The Jewish calendar ( Hebrew הלוח העברי ha-luach ha-iwri) is a lunisolar calendar that dates back to 3761 BC. Chr. Greg. starts counting. As with simple lunar calendars , the months are aligned with the phases of the moon . In addition to a normal year with 12 lunar months (a good 354 days), there are leap years with 13 lunar months (a good 384 days) to align with the solar year . The calendar exception rules can lead to an extension or shortening of the ordinary year lengths by one day.
The Jewish year begins today in autumn with Tishri , which according to the Jewish conception is the month in which mankind was created. In biblical times, the year began with Nisan in spring. Nisan is the month of salvation when the Jewish ancestors left Egypt . Even today, the fact of redemption is valued higher than that of creation , in that the religious use of the Jewish calendar continues to regard the Nisan as the first month, but the Tishri as the seventh month of the year.
The month names are Chaldean and come from the Babylonian exile .
Origin and background
The development of the Jewish calendar was shaped by its own Israelite traditions as well as by elements of foreign cultures, especially during the Babylonian exile . Every Hebrew month starts around the new moon today . Since the Babylonian times, the beginning of the month was determined by witnesses after the visible evidence of the “birth of the moon”; the news of this was spread by beacons and messengers, which could take a long time in bad weather. The empirical calculation of the beginning of the month developed in pre-Roman times, especially in the diaspora, into a point of contention about who had the authority to interpret the divine will. The Jewish communities in Greece and Macedonia, like those in Palestine in early Roman times, used the lunar calendar, while the communities in Asia Minor and Syria used the Julian calendar. The Jews in Alexandria, in turn, used a special Egyptian lunar calendar.
The systematics and calculation of the Jewish calendar, which was kept a secret until the 4th century, was essentially only standardized and published by Patriarch Hillel II in AD 359, after the calculation of the Jewish calendar in the Roman Empire was adopted Christianity was banned as the state religion. The definition was also intended to prevent the Romans from endangering Jewish life by obstructing the rituals and courts. Using this calendar, everyone knew in advance which month is 29 and which is 30 days.
However, the regulation established by Hillel II has prevailed - especially with regard to the counting of the years which originally began at the beginning of the Seleucid era 312 BC. Was established - only from the 11th century. Today the calendar is arranged in a circle. It always starts in September or October.
- Day counting
The Jewish calendar calculates the day from evening to evening (“and it was evening and it was morning, one day”, Gen. 1.5). In the earlier Jewish calendar, the day ended when at least three "middle" stars became visible, which could be connected to form a sky triangle, the term "middle" referring to stars of the first and second magnitude .
- The second holiday
If the messengers of the judgment in Jerusalem did not reach the Jews living in the diaspora in time to inform them of the exact beginning of the month, they celebrated each festival mentioned in the Torah for two days instead of just one, because they did not know whether the previous month had 29 or 30 days. In order to prevent an error and not to desecrate the festival, they introduced this holiday. This has become the “second holiday in the diaspora”, a custom that has been preserved to this day.
Only the Day of Atonement is observed in a single day, because it was taken into account that it is difficult for people to fast for 48 hours in a row. The New Year festival also lasts two days in the land of Israel, because even there it was not always known whether the month of Tishri would begin after 29 or 30 days. To be on the safe side, the people stopped working at the end of the 29th Elul and “acted holy” like on an ordinary holiday. In order to rule out any errors from the outset, the Jewish scholars finally ordered the festival to last for two days. Despite the exact calendar that was later determined, the Diaspora still celebrates the “second holiday” on the grounds that it was “the custom of the ancestors”.
Structure of the calendar
The Jewish calendar is divided into years, months and days. Since this calendar is a lunisolar calendar (lunar-sun calendar), i.e. it is based on the lunar year as well as the solar year, the months are shifted compared to pure solar calendars , since twelve lunar months result in only 354 and not 365 days. So that the months do not wander through the solar year as in a purely lunar calendar , the Jewish calendar requires switching regulation to compensate. To compensate for the 11 day longer solar year, a 30-day leap month is added seven times in a cycle of 19 years before the actual Adar .
While the leap month in that year takes on the name Adar , the actual Adar, which lasts 29 days, is given the name We-Adar (“another Adar”). Leap years are the 3rd, 6th, 8th, 11th, 14th, 17th and 19th years.
The Jewish festivals are closely related to the season, they are related to their symbols and deal with natural phenomena or agricultural customs that give each festival its special character.
The Jewish calendar counts the years from the time of the biblical creation of the world, which Hillel II. According to the biblical chronicles to the year 3761 BC. Calculated. As a result, the Jewish calendar is already in the sixth millennium. Occasionally, however, Jewish dates are only given with three digits, here the Jewish millennium is assumed to be known. In the transcription this spelling is occasionally marked with the addition "after the small count" (n. D. K. Z. - לפ"ק).
The Jewish new year (with the next higher year number) begins in autumn on the first day of the seventh month of Tishri, which is called Rosh Hashanah (“head of the year”). This day can only fall on a Monday, Tuesday, Thursday or Saturday. As the first month of the year, however, the spring month Nisan is numbered according to biblical tradition with the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt ( Ex 12.2). According to historians, this unusual arrangement goes back to the adoption of the Babylonian month names by the Israelites. In the Babylonian calendar , Nisannu was the first month. The discrepancy between the monthly count and the beginning of the year follows from the connection between these foreign traditions and Israel's own. This would explain why Samaritans celebrate New Year with the beginning of the first month to this day.
The length of a lunar cycle - the average time from one new moon to the next - lasts exactly 29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes and 3 1/3 seconds (according to the Jewish time counting 29 days, 12 Sha'a and 793 Halakim - see section The Day ). With this month duration between 29 and 30 days, a lunar year has 354 days if the months alternate between 30 and 29 days. Such a year is called a “regular year”. However, compared to the lunar year (12 lunar cycles) it is too short by 8 hours, 48 minutes and 40 seconds (eight Sha'a 870 chalakim). Therefore, a day is added to the month of Cheshwan approximately every three years, the year in question then has 355 days and is called “excessive”. Furthermore, in other years one day is deducted from the month of Kislew so that it only counts 29 days. Such a year is called "diminished". As a result of these measures, which were determined by lists of solar and lunar eclipses , on average there are only deviations of 0.42 seconds compared to the actual duration of the month.
Since the solar year, which currently has an average duration of 365.2422 days, does not coincide with the lunar year, which lasts an average of 354.3671 days, the compensation must be created through a switching regulation. 19 solar years as the so-called Meton period are almost exactly 235 lunar months. Therefore, within 19 years in the Jewish calendar, the years 3, 6, 8, 11, 14, 17 and 19 become leap years with an additional month of 30 days. This leap month is inserted before the month Adar . The actual Adar is then called “We-Adar” (“And-Adar”), “Adar -scheni” (“second Adar”) or simply “Adar II”. This creates twelve common years with twelve months each (144 months) and seven leap years with 13 months each (91 months), all of which can be "regular", "excessive" or "reduced" according to the switching rule of the lunar year. This adjusts the calendar so that it changes only slightly with the course of the sun and the seasons . The calendar year has an average length of 365.2468 days (365 days, 5 hours, 55 minutes and 25 seconds). A one-day deviation from the solar year with 365.2422 days occurs after 219 years .
The Karaites reject the rule-based insertion of the leap month and decide after the ripening of the barley in Israel, in a literal interpretation only the written Torah and with rejection of the oral Torah .
Beginning of the month
As with most moon-oriented calendars, the beginning of each month is determined by the first appearance of the crescent moon after the new moon, the so-called new light ( moled ). However, the months are not always exactly based on the phases of the moon: If the start of the month for Rosh Ha-Schanah would result in a sequence of several days with a work ban (see Sabbath ), the start of the year will be postponed by one or two days, by to avoid this hardship (because according to the Jewish understanding God wants to make people's lives better, not worse, through his commandments). There are a total of five rules for postponing the beginning of the year, which are based on the calendar requirements of the solar and lunar years and also take into account the cultic needs of the holiday and Sabbath regulations.
Calendar exception rules
If the new light of Tishri does not come in until after 6:00 p.m. Jewish time, Rosh Hashanah is to be postponed to the following day. This will be the case in about two out of five years.
If the new light of Tishri falls on a Wednesday , Friday or Sunday , Rosh Hashanah is also to be postponed to the following day. This rule applies approximately three out of seven years.
If after applying the Jach rule Rosh Hashanah falls on a Wednesday, Friday or Sunday, the rule Adu must also be applied, i.e. the New Year must be postponed by another day.
If the new light of Tishri in a common year does not come on a Tuesday before 9 a.m. and 204 Halakim Jewish time (see hourly division ), Rosh Hashanah must be postponed by two days. This rule applies approximately three out of 100 years.
If the new light of Tishri falls on a Monday not before 3 p.m. and 589 Halakim Jewish time in a year following a leap year, Rosh Hashanah is postponed to the following day. This very rare case occurs only about one in 200 years. The rule was last applied in the year 5766 ( Gregorian : 2005/2006), the next time only again in the year 6013 (Gregorian: 2252/2253). The Jach and Adu rules are for religious reasons, the other three are required to uphold the rules. Only about 39% of all years actually begin on the day of the new light, so exceptions at the beginning of the year are more common than the rule.
In practice, the postponement of Rosh Hashanah is achieved by adding a day to the month of Cheshwan or subtracting a day from the month of Kislev in the previous year. This gives you a total duration of 58, 59 or 60 days for Cheshwan and Kislev.
Taking into account the five exceptions, there are six different year lengths: A common year can have 353, 354 or 355 days, a leap year 383, 384 or 385 days. A distinction is therefore not only made between common and leap years, but also diminished (353/383 days), regular (354/384 days) and excessive (355/385 days) years.
The following overview provides the month names with their approximate position in the Gregorian calendar. The assignment to the classic signs of the zodiac ( zodiac ) is based on Jewish tradition and is ideal. It does not take into account the exception rules and therefore does not agree with astronomically exact calculations.
|Number in the ... Jewish calendar||month||Length in days||Beginning in the Gregorian calendar||Zodiac signs|
|1||7th||Tishri||30th||first third of September||the beginning of October||Libra|
|2||8th||Cheschwan , Marcheschwan||29 (30 in excessive years)||the beginning of October||beginning of November||Scorpio|
|3||9||Kislew||30 (29 in reduced years)||beginning of November||beginning of December||Sagittarius|
|4th||10||Tevet||29||end of November||middle of December||Capricorn|
|5||11||Schevat (or Schwat )||30th||last third of December||mid-January||Aquarius|
|6th||12||Adar||29||Early February||at the beginning of March||fishes|
|7th||1||Nisan||30th||middle of March||Mid-April||Aries|
|8th||2||Ijjar||29||Mid-April||middle of May||bull|
|9||3||Siwan||30th||middle of May||first third of June||Twins|
|10||4th||Tammuz||29||first third of June||beginning of July||cancer|
|12||6th||Elul||29||mid August||Mid September||Virgin|
The following table shows the Gregorian date of the beginning of the month for the years 5779 to 5783:
|month||Beginning of the month||Number of
|Beginning of the month||Number of
|Beginning of the month||Number of
|Beginning of the month||Number of
|Beginning of the month||Number of
|Tishri||September 10. 2018||30th||30. September. 2019||30th||September 19th. 2020||30th||7th of September. 2021||30th||September 26th. 2022||30th|
|Marcheschwan||October 10th. 2018||30th||30th of October. 2019||30th||October 19th. 2020||29||October 7th. 2021||29||October 26th. 2022||30th|
|Kislew||November 9th. 2018||30th||November 29th. 2019||30th||November 17th. 2020||29||November 5th. 2021||30th||25. November. 2022||30th|
|Tevet||9th of December. 2018||29||December 29th. 2019||29||December 16. 2020||29||December 5th. 2021||29||25 December. 2022||29|
|Schevat||January 7th. 2019||30th||January 27th. 2020||30th||January 14th. 2021||30th||January 3rd. 2022||30th||January 23. 2023||30th|
|Adar||February 6th. 2019||30th||February 26th. 2020||29||13th February. 2021||29||February 2nd. 2022||30th||February 22. 2023||29|
|Adar II||8th of March. 2019||29||4th of March. 2022||29|
|Nisan||April 6th. 2019||30th||26th of March. 2020||30th||the 14th of March. 2021||30th||2nd of April. 2022||30th||March 23. 2023||30th|
|Ijjar||May 6th. 2019||29||April 25. 2020||29||April 13th. 2021||29||2.May. 2022||29||April 22. 2023||29|
|Siwan||June 4th. 2019||30th||May 24th. 2020||30th||12th of May. 2021||30th||31. May. 2022||30th||May 21. 2023||30th|
|Tammuz||July 4th. 2019||29||23rd June. 2020||29||June 11th. 2021||29||June 30th. 2022||29||20th June. 2023||29|
|Aw||August 2nd. 2019||30th||22nd of July. 2020||30th||10th of July. 2021||30th||29th of July. 2022||30th||July 19. 2023||30th|
|Elul||September 1. 2019||29||August 21. 2020||29||August 9. 2021||29||August 28th. 2022||29||18th of August. 2023||29|
A day in the Jewish calendar begins with the previous evening. This is justified with statements from the creation account in the Torah : "And there was evening and morning - one day" ( 1st book of Moses ). From the creation story of the Jewish Bible it follows that every day also has a “pre-evening” ( Hebrew ערב Erev ) has. The Jewish day has no fixed length. It runs from the beginning of the evening until the next evening. In places of higher latitude in summer, e.g. B. where the sun does not sink below the horizon, a day is counted from the highest level of theday ofthe sun, local noon , to the next noon. In places of higher latitude in winter, e.g. B. where the sun does not rise above the horizon, one day is counted from the time of the lowest level of the sun on its celestial orbit, local midnight , to the next midnight. These local day lengths that vary over the course of the year must also B. betaken into accountfor the calculation of the Jewish prayer times . What makes it more difficult is that there are 12 halachic hoursfrom sunrise to sunset, as well as 12 halachic hours from sunset to sunrise, which, with the exception of the equinoxes and along the equator , showdifferent lengthsmeasuredin SI- derived time units also changes in principle every day. The length of these halachic hours and, accordingly, their parts vary with the season. Example: The morning prayer Shacharit must be prayed within 3 halachic hours after sunrise. Depending on your geographical position, you can take a lot of time to pray, or you have difficulties to fit it into your daily routine. There are hardly any problems in Israel because the country is very close to the equator.
Instead of using the international date line, there are various Jewish viewpoints about where the day changes. One point of view is the use of the 180 ° anti-meridian of Jerusalem . Jerusalem lies on the 35th east meridian ( geographical position : 35 ° 13 'east longitude) so the anti-meridian is the 144 ° west meridian (144 ° 47' west longitude, goes through Alaska ).
In simplified terms, the Jewish day begins at 6:00 p.m. in the evening regardless of sunset . 6 o'clock Jewish time corresponds to midnight or midnight civil time. The day is divided into 24 hours ( Sha'a, pl. Sha'ot ). The lesson is divided into 1080 parts ( Chalakim ). One part ( Chelek , with the unit 1 P) therefore lasts 3 1/3 seconds and corresponds to the shortest Babylonian time unit digiti . The international time of 10:30 a.m. (morning) corresponds to 16 H 540 P according to the Jewish calendar. These dates can also be found in Israel's public life.
Names of the Jewish days of the week
The names of the Jewish days of the week are:
- Yom Rishon (יום ראשון, literally "first day", Sunday)
- Yom Sheni (יום שני, literally "second day", Monday)
- Yom Schlischi (יום שלישי, literally "third day", Tuesday)
- Yom Revi'i (יום רביעי, literally "fourth day", Wednesday)
- Yom Khamishi (יום חמישי, literally "fifth day", Thursday)
- Yom Shishi (יום שישי, literally "sixth day", Friday)
- Shabbat (שבת, literally "rest", Saturday)
In relation to the first day of the created world, Jewish researchers put October 6, 3761 BC. d. Z. fixed. Calculated backwards, according to the biblical tradition, must be immediately with Yom Rishon , October 6th (September 6th greg. ) 3761 BC. d. At 11 p.m., 11 minutes 20 seconds , the biblical word of God about creation ( Gen 1.3 EU ): "Let there be light , and there was light."
The Jewish calendar has been used in Israel since the founding of the state alongside the Gerogorian calendar and is the state calendar in Israel with the passing of the National State Law on July 18, 2018. Not only the religious Jewish holidays, but also the secular holidays in the State of Israel (e.g. Israeli Independence Day) are based on the Jewish calendar. Since the Gregorian calendar is decisive at the international level as well as in tourism, the Israelis use both calendars in parallel in everyday life.
The feast days, public holidays and memorial days with a fixed date in the Jewish calendar are:
- Rosh Hashanah (New Year) on Tishri 1-2
- Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) on Tishri 10
- Sukkot (Feast of Tabernacles) from 15th to 21st (22nd) Tishri
- Simchat Torah (joy of the law) on the 22nd and 23rd Tishri
- Hanukkah (festival of lights, temple consecration) from 25th Kislew to 2nd Tevet
- Do biShevat on the 15th Shevat
- Purim on Adar 14 (and 15)
- Pesach (Passover) from Nisan 15-22
- Yom HaScho'a (Chocolate Day) on Nisan 28
- Yom HaZikaron on the 4th of Iyar
- Yom HaAtzma'ut (Israeli Independence Day) on the 5th of Iyar
- Lag baOmer on the 18th of Ijjar
- Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) on the 28th Iyar
- Shavuot (Feast of Weeks) on the 6th Siwan
The Passover festival is celebrated on the 15th of Nisan, regardless of the actual full moon since the 10th century at the latest . This day is one of the most important Jewish holidays. The day of the death of Jesus of Nazareth is also directly related to the Passover festival, although it is unclear whether it is Nisan 14 (the so-called preparation day) or Nisan 15 (the Passover festival himself) acted. The Christian Easter festival therefore usually also takes place in this month, if it does not fall in an Adar II because of the Jewish leap year.
Yom Kippur is on Tishri , one of the highest Jewish holidays .
In leap years, the Purim festival takes place in Adar II.
The dates of the Jewish feast days for the years 5779 to 5783
The dates of the day from the civil calendar given here always designate the day that begins at midnight (midnight) on the corresponding Jewish day. According to the Jewish calendar, however, the festival actually begins at sunset of the previous day; the evening of this previous day is the 'previous evening' of the festival.
Jewish New Year
|September 10-11, 2018||September 30, 2019 to
October 1, 2019
|September 19-20, 2020||September 7th to 8th, 2021||September 26-27, 2022|
Day of Atonement
|19th September 2018||October 9, 2019||September 28, 2020||September 16, 2021||October 5, 2022|
Feast of Tabernacles
|September 24, 2018 to
October 1, 2018
|October 14-21, 2019||October 3 to 10, 2020||September 21-28, 2021||October 10th to 17th, 2022|
Simchat Torah joy of
|October 2, 2018||October 22, 2019||October 11, 2020||September 29, 2021||October 18, 2022|
Festival of Lights
|3rd to 10th December 2018||December 23rd to 30th, 2019||December 11th to 18th, 2020||November 29, 2021 to
December 6, 2021
|December 19-26, 2022|
day of the trees
|January 21, 2019||February 10, 2020||January 28, 2021||January 17, 2022||February 6, 2023|
|March 21, 2019||March 10, 2020||February 26, 2021||March 17, 2022||March 7, 2023|
|April 20-27, 2019||April 9-16, 2020||March 28, 2021 to
April 4, 2021
|April 16-23, 2022||April 6-13, 2023|
Holocaust Remembrance Day
|2nd May 2019||April 21, 2020||April 8, 2021||April 28, 2022||April 18, 2023|
soldiers memorial day
|May 9, 2019||April 28, 2020||April 15, 2021||May 5, 2022||April 25, 2023|
|May 10, 2019||April 29, 2020||April 16, 2021||May 6, 2022||April 26, 2023|
|23 May 2019||May 12, 2020||April 30, 2021||May 19, 2022||May 9, 2023|
|2nd June 2019||May 22, 2020||May 10, 2021||May 29, 2022||May 19, 2023|
Festival of Weeks
|June 9-10, 2019||May 29th to 30th, 2020||May 17-18, 2021||June 5-6, 2022||May 26-27, 2023|
|11th August 2019||July 30, 2020||July 18, 2021||August 7, 2022||July 27, 2023|
Important key dates of the Jewish calendar can be calculated using auxiliary formulas. The date of the Passover festival (15th Nisan) can be calculated for any year using the Gaussian Passover formula . Furthermore, the date of the following Jewish New Year (1. Tishri) follows from this formula. The character of any Jewish year (diminished, regular or excessive common or leap year) and the days of the week of the New Year and Passover can be determined by the Slonimski formula . Thus, the entire Jewish calendar of a year is fixed and easily determinable through these two formulas.
- Calendar (disambiguation)
- List of calendar systems
- Christian calendar
- Julian calendar
- Islamic calendar
- Ludwig Basnizki : The Jewish calendar. Origin and structure . Jewish publishing house, Frankfurt 1998, ISBN 3-633-54154-3 .
- Henryk M. Broder , Hilde Recher (ed.): The Jewish calendar five thousand seven hundred and seventy-three 2012–2013 . 30th edition, Ölbaum, Augsburg 2012, ISBN 978-3-927217-71-3 (published annually since 1983), calendar editions
- Sylvie Anne Goldberg: Time and Temporality in Judaism . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2009, ISBN 978-3-525-54000-8 (= Jewish religion, history and culture , volume 10).
- Friedrich Karl Ginzel : Handbook of mathematical and technical chronology. Time accounting of the peoples, 2nd volume. Time calculation of the Jews, the primitive peoples, the Romans and Greeks as well as supplements to the 1st volume . J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung, Leipzig 1911.
- Eduard Mahler : Handbook of Jewish Chronology . Gustav Fock bookstore , Leipzig 1916.
- Heinrich Simon : Jewish Holidays. Holidays in the Jewish calendar . Hentrich & Hentrich, Teetz 2003, ISBN 3-933471-56-7 .
- The Jewish calendar (very in-depth, detailed treatise) at nabkal.de (private site)
- Jewish calendar at de.chabad.org
- Online converter at nabkal.de (private site)
- Jewish calendar software - u. a. for many smartphones
- ^ Joseph Jacobs, Cyrus Adler: Calendar, History of. In: Jewish Encyclopedia .
- ^ Martin Goodman : Judaism in the Roman World. Leiden 2007, p. 40.
- ↑ “Under the reign of Constantius (337-361) the persecutions of the Jews reached such a height that all religious exercises, including the computation of the calendar, were forbidden under pain of severe punishment. The Sanhedrin was apparently prevented from inserting the intercalary month in the spring; it accordingly placed it after the month of Ab (July-August). "- Joseph Jacobs, Cyrus Adler: Calendar, History of , in: Jewish Encyclopedia 1906 
- ↑ Eli Barnavi (ed.): Universal history of the Jews. From the origins to the present , Verlag Christian Brandstätter, Vienna 1993, p. 72.
- ↑ a b The Brockhaus multimedia 2009
- ↑ Glossary . Jewish graves in Hesse. In: Landesgeschichtliches Informationssystem Hessen (LAGIS).
- ↑ Ludwig Basnizki: The Jewish calendar: origin and structure . Jüdischer Verlag, Frankfurt 1998, ISBN 978-3-633-54154-6 , pp. 29–31.
- ↑ Ludwig Basnizki: The Jewish calendar: origin and structure . Jüdischer Verlag, Frankfurt 1998, ISBN 978-3-633-54154-6 , p. 9.
- ↑ ( Gen 1.5 ELB ), ( Gen 1.8 ELB ), ( Gen 1.13 ELB ), ( Gen 1.19 ELB ), ( Gen 1.23 ELB ), ( Gen 1.31 ELB ) and ( Gen 2.2 ELB ).
- ↑ The evening begins e.g. B. According to Jewish tradition with the visibility of at least 3 medium-sized stars, or is calculated astronomically.
- ^ Cyrus Adler, Michael Friedländer: Calendar. In: Isidore Singer (Ed.): Jewish Encyclopedia . Funk and Wagnalls, New York 1901-1906.
- ↑ Chajm Guski: Halachic time units. Jüdische Allgemeine , August 3, 2017, accessed April 22, 2018 .
- ↑ In the Halachic Times. Jüdische.info, accessed April 22, 2018 .
- ↑ Chaim Guski: Times - Halachic Times. talmud.de, May 29, 2017, accessed April 22, 2018 .
- ↑ See the essay by Willie Roth The International Date Line and Halacha ( Memento of the original from July 18, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. .
- ↑ Appendix II: Baal HaMaor , Interpretation of 20b and its relevance to the date line, in Talmud Bavli , Schottenstein Edition, Tractate Rosh HaShanah , Mesorah Publications Ltd. (“ArtScroll”) 1999, where “20b” references page '20' Folio 'b' of the tract Rosh HaShanah.
- ↑ Ludwig Basnizki: The Jewish calendar: origin and structure . Jüdischer Verlag, Frankfurt 1998, ISBN 978-3-633-54154-6 , p. 25.
- ↑ The number 1080 of the 1080 chalakim of an hour can be broken down into a number of prime factors and is therefore mathematically very cleverly chosen. 1080 = 2 * 2 * 2 * 3 * 3 * 3 * 5. One chelek is further broken down into 76 regaim. 76 = 2 * 2 * 19. 1 Rega = 0.044 seconds .
- ↑ Ludwig Basnizki: The Jewish calendar: origin and structure . Jüdischer Verlag, Frankfurt 1998, ISBN 978-3-633-54154-6 , pp. 29-30.
- ↑ Knesset adopts national law In: Israelnetz.de , July 19, 2018, accessed on August 5, 2018.