viktor Weißhaupt , German painter († 1905 )
- March 8 : Karl von Amira , German legal historian († 1930 )
- March 14 : Albert Robida , French writer and caricaturist († 1926 )
- March 15 : Toby Edward Rosenthal , American genre and portrait painter († 1917 )
- March 15 : Franz Schauerte , German Roman Catholic priest and author († 1910 )
- March 17 : William Dawson , American politician († 1929 )
- March 19 : Wyatt Earp , American gunslinger in the Wild West († 1929 )
- March 20 : Friedrich Karl Henkel , German entrepreneur and founder of the Henkel Group († 1930 )
- March 22nd : Hermann Sökeland , German entrepreneur, museum director and Berlin city councilor († 1917 )
- March 24th : Achim von Arnim-Bärwalde , German history painter († 1891 )
- March 25 : Bertha Drechsler Adamson , English violinist, conductor and music teacher († 1924 )
- March 26 : Anselm J. McLaurin , American politician († 1909 )
- March 26 : Edward O. Wolcott , American politician († 1905 )
- March 28 : Wilhelm Ellenberger , German anatomist († 1929 )
- March 28 : Daniel Russell Brown , American politician († 1919 )
- April 4 : Philipp Heinrich Ast , German shepherd and herbalist († 1921 )
- April 4 : Arturo Prat , Chilean naval hero († 1879 )
- April 5 : Ulrich Wille , General of the Swiss Army during the First World War († 1925 )
- April 9 : Helene Lange , German educator and women's rights activist († 1930 )
- April 10 : Hubertine Auclert , French women's rights activist († 1914 )
- April 10 : John E. Kenna , American politician († 1893 )
- April 13 : Oskar Lenz , German-Austrian Africa explorer, mineralogist and geologist († 1925 )
- April 15 : Richard Kissling , Swiss sculptor († 1919 )
- April 18 : August Anton Hieronymus Gärtner , German physician and microbiologist († 1934 )
- April 20 : Kurd Laßwitz , German writer and philosopher († 1910 )
- April 21 : Francis Charmes , French journalist, diplomat and politician († 1916 )
- April 21 : Carl Stumpf , German philosopher and psychologist († 1936 )
- April 24th : Amandus Acker , German mission and colonial pioneer († 1923 )
- April 27th : Johann Desch , German clothing manufacturer († 1920 )
- April 27 : Otto I , King of Bavaria († 1916 )
- April 30 : Eugène Simon , French arachnologist († 1924 )
- May 1 : Gustav Friedrich Eugen Rümelin , German legal scholar († 1907 )
- May 3 : Otto Bütschli , German zoologist († 1920 )
- May 6 : Henry Edward Armstrong , English chemist († 1937 )
- May 7 : Edwin Warfield , American politician († 1920 )
- May 7 : William J. Stone , American politician († 1918 )
- May 10 : Lafayette Young , American politician († 1926 )
- May 11 : Wilhelm Windelband , German philosopher († 1915 )
- May 14 : Wilhelm Merton , German entrepreneur, founder of the metal company in Frankfurt am Main († 1916 )
- May 15 : Carl Wernicke , German psychiatrist († 1905 )
- May 17 : Tony Schumacher , German children's book author († 1931 )
- May 18 : Hermann Diels , German classical philologist and historian of philosophy († 1922 )
- May 22 : Hermann Schubert , German mathematician († 1911 )
- May 22 : Fritz von Uhde , German painter († 1911 )
- May 23 : Ernst von Ihne , German architect and builder († 1917 )
- May 23 : Otto Lilienthal , German pioneer of gliding and muscular power flight († 1896 )
- May 23 : Helmuth Johannes Ludwig von Moltke , Prussian general († 1916 )
- May 28 : Bernarda Bütler , Swiss Catholic missionary and founder of the order († 1924 )
- May 29 : Heinrich Welsch , German teacher († 1935 )
- June 1 : Otto Malling , Danish organist and composer († 1915 )
- June 5 : Ludwig Geiger , German-Jewish literary and art historian († 1919 )
- June 7 : Paul Gauguin , French painter († 1903 )
- June 8 : Johann Focke , Syndicus of the Bremen Senate and museum founder († 1922 )
- June 10 : Ferdinand Tiemann , German chemist († 1899 )
- June 16 : Franziskus Maria vom Kreuz Jordan , German Catholic priest and founder of the order († 1918 )
- June 17 : Philipp Maria Prosper , Prince and Duke of Arenberg († 1906 )
- June 19 : Max Joseph Alteneder , Vicar General of the Diocese of Passau († 1923 )
- June 24 : Brooks Adams , American historian († 1927 )
- June 25 : Paul Puget , French composer († 1917 )
- June 26 : Henri Lioret , French watchmaker and inventor († 1938 )
- July 3 : Lothar von Trotha , German infantry general († 1920 )
- July 4th : Alfred Adelmann von Adelmannsfelden , German officer and writer († 1887)
- July 11 : Joaquim Calado , Brazilian flautist and composer († 1880 )
- July 13 : Rudolph Sprickmann Kerkerinck , German politician († 1905 )
- July 15 : Vilfredo Pareto , Italian engineer, economist and sociologist († 1923 )
- July 19 : Cornelis Adrianus Pekelharing , Dutch doctor († 1922 )
- July 22nd : Adolf Friedrich V , Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz († 1914 )
- July 23 : Richard von Schlieben , Saxon governor and minister of education († 1908 )
- July 25 : Arthur Balfour , British Prime Minister and Foreign Minister († 1930 )
- July 25 : Ottokar Kernstock , Austrian poet and priest († 1928 )
- July 27 : Friedrich Ernst Dorn , German physicist († 1916 )
- July 27 : Loránd Eötvös , Hungarian minister of education and culture († 1919 )
- July 27 : Hans Hoffmann , German writer († 1909 )
- July 27 : Victor Noir , French journalist († 1870 )
- July 27 : Filippo Smaldone , Italian priest, saint († 1923 )
- August 1 : Pierre Gailhard , French opera bassist († 1918 )
- August 1 : František Kmoch , Czech composer and conductor († 1912 )
- August 6 : Franz Arndt , German Protestant theologian († 1917 )
- August 6 : Alfred A. Taylor , American politician, Governor of Tennessee († 1931 )
- August 17 : Richard Loening , German legal scholar († 1913 )
- August 19 : Gustave Caillebotte , French painter and art collector († 1894 )
- August 21 : Max Liebermann von Sonnenberg , German officer, member of parliament and publicist († 1911 )
- August 21 : Paul Pierre Henry , French optician and astronomer († 1905 )
- August 22 : Giuseppe dell'Orefice , Italian composer († 1889 )
- August 23 : Adolf Boettge , German military musician († 1913 )
- August 23 : Emil Bürgin , Swiss electrical engineer († 1933 )
- August 26 : Armand Léon von Ardenne , Prussian lieutenant general and military historian († 1919 )
- August 30 : Gustav Haarmann , German politician; Lord Mayor of Witten († 1911 )
- August 31 : Ludwig Griesselich , German homeopath, physician and editor of a magazine († 1804 )
- September 1 : Auguste Forel , Swiss psychiatrist and entomologist († 1931 )
- September 4 : Heinrich Bruns , German mathematician and astronomer († 1919 )
- September 5 : Elia Millosevich , Italian astronomer († 1919 )
- September 5 : Oskar Telke , German medic († 1917 )
- September 7 : Bertha Behrens , German writer († 1912 )
- September 8 : Victor Meyer , German chemist († 1897 )
- September 14th : Adolf Albin , Romanian chess master and theorist († 1920 )
- September 14 : Filippo Camassei , Patriarch of Jerusalem and Cardinal († 1921 )
- September 16 : John Joseph Adams , American lawyer and politician († 1919 )
- September 16 : Henry Goudy , British lawyer and university professor († 1921 )
- September 18 : Maximilian Nitze , German urologist and inventor of the cystoscope († 1906 )
- September 19 : Gunnar Knudsen , Norwegian liberal politician and industrialist († 1928 )
- September 20 : Friedrich Soennecken , German inventor († 1919 )
- September 22 : Franz Christoph Büscher , German lawyer († 1928 )
- September 24th : Emil Baehrens , German classical philologist († 1888 )
- September 25 : Sergej von Glasenapp , Russian and Soviet astronomer († 1937 )
- October 5 : Alexander Kisch , Czech rabbi († 1917 )
- October 5 : Guido von List , Austrian occult author and founder of Ariosophy († 1919 )
- October 5 : Jean Baptiste Édouard Detaille , French painter († 1912 )
- October 10 : Retheos Berberian , Armenian educator, publicist, writer and translator († 1907 )
- October 14 : Josue Jean Philippe Valeton the Younger , Dutch theologian and orientalist († 1912 )
- October 17 : Wiktor Gomulicki , Polish writer († 1919 )
- October 17 : Adolf August Winkelmann , German physicist († 1910 )
- October 17 : Max Volkhart , German painter († 1924 )
- October 19 : Paul Werner , German politician († 1927 )
- October 23 : Amalie von Sachsen-Coburg and Gotha , Princess of Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld († 1894 )
- October 24 : Oltmann Johann Dietrich Ahlers , German shipping company director († 1910 )
- October 25 : Karl Emil Franzos , Austrian writer and publicist († 1904 )
- November 1 : Jules Bastien-Lepage , French painter († 1884 )
- November 2 : LM Shaw , American politician († 1932 )
- November 4 : Karl Graf Lanckoronski , Austrian art collector, archaeologist and monument conservator († 1933 )
- November 8 : Gottlob Frege , German mathematician, logician and philosopher († 1925 )
- November 11 : Zinowi Petrovich Roschestvensky , Russian admiral († 1909 )
- November 11th : Hans Delbrück , German historian and politician († 1929 )
- November 11 : Gustav Karpeles , German-Jewish journalist and literary historian († 1909 )
- November 12 : Eduard Müller , Swiss politician († 1919 )
- November 13 : Albert I , Prince of Monaco († 1922 )
- November 13 : Stanislas Touchet , Bishop of Orléans and Cardinal († 1926 )
- November 23 : Habbo Gerhard Lolling , German archaeologist († 1894 )
- November 24th : Lilli Lehmann , German opera singer (soprano) and vocal teacher († 1929 )
- November 25 : Jacques Normand , French writer († 1931 )
- November 27 : Henry Augustus Rowland , American physicist († 1901 )
- November 27 : Maximilian von Prittwitz and Gaffron , German military († 1917 )
- December 3 : August Müller , German orientalist († 1892 )
- December 6 : Edward Hutton , British officer († 1923 )
- December 6th : Johann Palisa , Austrian astronomer († 1925 )
- December 8 : Joel Chandler Harris , American journalist and writer († 1908 )
- December 9 : Gabriel von Seidl , German architect and representative of historicism († 1913 )
- December 11 : Hermann Suchier , German Romanist († 1914 )
- December 17th : Hans Eppinger senior , Austrian physician († 1916 )
- December 19 : Heinrich Lothar Honor Graf Adelmann von Adelmannsfelden , German politician († 1920 )
- December 21 : Jakob Hillier , Romanian-German composer, church musician and music teacher († 1918 )
- December 22nd : Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff , German classical philologist († 1931 )
- December 24th : Carl Gotthilf Büttner , German Protestant missionary, pastor and linguist († 1893 )
- December 25 : Enrico Golisciani , Italian librettist († 1919 )
- December 26 : Friedrich von Bezold , German historian († 1928 )
- December 31 : Amos Burn , English chess master († 1925 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Mary Ellen Christian , Australian singer and singing teacher († 1941 )
- Jeranuhi Karakaschian , Armenian actress († 1924 )
- Imdad Khan , Indian sitar and surbahar player, singer and composer († 1920 )
January to April
- January 5th : Gottlieb Kiessling , German educator and classical philologist (* 1777 )
- January 7th : Johann David Gruschwitz , German textile industrialist (* 1776 )
- January 9 : Caroline Herschel , German astronomer (* 1750 )
- January 12th : Karl Friedrich von dem Knesebeck , Prussian Field Marshal General (* 1768 )
- January 18 : Joseph von Winiwarter , Austrian lawyer and university professor (* 1780 )
- January 20 : Christian VIII , Danish King (* 1786 )
- January 21 : John Vincent , British general (* 1764 )
- January 22nd : Karl Gottlieb Bretschneider , German Protestant theologian (* 1776 )
- January 29 : Joseph Görres , German high school and university teacher and Catholic publicist (* 1776 )
- January 29th : Friedrich Pfluger , Swiss Roman Catholic clergyman (* 1772 )
- January 29 : John Winston Jones , American politician (* 1791 )
- February 4 : Jan Richard de Brueys , Dutch legal scholar (* 1778 )
- February 8 : Karl Ludwig Nordmann , domain tenant and animal breeder (* 1778 )
- February 8 : Charles Thomas , American politician (* 1790 )
- February 15 : Kaspar Leonz Bruggisser , Swiss lawyer and politician (* 1807 )
- February 17 : George W. Campbell , American politician (* 1769 )
- February 17 : Ignaz zu Hardegg , Austrian cavalry general and President of the Court War Council (* 1772 )
- February 23 : John Quincy Adams , American politician, 6th President of the USA (* 1767 )
- February 23 : Wilhelmine Reichard , first German balloonist (* 1788 )
- February 28 : Anastasius Adam , Swiss clergyman and member of the Order of Minorites (Franciscan Conventuals) (* 1795 )
- February 28 : Anton Nikolaus Martens , Probst (* 1800 )
- March 3 : Heinrich Olivier , German painter (* 1783 )
- March 4 : Joachim Leonz Eder , Swiss lawyer and politician (* 1772 )
- March 7th : Giambattista Torricelli , Swiss Roman Catholic clergyman and writer (* 1779 )
- March 25th : Heinrich Ludwig Smalian , German head forester (* 1785 )
- March 27 : Wilhelm Heinrich Ackermann , German educator (* 1789 )
- March 27 : Röttger von Veltheim , German landlord and private scholar (* 1781 )
- March 29 : Carl Amandus Kühn , German geologist and advocate of Neptunism (* 1783 )
- March 29th : Johann Jakob Astor , richest man of his time in America (* 1763 )
- March 30th : Jonas Anton Hielm , Norwegian lawyer and politician (* 1782 )
- April 7th : Franziskus Fröhlicher , Swiss clergyman (* 1774 )
- April 8 : Louis Adam , French composer and piano virtuoso (* 1758 )
- April 8 : Gaetano Donizetti , Italian composer (* 1797 )
- April 10 : Godert Alexander Gerard Philip van der Capellen , Dutch politician (* 1778 )
- April 24 : François (Frans) Van Campenhout , Belgian opera singer, conductor and composer (* 1779 )
- April 24 : Theobald Fritz , Austrian Roman Catholic theologian and university professor (* 1771 )
- April 26 : Johan Thomas Lundbye , Danish painter (* 1818 )
- April 29 : Chester Ashley , American politician (* 1790 )
May to August
- May 3 : Nikolaus Daniel Hinsche , German mayor and writer (* 1771 )
- May 3 : Hans Ernst Karl von Zieten , Prussian Field Marshal General (* 1770 )
- May 7 : Konrad Heinrich Wolf , German clergyman (* 1766 )
- May 10 : Caspar von Geismar , Imperial Russian General Adjutant (* 1783 )
- May 12 : Miguel Barreiro , Uruguayan politician (* 1789 )
- May 12 : Gottlob Christian Crusius , German philologist, educator and author (* 1785 )
- May 12 : Ulysses Anton von Salis-Soglio , Austrian officer (* 1792 )
- May 19 : Heinrich Arnold Wilhelm Winckler , German teacher and writer (* 1796 )
- May 21 : Feliks Janiewicz , Polish composer and violinist (* 1762 )
- June 5 : Karl Samuel Wild , Swiss civil servant, archivist and writer (* 1765 )
- June 7th : Heinrich Braendlin , Swiss politician and businessman (* 1777)
- June 9 : Esma Sultan , Ottoman princess, sister of Mustafa IV and Mahmud II (* 1778 )
- June 11 : Dominik Epp , Swiss landowner and politician (* 1776 )
- June 16 : Johann Dominicus Aigner , Mayor of Lienz (* 1761 )
- June 20 : Heinrich Weiss , Swiss politician (* 1789 )
- June 25 : Jakob von Albertini , Swiss politician (* 1793 )
- June 26 : Stevenson Archer , American lawyer and politician (* 1786 )
- June 27th : Denis Auguste Affre , Archbishop of Paris (* 1793 )
- June 27 : Heinrich Zschokke , German-Swiss writer, educator and politician (* 1771 )
- June 28 : John Alexander , American politician (* 1777 )
- July 4th : François-René de Chateaubriand , French writer and diplomat (* 1768 )
- July 5 : Francesco Anzani , Italian officer and freedom fighter (* 1809 )
- July 6 : Karl Godulla , German industrialist (* 1781 )
- July 26th : Heinrich Schmelen , Namibian founder of the Bethanien mission station in Southwest Africa (* 1777 )
- July 30th : Wilhelm Karl Friedrich Suckow , German medic (* 1770 )
- August 2nd : Frederick Marryat , English naval officer and writer (* 1792 )
- August 5th : Nicola Vaccai , Italian composer (* 1790 )
- August 12 : George Stephenson , British engineer (* 1781 )
- August 14 : Sarah Flower Adams , English poet (* 1805 )
- August 28 : Jakob Degen , Swiss-Austrian inventor and aviation pioneer (* 1760 )
September to December
- September 3 : Peter Czakert , Roman Catholic clergyman (* 1808 )
- September 5 : Vasily Petrovich Stassow , Russian builder (* 1769 )
- September 10 : August Tischbein , German painter and lithographer (* 1768 )
- September 13 : Alexander Slidell Mackenzie , American Navy officer and military historian (* 1803 )
- September 14 : Gustav Dresel , German-American businessman and writer (* 1818 )
- September 18 : Hans von Auerswald , German politician (* 1792 )
- September 18 : Felix Lichnowsky , German politician (* 1814 )
- September 20 : Hartwig Peters , German clergyman and publicist (* 1784 )
- September 21 : Jakob Anton Müller , Swiss politician (* 1777 )
- September 22nd : James Dunlop , Scottish astronomer (* 1793 )
- September 30th : Joseph Ignaz Düntzer , German surgeon and obstetrician (* 1808 )
- October 4 : Peter Friedrich Engstfeld , German organist and hymn poet (* 1793 )
- October 4 : Ferdinand Heinrich Lachmann , German educator (* 1770 )
- October 4th : Christian August Scheller , Privy Councilor of Justice (* 1769 )
- October 4 : Franz Theodor Wangenheim , German writer (* 1805 )
- October 6th : Johann Karl Friedrich Ollenroth , German medic (* 1788 )
- October 9 : William Cornwallis Harris , Major in the British East India Company, hunter and traveler to Africa (* 1807 )
- October 10 : Heinrich Robert Stöckhardt , lawyer and professor (* 1802 )
- October 13 : Heinrich August Theodor Ludolphi , German writer (* 1811 )
- October 14 : Jeremiah Mason , American politician (* 1768 )
- October 22 : Wilhelm Meyer , Swiss officer and stage and architectural painter (* 1806 )
- October 27 : Alexander Varlamow , Russian composer (* 1801 )
- October 30 : Johann Georg Ferdinand Jacobi , lawyer and mayor of Dresden (* 1766 )
- October 31 : Stephen W. Kearny , American officer (* 1794 )
- November 7th : Josef Karl Amrhyn , Swiss mayor (* 1777 )
- November 8 : Ludwig Heinrich Wilhelm von Arnim , German administrative officer, manor owner and parliamentarian (* 1771)
- November 8 : Heinrich von der Tann , German officer and member of parliament (* 1784 )
- November 9th : Robert Blum , German politician of the March Revolution (* 1807 )
- November 10 : Ibrahim Pasha , Egyptian general and viceroy (* 1789 )
- November 13 : Robert Theodor Heyne , German councilor of appeal (* 1815 )
- November 14th : Ludwig Schwanthaler , German sculptor (* 1802 )
- November 18 : Karl Gottlob Prinz , German veterinarian (* 1795 )
- November 24th : William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne , British Home Secretary and Prime Minister (* 1779 )
- November 25th : Johann Rudolph von Ahlefeldt , landlord of Ludwigsburg, Sehestedt and Saxtorff (* 1775 )
- November 28 : Amalie Therese Luise Wilhelmine Philippine , Duchess of Württemberg and Saxony-Altenburg (* 1799 )
- December 1 : Kyokutei Bakin , Japanese writer (* 1767 )
- December 1 : Kilian Joseph Fischer , German Roman Catholic theologian (* 1782 )
- December 6th : Samuel Gottlieb Hünerwadel , Protestant clergyman and university professor in Bern (* 1771 )
- December 15 : Franz Sinesius Weissenbach , Swiss lawyer and politician (* 1782 )
- December 16 : Bruno Erhard Abegg , Prussian politician (* 1803 )
- December 17th : Louis Michel Auguste Thévenet , French general (* 1764 )
- December 18 : Bernard Bolzano , philosopher, theologian and mathematician (* 1781 )
- December 19 : Emily Brontë , British writer (* 1818 )
- December 23 : Gerhard Philipp von Closter , Prussian officer (* 1771 )
- December 26th : Johann Paul Pöhlmann , German Protestant clergyman and educator (* 1760 )
- December 30th : Peter Leopold Kaiser , Bishop of Mainz (* 1788 )
- December 30th : Johann Jakob Kirchhoff , painter, illustrator and lithographer (* 1796 )
- December 31 : Ernst Anton Clarus , German Protestant clergyman and politician (* 1776 )
- December 31 : Gottfried Hermann , German classical philologist (* 1772 )
- December 31 : Ambrose Hundley Sevier , American politician (* 1801 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Chatschatur Abovjan , Armenian writer (* 1809 )
- Mastura Ardalan , Kurdish poet and writer (* 1805 )
- Francis Crozier , Irish captain and polar explorer (* 1796 )
- Ludwig Leichhardt , German explorer (* 1813 )
- Digitized newspapers from 1848 in the newspaper information system (ZEFYS) of the Berlin State Library
- Friedlaender Collection , digitized by the Central and State Library Berlin (ZLB) and the University Library of Lodz
- Collection 1848 , digitized by the Berlin State Archives and the Central and State Library Berlin (ZLB)