The Shabbat ( Hebrew : שַבָּת [ʃaˈbat] , plural:שַבָּתוֹת [ʃabaˈtɔt] Shabbatot, in Christianity also GermanizedSabbath) isthe seventh day of the weekinJudaism, a day of rest on which no work should be done. Compliance with it is one of theTen Commandments( Ex 20.8 EU ; Dtn 5.12 EU ). It begins the evening before and lasts from sundown onFridayuntil dark on the followingSaturday, because in theJewish calendarthe day lasts from the evening before to the evening of the day - not from midnight to midnight. This is derived from the 1st book of Moses, Hebrew בְּרֵאשִׁית Bereschit , called Γένεσις Génesis in ancient Greek : "and it was evening and it was morning, one day". The evening begins with the word Erev (Hebrewערב"Evening"). The Shabbat already has its own name in the Tanakh , while the other days of the week in the Jewish calendar are named with their ordinal numbers until today . Jews wish for a peaceful Shabbat with the greeting formulaשַבָּת שָׁלוֹם Shabbat shalom .
The traditional Jewish Shabbat celebration begins on Friday evening at home with the Shabbat blessing ( kiddush ) and a feast. The evening begins "when you can no longer tell a gray wool thread from a blue one". In simplified terms, the Jewish day begins at 6:00 p.m. the evening before, regardless of sunset . A service with Torah readings and prayers, including a festive Torah procession, is held in the synagogue on Saturday morning . Daheim follow noon more Scripture readings and the Mincha -Gebet evening by the light of the Havdalah candle once a wine blessing and the mutual desire for a "good week". The Shabbatot are named after the passages from the Torah ( Parashot ) that are read weekly in the synagogue. The day should also be marked by the fact that three meals are eaten on it - one on Friday evening, two on Saturday - which meant lushness, especially for the poorer people of earlier times. Care is also taken to eat particularly well and festively on Shabbat. All in all, these strict Shabbat laws, if they are observed, mean that the day leaves plenty of time for family, friends and spiritual activity due to the elimination of all work, but also classic leisure activities.
Orthodox Jews do on the Sabbath in any activities that according to the Halacha as a work ( Hebrew מלאכה Melacha ) are defined. The 39 Melachot Hebrew ל״ט אבות מלאכה lamed tet avot melacha ( 39 types of work ) originally refer to the activities that lead to the construction of the mischkan , the monastery tent (אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד ohel mō'ēd ), which the Jews carried with them on their desert hike , were necessary. The Melachot have become general principles that apply to all areas of life. This results, for example, in the prohibition of lighting a fire, which includes the operation of any electrical device, or the prohibition of carrying objects (see also Muktza ). Conservative Jews are less strict about keeping some halachic Shabbat commandments. Reformed, liberal and progressive Jews mainly observe ethical commandments and leave the observance of ritual rules to individual responsibility. The Reconstructionists do that too, but place greater emphasis on traditions.
In Christianity , the celebration of Sunday arose from the Jewish Shabbat. The weekly rest day was set on the “first day of the week” on which, according to Mk 16.2 EU, the resurrection of Jesus Christ took place. The breaking of bread in the early community in Jerusalem ( Acts 2.42 EU ), which resulted from Jesus' Lord's Supper , was based on the Jewish Shabbat and Seder meal . The early Christians kept the Shabbat rest next to their Sunday celebration, as did many later Jewish Christians and some Gentile Christians (up to about 400). Some Christian denominations keep Shabbat to this day. This is how the Sabbath is observed by the Seventh-day Adventists , a Protestant free church, and is also described there. Unlike the Christian chapter division, where a new chapter begins here, which marks the end of the act of creation, the Jewish text division into reading units integrates the act of creation into the Torah reading and celebrates it as its climax.
Term, pronunciation and origin
The Ashkenazi-Hebrew pronunciation is Shabbos [ˈʃabos, ʃaˈbos] , in Yiddish : Shabbes [ˈʃabəs] ; literally translated "rest day, rest", from Hebrew שָׁבַת[ ʃaˈvat ] "stop, rest". In connection with objects, it takes on the meaning of “stop (with something), rest (from something)” and “celebrate”. It can also causatively mean “let stop”. The articleless nounשבת is female, originally stands for a fixed rest period and can also be related to Jewish annual festivals.
The Germanized term Sabbat comes from the Latin mediation ( sabbatum, sabbata ) from the ancient Greek loan word σάββατον sabbaton , which occurs 68 times in the Greek New Testament . So it belongs to the Graecisms . It is extra-biblical for the first time on an ostracon from 630 BC. Evidence: There a harvest worker enumerates the work that he did "before the rest period".
Attached to ה יום[ ha-ˈjoːm ] (“the day”) regularly designates the seventh day of the week on Shabbat in the Tanach and gradually became its proper name, visible in the comparison of the parallel passages Lev 24.8 and 1Chr 9.32. Nomenשבת [ʃaˈbat] or (σάββατον sabbaton) always refers to the regular day of rest which is strictly prohibited from working. If the word is singular in Greek (σάββατον sabbaton, genitive:σαββάτου sabbatou), it means "Sabbath" and means the seventh day of the Jewish week; Examples:Mk 1,21; 2.23; 6.2; Acts 13:14; 15.21; and many more. When the word is in the plural (σάββατα sabbata, genitive:σαββάτων sabbatōn), it usually means “week”, the time between (two) Sabbaths; Examples:Mt 28.1 (2nd occurrence); Mk 16.2; Joh 20:1, 19; Acts 20.7. As a loan word, it was probably not originally pronounced with a voiced S but with [ʃ] (in modern transcription about “šabbāton”, seeŠ). This corresponds to GermanShabbat(see alsoHebrew transcriptionfor שַ).
The word root is related to the Akkadian words sibbitim for "(the, the) seventh" or ??? [ ʃapattu ] for the full moon day , which may have been celebrated ritually in Mesopotamia . Some pre-exilic biblical passages list Shabbat days after new moon days in a holiday list , so that it was previously assumed that here too, as in Sumerian-Babylonian texts, the full moon day following a new moon after 14 to 15 days was originally meant. The thesis did not prevail because no exact extrabiblical parallels are known for such lists, Shabbat and new moon days alternate in exilic-post-exilic references and Shabbat always means the seventh day of the week there. All Torah feast calendars already assume the weekly Shabbat, which is regularly celebrated independently of the lunar and solar cycles, and take it into account, for example by trying to avoid annual festivals falling on it. Full moon times were also considered ominous in the ancient Orient, and the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day of the month were considered unlucky days on which kings, priests and doctors were forbidden to work. On the other hand, the Shabbat should make it possible for humans and animals to relax and point to God's healing intention for creation. In ancient Torah messages, the weekly day of rest is not called Shabbat : Therefore, it is assumed that the Jews only called it that way in the Babylonian exile (586-539 BC) to distinguish it from the monthly holiday of the Babylonians.
Other ancient societies also had individual days of rest, mostly fixed by the king or granted as an exception. But the divine commandment of a regular weekday, which includes rest and worship for all members of a household equally, has no religious-historical parallels. The Shabbat thus marks the Jewish religion. Probably the oldest written evidence comes from the 8th century BC. And refer to a rest day practice that may have existed in the history of Israel since the pre-state nomadic period (1500–1200 BC). Their origin is unclear.
Shabbat texts of the Torah
|וַיְכַל אֱלֹהִים בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי, מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה; וַיִּשְׁבֹּת בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי, מִכָּל-מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת-יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי, וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אֹתוֹ: כִּי בוֹ שָׁבַת מִכָּל-מְלַאכְתּוֹ, אֲשֶׁר-בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים לַעֲשׂוֹת.||Va-y'chal Elohim ba-jom ha-schvi'i m'lachto ascher asah, va-yishbot ba-jom ha-schvi'i mi-kol-m'lachto ascher asah, va-y'varech Elohim et yom ha -schvi'i, va-y'kadesch oto, ki vo schavat mi-kol-m'lachto, ascher bara Elohim la'asot.||On the seventh day, God finished the work that he had created, and he rested on the seventh day after he had finished all his work. And God blessed the seventh day and made it holy; for God rested in him after he had finished all the work of creation.|
This unnamed day is not associated with any commandment, but the verbs שבת (rest), ברךpi. (bless),לְקַדֵשׁpi. (holy) and the nounמְלָאכָה[ mlaˈxa ] (work) are understood as allusions to the Shabbat commandment Ex 20.9–11 EU . From this one concludes that both texts come from the same authors and that the Shabbat already existed when they were written. Often they are assigned to a hypothetical priestly script that originated in Babylonian exile . The prehistory as a whole (Gen 1-11) is counted in the research to the youngest parts of the Pentateuch , which preceded the fathers narratives only with its final editing.
According to Ex 16,16-30 EU , God gave the Jews the wonderful food manna to eat for six days every week after their exodus from Egypt during their forty years of wandering in the desert . This could not be stored, but on every sixth day in double and durable quantities, on every seventh day it could not be found, so that no food could or had to be collected from it. This day is mentioned here for the first time in the Torah "holiday, holy Shabbat for the glory of the Lord" (v.23).
Martin Noth saw in Ex 16.19f EU the oldest text layer that he assigned to the Yahwist , and the oldest biblical evidence for the rhythm of the week alternating between six working days and a seventh day of rest. This will be prepared the day before, as a non-working celebration, not with fasting and justified as a gift from God in his rescue work for the chosen people. The prohibition of collecting food and the commandment of general rest (v.28f.) Is considered to be a later deuteronomic addition, which should relate the text to Ex 15.25f.
Traditional Jewish exegesis connects the Shabbat practice of the Jews according to Ex 16 EU with God's creative will: God drove people out of paradise and ordered them to work hard and sweat for a living (Gen 3:17ff.). He only excluded the Israelites in the desert period and cared for them for forty years as for Adam and Eve , in order to exemplarily renew the original order of creation until Israel found its promised land . The following Shabbat commandments, revealed on Mount Sinai , are also understood under this premise : The regular nature-independent Shabbat extol God's rule over time and nature. By imitating God's rest with his rest, the Israelite acknowledge God's creative power and allow it to rule over his lifetime.
The oldest versions of the bid are based on a seven-day or seven-year cycle linked to social provisions in the Federal Book : According to Ex 21.2–6 EU , Hebrew slaves should be allowed to choose between freedom and remaining in the previous slave-owner family every seventh year. According to Ex 23.11f. The EU is to leave the harvest to the poor and wild animals every seventh year. The Shabbat is to be kept "so that your ox and donkey rest and the son of your slave girl and the stranger can catch their breath". Ex 34.21 EU demands compliance with the rest day, especially during the labor-intensive harvest time in cultivated land. This day of rest, not yet known as Shabbat, may have arisen from the rural matzo festival after settling down or as early as the nomadic period.
Of all Jewish festivals and rites, only Shabbat was included in the Ten Commandments . The commandment ( Ex 20.8–11 EU ) to "sanctify" it follows the commandment to sanctify the name of God YHWH , and thus requires a cultic celebration: Because the Shabbat belongs to the God of Israel and is his commandment. He himself rested on the seventh day of creation, blessed the Sabbath and declared it holy. So this day becomes a special covenant sign and act of confession of the chosen people in contrast to other peoples with other gods. The work ban is formulated in a general way, but in the context of activities for obtaining food. The requirement to work on the remaining six days takes precedence. The rest day appears as the goal and reason for every work week. It is offered to all members of a Jewish “house”: family members, servants, maids, domestic animals and foreign wage workers who live on their own property. Here the Deuteronomic version Dtn 5.12–15 EU supplements ox and donkey, slaves, and thus emphasizes the social and animal protection aspect. The woman is not named because she does not belong to the dependent workers. The creation-theological justification is missing, instead the commandment is justified here with Israel's memory of slavery in Egypt, from which God's mighty hand led his people.
Versions mostly dated to the late royal period (700–586 BC) emphasize the cultic aspect: Lev 23.3 EU orders Jews to worship on the day of rest no matter where they are . Lev 26,2 EU demands the keeping of the holiday in connection with respect for the sanctuary at that time, the Jerusalem temple . Ex 31.12–17 EU emphasizes in the context of God's closing speech to Moses on Mount Sinai the unconditional validity of the Shabbat command for all Israelites:
“Just keep my Shabbaths! For this is a sign between me and you for all your [future] generations, so that you may know that I am the Lord who sanctifies you. "
He makes the “eternal covenant” between God and Israel visible and thus serves not only “for the glory of the Lord” (Ex 35.2), but also to distinguish the chosen people of God from other peoples. That is why every Israelite who works on Shabbat should receive the death penalty : according to the biblical understanding, he is endangering the uniqueness and destiny of this people, on which their survival depends. Num 15,32 EU illustrates this narrative: There God orders Moses to stone a man who had gathered wood on Shabbat ; this is what the Israelites obey. These death penalty laws for breaking Shabbat are mostly dated to the time of the Babylonian exile (586–539 BC): At that time, exiled Jews had no autonomous right, so that they could hardly have carried out the death penalty. These Torah passages should rather make non-observance, which could endanger identity, taboo in non-Jewish surroundings .
The first written prophets of the 8th century BC BC already assume a weekly day of rest, celebration and worship in the northern Reich of Israel and the southern Reich of Judah as known. According to Am 8,5 EU, no trading activities should take place on him , so he should limit profit-making and exploitation . Hos 2.13 EU included him in the announced judgment on all Jewish festivals; Isa 1.13 EU criticized its abuse as a mere ritual.
Jeremiah admonished the Israelites in the 6th century BC To keep the Shabbat and the Decalogue as an insoluble part of the special covenant of YHWH with their forefathers and to stop commercial activities: this is the condition for the survival of Jerusalem and Jude ( Jer 17 : 9ff. EU ). Otherwise their downfall threatens ( Jer 7,8ff. EU ).
The exiled prophet Ezekiel mentioned the Sabbath particularly often. This day belongs to God and is his covenant sign. His desecration is one of the serious breaches of the Torah and a subsequent sign of the fundamental breach of the covenant by the people of God who caused the exile. This is interpreted as a delimitation of attempts by earlier kings of Judah since Manasseh to weaken the Shabbat command in order to assimilate cultically and politically with the Assyrians and Babylonians .
After his exile, Tritojesaja emphasized that the Sabbath belonged to God. Its observance by Jews fulfills the Israel Federation , but non-Jews could also receive God's blessing through it ( Isa 56 : 1-8 EU ). The Shabbat is not a heavy duty, but given for comprehensive joy and the enjoyment of freedom from everyday activities; his followers would receive the inheritance of Jacob (the salvation privileges of Israel, Gen 12: 1-3) ( Isa 58 : 13f. EU ). In the new creation, all mortal life will ultimately serve God “from Shabbat to Shabbat” ( Isa. 66.23 EU ).
After returning from exile and the rebuilding of the Jerusalem temple, Nehemiah reminded the Jews of the Shabbat command ( Neh 9.14 EU ) and issued special measures to prevent production, transport and trade on Shabbat (10.32 EU ; 13.15 -22 EU ). The Shabbat, which was established as a distinguishing feature in exile, apparently had to be made binding again.
Extra-Biblical Shabbat rules
The Shabbat command, formulated unconditionally in cult and indefinitely with regard to the prohibition of work, was detailed in post-exilic writings. These non-biblical Shabbat provisions have been intensively discussed and developed for thousands of years. They thus form an essential part of the internal Jewish culture of debate to this day.
The jubilee book (around 150 BC) assumes the regular weekly Sabbath throughout the year as part of the Jewish calendar. Jub 2,17–33 describes it as a particularly holy holiday, but only to be observed by Israelites, not non-Jews. The death penalty for breaking Shabbat should be maintained; however, it remains open who should carry it out and how. A list of detailed Shabbat rules in Jub 50: 6-13 is similar to the rules of Damascus and anticipates later Shabbat rules ( Halachot ) of the Sadducees and the Mishnah . Land and sea voyages, plowing one's own fields or those of others, lighting fires, riding, slaughtering and killing any living being, fasting or waging war are prohibited. For all these offenses God's killing vengeance is sought so that the previously required death penalty does not have to be implemented by humans.
Dead Sea Scrolls
Among the Dead Sea Scrolls , the fragmentary Shabbat songs (4QShirShabb) describe the priesthood of angels who celebrate the first thirteen Shabbats of the year in heaven . This apparently corresponded to a Shabbat liturgy of the time. The Damascus script (around 100 BC) demands strict observance of the Shabbat command (VI, 18) and provides detailed results of discussions about its interpretation (X – XII). The Eruv (“Shabbat boundary”), the area around a house in which essential objects could be carried around, was shortened from 2000 to 1000 cubits . Food preparation, drinking outside the home (CD X, 21-23), water transport in vessels, voluntary fasting, picking up stones or dusting at home, helping with animal births, rescuing animals and people who had fallen into wells (XI, 13-17) were forbidden on Shabbat. as well as sexual intercourse in the sanctuary. It was also refused to interpret the way of carrying objects from house to house as a common inner courtyard and thus to allow it (CD X, 4). The death penalty for breaking Shabbat was not required (XII, 3f.).
The Talmud gathers the rabbinical provisions on Shabbat organization, especially in the mixed natracts Shabbat as well as Beza and Eruvin . They determine which types of activities and individual activities derived from them are to be regarded as work that is not permitted on Shabbat ( Melacha ). The rabbis were aware that some of their interpretations went far beyond the Shabbat commandments of the Torah ( mHag 1,8): The Shabbat laws are "like mountains hanging by a hair: they have little writing, but many regulations." In principle, all rabbinical regulations are subject to the commandment Lev 18.5 EU : The person who carries them out will live through them.
Shabbat VII, 2 forbids 39 Melachot ("fathers") from work. He derives this from the activities and products mentioned there that are required for the construction of the “tabernacle” ( Ex 35–39 EU ), in the context of which the Shabbat commandments Ex 31.12–17 and 35.1-3 are. They concern basic needs such as food, clothing, housing, energy production and writing. To this end, he lists all the sub-steps of product manufacture, about 11 for bread (plowing, sowing, harvesting, tying sheaves, threshing, winnowing , sorting, grinding, sieving, kneading and baking); 13 for cloth, including shearing, bleaching, carding raw material, dyeing, spinning, weaving, sewing, tying knots, untying knots, tearing; nine on parchment, including setting up traps, shafts , peeling off the skin, tanning, scraping, cutting, writing on, erasing; two for assembling and dismantling the hut (building, destroying); the lighting and extinguishing of a light or fire (with reference to Ex 16.23; 35.3); hammering and publicly moving around private property. From these 39 main categories he derives “descendants” of prohibitions that concern similar or related work: including long hikes and trips as well as all gainful employment, buying and earning work, including the mere touch of money.
Further sections specify the general prohibitions by discussing individual cases and possible exceptions. Action necessary to protect life was permitted under certain precisely defined conditions; it often remained controversial what was necessary for this. If their lives were in danger, many rabbis allowed escape (Tanh 245a), extinguishing a fire (Schab XVI, 1-7), some even self-defense up to and including killing the enemy (with reference to 1 Makk 2:29-41). Many rabbis allowed emergency aid for animals on Shabbat (bSchab 128b) because animal welfare is overriding the Shabbat commandment in the Torah. Eating, drinking and basic personal hygiene were allowed on Shabbat, but not medical treatments, except for the saving of lives ( Mekh to Ex 31:13). Minor medical measures were classified as permitted eating and drinking (Schab XIV, 3f).
Some rabbis allowed medical treatment even if the danger to life of the person concerned was uncertain, according to the principle ( Joma VIII, 6): ... every doubt about the danger to life suppresses the Sabbath. Rabbi Simeon ben Menasja and Rabbi Jonathan ben Joseph established this principle around 180 with reference to Ex 31.13f. EU as follows ( Joma 85b):
"See, the Shabbat has been given to you, not you have been given to the Shabbat."
The passive divinum “to hand over” means God's activity. Rabba bar Chana and Rabbi Eleazar justified the principle with biblical analogies: For a possibly life-saving testimony, one may even take witnesses away from the sacrifice at the altar, i.e. interrupt the execution of the torage. A circumcision is also offered, according to the Torah on Shabbat; Since this only affects one limb, the salvation of the whole body is all the more permissible on Shabbat. At the end of this discussion, Rab Yehuda referred to Lev 18.5 in the name of Rab Shemuel : The commandments are given to life. No regulation that interprets the Torah should be hostile to life. This called Raba as irrefutable argument.
The Shabbat border for permitted transports was extended to the common courtyard. It was disputed whether one could start work before Shabbat that continued on its own on Shabbat, such as dyeing. Students of Rabbi Hillel answered in the affirmative, students of Shammai denied this (Schab I, 4f). This diversity of opinion persisted for centuries without any single direction claiming and achieving sole validity of its interpretation. In cases of doubt, however, it is better to keep the Shabbat rest than to break it (Tanh 38b).
Schab IV, 1,1-3 deals with the question of how cooked food and hot drinks can be kept warm despite the prohibition on making a fire or cooking. Garments, fruits, pigeon feathers, wood shavings, fine or coarse flax shives , hides and wool flakes were listed as permitted warming agents. For the transport of food, a distinction was made between permitted and prohibited warming agents. Material that could rot or ferment when damp was prohibited; if the material was allowed, instructions were given on its use so as not to contaminate the food.
Many of the exception clauses collected in the treatise of the same name were called “mixtures” ( eruvim ) because they mixed activities in one category with those in another in order to lift the original strict prohibition under another aspect. Because of this recognizable intention, the Sadducees and later the Karaites completely rejected such special rules.
The consensus among rabbis was that the Shabbat was created and commanded only for the Jews, i.e. that it directly expresses Jewish identity. Hence, according to one rabbi, non-Jews who kept Shabbat deserved death (around 250).
The Talmud closely connects the Shabbat following prophetic statements with the expectation of the Messiah (Midrash Exodus Rabba 25:12):
"If Israel were to truly keep the Shabbat only once, the Messiah would come, for keeping the Shabbat equals keeping all the commandments."
Rabbi Shimon ben Jochai taught (Shab 118b):
"If the Israelites were to keep two Shabbatot according to the rules, they would be redeemed immediately."
The practical, tangible and transformative anticipation of this messianic dispensation, in which creation comes to its goal, is expressed in the Talmud with the gift of a double soul (b Bava Mezia 16a):
"On the eve of the Shabbat, the Holy One, bless him, gives man an extra soul, and at the end of the Shabbat he takes it away from him."
The Assyrian King Sennacherib described in a 701 BC Chr. Wrote his conquest of Lachish on the "seventh (time)" of the then king of Judah Hezekiah . It is believed that the day of rest for the Jews was meant and that this enabled the Assyrians to win. The first Babylonian conquest of Jerusalem in 597 BC. BC, the first attack by Nebuchadnezzar on the temple city in 588 BC. And their fall in the tenure of Zedekiah ( Jer 52,5-8 EU ) is dated to a Shabbat in comparison of biblical dates with Babylonian chronicles. Accordingly, the great kings of the Assyrians and Babylonians used this known specifically Jewish day of rest to more easily overthrow the rebellious Jews. The Ptolemies and later the Seleucids also attacked the Jews more often on a Shabbat because they did not offer any military resistance on that day out of loyalty to the Torah.
After around 170-100 BC Books of the Maccabees originating from the 3rd century BC , Jews were massacred by the army of Antiochus IV because of the strict Shabbat rest (1 Makk 2:29–38). Thereupon the Maccabees Mattatias and his followers decided to fight on Shabbat, if they were attacked, in order not to be completely destroyed (1 Makk 2,39ff .; 2 Makk 5,25f.). With this exception rule ( takhana ), the regulation ( halacha ) that had existed since the anniversary book was not repealed, but changed for acute requirements.
The decision remained controversial and was not always adhered to. Pompey could see Jerusalem in 63 BC. According to the Roman historian Dio Cassius on a Shabbat; Sosius, on the other hand, was only able to submit Jerusalem to the Roman Procurate on Shabbat after the end of the term of office of Pontius Pilate in AD 37, only against strong Jewish resistance. The Roman-friendly Jewish historian Flavius Josephus described the dilemma of believing Jews around AD 100 as a speech by Agrippa at the siege of Jerusalem in 66: Those who keep the Shabbat command in war will, like their forefathers, be easily defeated. Whoever breaks it is no longer defending Judaism and its identity and can then leave the war as it is. For how can one still call on God for help, whose commandments one disregards? Later on, rebellious Jews attacked the Romans on a Shabbat , who had not expected it because of the Jewish day of rest. According to letters from Simon Bar Kochba around 135, insurgent Jews at least kept the travel and trade ban on Shabbat.
In the Jewish diaspora , the Shabbat was held around 500 BC. Chr. As work and trade rest and day of worship as observed as in Palestine, so that it was generally known as a peculiarity of Judaism and was increasingly respected by non-Jews. The authorities of the Roman Empire protected the Jewish minorities from attacks on their Shabbat customs by Greek cities, exempted Jews from military service, from court appointments on Shabbat and preparation days on Shabbat, and kept grain distributed on Shabbat for Jewish entitled persons in order to hand it over to them the following day. However, after the crushed Jewish uprising of 135, Emperor Hadrian banned large parts of the Jewish practice of religion, including the Shabbat.
Egyptians, Greeks and Romans influenced by Hellenism , including Apion and Manetho , viewed the Shabbat as a curiosity and a sign of weakness, superstition and laziness of the Jews. The prohibition of war on Shabbat, for example, was considered by Agatarchides of Knidos to be stupid and absurd. Tacitus considered Jewish customs "sinister and shameful". He believed that Jews would not work every seventh year because of a tendency to idleness and that on Shabbat they would worship the astral god Saturnus , whom he understood as a symbol of negative striving for power ( Annales V, 4,3-4). Seneca was indignant about the influence of Jewish Sabbath observance on non-Jews: "The vanquished gave laws to the victors." He described Jewish observance of the Sabbath as the loss of a seventh of one's lifetime that should have been devoted to urgent business. Aulus Persius Flaccus mocked that the Jews would celebrate wine on Shabbat behind smeared windows by smoking lamps. According to Plutarch , Jerusalem was conquered on a Shabbat (70) because of the "low habits" of the Jews who "got caught in their superstitions like a net". Rutilius Claudius Namatianus summarized this widespread contempt around 400 in a poem:
“Appropriate abuse was given by us to the wicked race ...
That celebrates its sad Sabbaths with folly in league. […] It
condemns the seventh day to dishonorable rest,
As it were a womanish image of the tired God.
Oh that Rome would never have submitted to Judea,
since the conquered people conquer their conquerors. "
Middle Ages and Early Modern Times
In the Middle Ages , Jews developed the Shabbat customs (מנהגים minhagim ) on the basis of the traditional Torah and Talmud regulations. In the 13th century, three Shabbat counters were made, and later a fourth. The Zohar (around 1280) justified it with the fact that the Shabbat is a name of God and thus means perfect universal joy: It nourishes all Jews as offspring of the three forefathers and protects all living beings in the cosmos from God's judgment. In the 16th century, representatives of the Kabbalah in Safed created a fixed Shabbat liturgy for the house celebration with the kiddush at the beginning and the hawdala at the end. While the Karaites forbade lit light even before the beginning of the Shabbat, they allowed the lighting of two lights as a symbol for the soul doubled on the Shabbat, which enables the perception of creation and its future salvation. Isaak Luria (1534–1572) supplemented the ritual greeting and gathering of the “bride” ( Kabbalat Shabbat ) with psalm song and semiroth . Schlomo Alkabez (1505–1584) composed and wrote the Hebrew Sabbath song, which is still common in all Jewish directions today לכה דודי Lecha Dodi : "Up, my friend, to meet the bride, we want to receive Queen Shabbat". Isaiah Horovitz in1623understood thereading of Prov 31.10-31 EU at the first Shabbatmealas an invitation to the Hebrew שְׁכִינָה Shekhina (indwelling of God). In the Central European summer, the beginning and end of Shabbat were timed differently independently of the sunset. Jewish philosophers declared the Shabbat asproof of Godand supplemented its calm character with the obligatory study of the Torah.
The collection of responses shows the Shabbat problems of the time: Abraham ben Meir Ibn Esra fended off 1158 attempts to celebrate the Shabbat from Saturday to Sunday morning. In 1546, Solomon Adret forbade heating the stove on Shabbat in winter and recommended a lock on the stove. Since tobacco smoking fell under the fire ban, Jews lit a large water pipe on Fridays , and the tobacco continued to glow on Saturdays. According to Mendel ben Abraham , Jews in Amsterdam were not supposed to buy fish from non-Jews for two months in 1675, because these fish purchases from Jews, in particular herring and carp , had been exploited for Shabbat with high surcharges. Jewish traders sold their shops on Fridays for a symbolic price to non-Jews and bought them back after the end of Shabbat; if they had Christian business partners, they let them earn the Sabbath.
As an overview of the further developed Halachot, Maimonides wrote his main work Guide of the Undecided between 1176 and 1200 . According to this, the Shabbat command should affirm the creation of the world and the existence of God, remind us of His grace for Israel and thus promote theoretical knowledge of truth and practical welfare at the same time. According to the Sefer Ha-Turim by Jacob ben Asher , the Shabbat should remind of creation and Sinai revelation and look ahead to the rest of the future resurrection . As a comment on this for the Sephardim , Josef Karo wrote the Shulchan Aruch ('The laid table') from around 1545 to 1565 . In a similar commentary for the Ashkenazim , HaMappa ('The Tablecloth'), Moses contrasted Isserles with Sephardic and Ashkenazi Shabbat halachot. Both works became binding for Jewish life.
Approaches to moving the Shabbat
For centuries, the state-mandated Sunday rest forced believing Jews living in Christianized countries to close their shops on two days of the week and made it difficult to rest on Shabbat. As a result, they were economically disadvantaged and religiously discriminated . The legal equality of Jews demanded by the enlightener Christian Wilhelm Dohm in 1781 went hand in hand with increased pressure for their complete assimilation . Christian citizenships demanded that Jews give up their Shabbat customs in return for offered civil rights . The theologian Johann David Michaelis, for example, said that Jews had no chance in the Prussian military because of their alleged short stature and their refusal to fight on Shabbat.
The Jewish Haskala in the 18th century and the Jewish emancipation in the 19th century reacted to such widespread reservations . Moses Mendelssohn, for example, replied to Dohm in 1783 that if “civil union” could only be achieved at the cost of the Torah task, Jews would have to do without it. For their part, however, many Jews tried to fully integrate themselves into the Christian-dominated nation state in which they lived, and viewed the Shabbat as an obstacle.
The German Rabbinical Conference of 1845 was devoted to this topic. There Samuel Holdheim demanded that Shabbat be moved to Sunday, as Judaism could only be preserved in the long term and the day of rest could be actively sanctified. Only individual German groups, such as the Berlin Reform Community in 1849 and some US groups, followed this suggestion. In 1869, Hermann Cohen again called for the Shabbat service to be postponed to Sunday in order to promote the desired “national fusion”. In 1919, however, he wrote that through the Shabbat alone, Judaism had already shown itself to the world as a “bringer of joy and peacemaker”. Others were indifferent to their Jewish tradition or converted to Christianity for better opportunities for advancement.
Orthodox, Conservative, Liberal, and non-believing Jews have defended the Sabbath. The Christian baptized poet Heinrich Heine honored him in 1851 with his poem Princess Sabbath . Once a week he gave back their dignity to the people of Israel, who were humiliated by their environment to dogs. The Zionist Max Joseph criticized Jewish emancipation as “discount Judaism”, which alienates Jewish children from elementary traditions such as the Shabbat and thus leads to the self-dissolution of the Jewish religion. Samson Raphael Hirsch warned: Eradicate the Shabbat and you have smashed the ground for Israel and its religion. Belonging to Judaism is determined by observance of the Sabbath. Achad Ha'am , the founder of cultural Zionism , emphasized in 1895: “A Jew who feels a real connection to the life of his people will find it utterly impossible to imagine Israel's existence without the Sabbath. It is no exaggeration to say: More than Israel preserved the Shabbat, he preserved Israel. "
Because the Shabbat commandment should be the exclusive covenant sign of the chosen people according to the Torah, believing Jews often refused its Christian claims for Sunday. From around 1900 Shabbat-loyal Jews organized themselves in associations, calledשומר שבת Shomre Shabbat ('Keeper of the Shabbat'). They tried not only to fully fulfill the Torah but also the Halachot and published books and pamphlets with practical advice. In 1928 they formed a “World Association for Shabbat Protection Schomre Shabbos” in Berlin. Such associations and their predecessors achieved a partial exemption from the statutory Sunday rest for Jewish companies in England (1860 and 1931), the Netherlands, Galicia and Bukovina. In Prussia, Jewish schoolchildren had been exempt from teaching on Saturdays since 1859. The special arrangement existed until June 22, 1933.
Other believing and non-believing Jews, like Philo of Alexandria, emphasized the relevance of the Shabbat for humanity. In 1906 Leo Baeck wrote that the Sabbath commandment Dtn 5 was intended to protect the unabridged and unabridged human right of slaves. The necessary rest for all members of the family should also give the servants who are dependent on them the necessary relaxation for their survival. According to the Torah, they too have a right, given with all of God's authority, to enjoy the Shabbat just like the free ones, so they are already religiously equal. He pointed out that the Romans also knew slave festivals, but limited them to a few days a year and saw them not as a slave right but as alms.
Anti-Semites often used the Sabbath to attack Jews: In the First World War from 1916, they had to open their shops on Saturdays as well. The Jewish boycott of the Nazis on April 1, 1933 a Saturday, in turn, should also meet assimilated Jews. From June 26, 1933, Jewish children had to go to school again on Saturdays. Hate pamphlets ridiculed Jewish Sabbath observance as laziness and alleged exploitation of non-Jews. Jews were also forced to work on Friday evenings, Saturdays, and their festive days by ordinances. The compulsory work was constantly tightened and punished more and more severely for non-compliance, especially in Poland, which had been occupied since 1939 .
As a result, Polish rabbis often allowed their congregations to work and cook hot soup on Shabbat and high feast days if their lives were in danger. Orthodox Jews in ghettos, however, often let themselves be divided into brigades that did not work on Shabbat, otherwise had to do particularly unpleasant work and received fewer food rations. Because of the halachic travel ban, Jews interned in temporary camps refused to deliberately accept temporary releases offered on Saturdays. Deported Jews celebrated Shabbat with candles and the song of Lecha Dodi even on the way to their murder on platforms, in railroad cars and in extermination camps ; so did survivors after their liberation.
The psychoanalyst and social philosopher Erich Fromm dealt in several of his writings with the Sabbath, which he considered to be the most important idea in the Bible. In 1980 he explained its meaning as follows: “The Sabbath is the anticipation of the messianic time not through a magical ritual, but through practical behavior that puts people in a real situation of harmony and peace. The other way of life changes people. ”“ In Jewish tradition, work is not the highest value, but rest, the state that has no other purpose than being human. There is another aspect of the Sabbath ritual that must be known to fully understand. The Sabbath seems to have been an ancient Babylonian holiday that was celebrated on every seventh day (Sabattu) of a lunar month. However, it had a completely different meaning than the biblical Sabbath. The Babylonian Sabattu was a day of mourning and self-chastisement. It was a gloomy day that was dedicated to the planet Saturn (the English name of Saturday “Saturday” still indicates it today) and attempts were made to soothe one's anger through self-mortification and self-punishment. In the Bible, however, the holy day has lost its character as a day of self-flagellation and mourning; it is no longer a "bad" day, but a good day; the Sabbath has become the opposite of the gloomy Sabattu ”. Fromm's connection of the Sabbath with the ideal of an egalitarian society expected as a historical goal followed authors of early socialism and communism such as Pierre-Joseph Proudhon , Moses Hess , who called the perpetual Sabbath the "Sabbath of History", and Karl Marx .
The basic elements of Shabbat that have existed for thousands of years (rest from work, ritually opened family meals and synagogue services) are intended to express the joy of God's work of creation and the covenant. Since the Middle Ages, Jews have shaped the non-specific work prohibition of the Torah differently depending on the religious direction.
Orthodox and Ultra-Orthodox Jews (יַהֲדוּת חֲרֵדִית jahadut charedit , Haredim ) still follow the 39 Melachot , the 39 work prohibitions of the Talmud, in larger Haredic residential areas such as the former Eastern European shtetl , the Scheunenviertel (Berlin) and the Jerusalem old town . Their representatives continue to discuss the halachot in responses and try to adapt them to modern conditions and technology. Since the use of electricity has been included in the fire ban since 1900, it resulted in a ban on using elevators, escalators and cars, listening to the radio, watching TV, etc. The use of electrical devices with batteries charged before Shabbat for medical operations was controversial Devices, etc. In order to solve such problems practically, Levi Jizhak Halperin founded the "Institute for Science and Halacha" in Jerusalem in 1963. For example, a “Shabbat socket” was invented there, which interrupts the electrical circuit for 30 seconds every three minutes in order to enable devices to be connected without breaking the ban on fire. Some modern fridges and ovens have a Sabbath mode , which enables them to be used on public holidays without people triggering switching processes.
In liberal and progressive Judaism, the Shabbat purpose of joyful and peaceful rest and spiritual renewal in the circle of family, friends and guests is emphasized. The work ban is recognized in principle, but is not formally defined according to Bible and Talmudic passages, but according to today's social conditions. Ordinary gainful employment and trade are avoided as far as possible; Those who absolutely have to work on Shabbat should use the non-working time all the more for spiritual reflection. The use of electricity is not generally prohibited. If activities serve to sanctify the Shabbat, they are permitted, such as driving a car to visit the synagogue, relaxing gardening, writing in the context of a creative worship service. The responsibility of the individual is emphasized: Carelessness is permitted if someone breaks a command, but also deprives themselves of the enjoyment associated with observing them. In order to relate the halachic prescriptions to modern living conditions and needs, the central conference of rabbis in the USA published a Shabbat manual in 1972 .
Between 1924 and 1934, the Zionist poet Chaim Nachman Bialik first established regular out-of-home, informal, non-halacha-oriented public Friday evening meetings with friends in Tel Aviv, which quickly became popular with young people. Following Isa 58:13 EU, he called it Oneg Shabbat (Shabbat bliss, joy, enjoyment) in order to emphasize this essential aspect for the whole of Shabbat. From 1939 to 1944, Oneg Shabbat was also the cover name of a Jewish resistance group in the Warsaw ghetto and the associated archive of Emanuel Ringelblum .
Shabbat in Israel
In Israel, the long-established Jews had strictly observed the Shabbat after Halacha, while the immigrants (עולים olim ) of the first and secondעֲלִיָּה Aliyah celebrated it without special services and the starting dates also varied. The British mandate administration granted the settlers local autonomy , so that a variety of Shabbat designs emerged.
On May 14, 1948, Shabbat was set as the legal day of rest, as the Jewish Agency had promised Orthodox Jews on June 19, 1947. At the same time, non-Jews were guaranteed the right to celebrate their own rest and public holidays. In 1951 the Knesset passed a law guaranteeing a weekly rest period of at least 36 hours for all Israelis and prohibiting employment during this period, but allowing exceptions for national defense, public security and government services. This may only be approved by a committee made up of the Prime Minister, Labor, Religion and Defense Ministers. Since the halacha regulations were not regulated by law, there are often conflicts over detailed questions.
In Israel, most shops are closed and public transport is closed on Shabbat , except in Haifa. A Shabbat elevator works in multi-story hotels. It moves up and down automatically and stops on every floor so that no button has to be pressed. In the strictly religious Jerusalem district of Me'a She'arim , all restaurants remain closed on Shabbat, in other parts of the city most, as well as in Tel Aviv, Haifa and other places where the Haredim do not make up a majority of the population. A flight ban for the airline El Al on Shabbat often brought them into financial distress. Israelis are now allowed to participate in space flights with rabbinical permission if they keep Shabbat in space after Jerusalem time. In Petach Tikwa , Orthodox Jews attacked restaurants and cinemas that were open on Shabbat in 1984; After the arrest of the chief rabbi involved, the Agudat Jisra'el party threatened to break the government coalition. In 1986, Prime Minister Shimon Peres banned Ramat Gan's city council from using the local stadium for football matches on Shabbat. A popular Shabbat flea market on a kibbutz met with violent protests in 1986, as did a cable car built in Haifa that was also supposed to run on Shabbat. In 1987, thousands of haredim demonstrated in front of open cinemas and restaurants in Jerusalem to force them to close on Shabbat.
Despite centuries-old traditions that have led to the same elements in liturgy and customs worldwide, the Shabbat is celebrated differently not only depending on the religious direction, but also depending on the local custom. Individual elements are left out or modified, others added. Yom Kippur is the only fast day that is also observed on a Shabbat - the other fast days will be postponed if they fall on a Shabbat.
According to the Talmudic prescriptions, the Shabbat should be prepared by everyone involved on the Friday before dusk. The evening begins with the word Erev ( Hebrew ערב Evening ) called The eve is thereforeערב שבת "Erev Shabbat" . This includes tidying up and cleaning the apartment, a cleaning bath, cutting hair and nails and putting on festive clothes that are only worn on Shabbat. Three instead of the usual two meals are cooked for the evening. It is a good custom to invite guests to the first Shabbat meal, especially strangers and travelers. The table is festively set: in front of the head of the family's seat lie two Shabbat loaves covered with a cloth ( Hebrew חַלָּוֹת Challot ), which are reminiscent of the double manna during the Israelites' desert wandering, and the cup for the kiddush. The weekly portion of the Torah (themicra) is read three times, twice in Hebrew, once as an Aramaictargumor according to theRashicommentary. Objects that are not to be moved or used on Shabbat areמוקצה Muktza . For Shabbat day (on Saturday), Jewish cuisine has developed many cold and very long and slowly simmering dishes that can be pre-cooked on Friday, including cholent (East Yiddish, a kind of stew).
Shabbat evening begins at dusk (ליל שבת Leil Shabbat ). Twilight is considered to have broken in "when you can no longer distinguish a blue wool thread from a gray wool thread". Before dark, the woman of the house traditionally lights the Shabbat candles and speaks the blessing
|בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה אֲדֹנָ-י אֱ-לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ לְהַדְלִיק נֵר שֶׁל שַׁבָּת קֹדֶשׁ||Baruch ata Ado-naj, Elohenu Melech Ha'Olam, ascher kideschanu bemizwotaw, veziwanu lehadlik ner shel Shabbat kodesch.||"Praise be to You, Eternal, our God, King of the world, who sanctified us with his commandments and commanded us to light the Shabbat light."|
The synagogue service on Friday evening, in which women generally do not take part in Orthodox communities, begins with the "reception of Shabbat" (קבלת שבת Kabbalat Shabbat ) through a sung psalm (selection: Ps 29 EU ; 92–93; 95–99) and the traditional Shabbatsongלכה דודי Lecha Dodi . The subsequent evening prayer (מעריב Maariw ) is shortened on Shabbat by a few parts, which contain, for example, worry and confession of guilt, and expanded by Shabbat texts. The kiddush has also been taken over from the house celebration in the worship liturgy.
|ויהי ערב ויהי בקר יום הששי.||Va-y'hi erev va-y'hi voker, yom ha-shishi.||And it was evening and it was morning, the sixth day.|
|ויכלו השמים והארץ וכל צבאם.||Va-y'chulu ha-schamayim v'ha-aretz v'chol-tzva'am.||And the heavens and the earth were completed together with all their host.|
|ויכל אלהים ביום השביעי מלאכתו אשר עשה||Va-y'chal Elohim ba-yom ha-schvi'i m'lachto ascher asah,||And on the seventh day God finished the work that he had done.|
|ויברך אלהים את יום השבעי ויקדש אתו||va-y'varech Elohim et yom ha-schvi'i, va-y'kadesch oto,||And God blessed the seventh day and made it holy.|
|כי בו שבת מכל מלאכתו אשר ברא אלהים לעשות.||ki vo schavat mi-kol-m'lachto, ascher bara Elohim la'asot.||for on that he rested from all his work for which God had created.|
With this the following domestic Shabbat celebration is initiated. Traditionally, the father of the family greets Shabbat with the greeting of peace ( Hebrew שלום Shalom ), blesses the children if necessary and speaks the verses Gen 2,1–3, which were already part of the evening Shabbat Amida. Then he gives the blessing over a full cup of wine, today usually sweet red wine:
|בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן:||Baruch atta adonai, elohenu melech ha-olam, bore pri ha-gafen.||“Praise be to you, Eternal, our Gd; you rule the world. You created the fruit of the vine ”.|
All present answer: אָמֵן Amen
|ברוך אתה יי אלהינו מלך העולם||Baruch Atah ADONAI, Eloheinu Melech ha-olam,||Blessed are you, Lord our God.|
|אשר קדשנו במצותיו ורצה בנו||asher kid'schanu b'mitzvotav, v'ratzah vanu,||who was sanctified to us with his commandments and satisfied with us,|
|ושבת קדשו באהבה וברצון בנחילנו||v'Shabbat kajo b'ahavah u-v'ratzon hinchilanu,||and gave us his holy Shabbat as an inheritance with love and favor,|
|זכרון למעשה בראשית.||zikaron l'ma'aseh v'reischit.||as a reminder of the work of creation in the beginning.|
|כי הוא יום תחלה לצקראי קדש||Ki hu jom t'chilah l'mikraei kodesch,||Because this day is the most important of our holy times|
|זכר ליציאת מצרים.||Zecher l'tziat Mitzrayim.||a reminder of the exodus from Egypt.|
|כי בנו בחרת ואותנו קדשת מכל העמים.||Ki vanu vacharta v'otanu kidashta mi-kol-ha-amim.||For you have chosen us from every nation and sanctified us.|
|ושבת קדשך באהבה וברצון הנחלתנו.||V'Shabbat kaj'cha, b'ahavah u-vratzon hinchaltanu.||You gave us your holy Shabbat with love and joy as our inheritance.|
|ברוך אתה יי מקגש השבת||Baruch Atah, ADONAI, m'kadeisch ha-Shabbat.||Blessed are you, LORD, who keep the Sabbath holy.|
This is followed by a Shabbat blessing, which reminds of the beginning of creation and the exodus from Egypt.
After the father and the dinner party have drunk the wine, hands are washed before dinner, as always; according to some local traditions even before kiddush. Then he gives the usual blessing on the bread:
|בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְ ‑ יָ אֱ ‑ לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם הַמּוֹצִיא לֶחֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ:||Baruch ata Ado-naj, Elohenu Melech Ha'Olam, Hamozi lechem min haarez.||"Praise be to you, Eternal, our Gd, who lets bread come out of the earth".|
He sprinkles a piece of it with salt and eats it. Then he cuts or breaks off pieces of bread and distributes them or passes the bread on with the salt so that everyone can take a piece. Shabbat songs (זמירות Semirot ) sung, including Psalm 126. After the meal, grace (ברכת המזון Birkat Hamason ) more solemn than sung together on weekdays.
The convivial meeting for festive dining, singing, chatting and reflecting on Friday evening - in some places also on Friday or Saturday afternoon - is called oneg shabbat after Isa 58.13 EU , regardless of its design . It can also take place outside the domestic and family setting, for example in public restaurants. Kiddush and blessings are then performed more variably, for example at several tables or not at all. Instead of the traditional interpretation of the Torah by the father of the family, spontaneous religious lectures can be given by any person present.
Both men and women attend the main Shabbat service on Saturday morning. Its centerpiece is the Torah reading after the morning prayer . In a festive procession, the Torah scroll is carried through the synagogue with chants from the Torah shrine and finally rolled out on the lectern, rolled up again after the reading and carried back. Before and after the reading, the called person speaks a special Bracha, Birkat ha-Tora.
In many congregations, after the reading, the called person receives a Mi scheBerach ('who blessed'), a special blessing in which family members or the sick can be remembered in addition to his / her name. It is also common practice in many communities to commemorate charitable institutions. After finishing the reading from the Torah, the Haftara follows , the reading of a section from the Nevi'im ( books of the prophets). In many congregations, after the Torah reading, a general discussion is said for the sick or those in need. This is followed by prayer for the church, for the country and its government and in many churches for the state of Israel.
Compared to the weekday service, an additional prayer, the Musaf prayer, as a substitute for the sacrifice in the time of the temple, and other psalms and hymns have been added to the Shabbat and holiday services. The Musaf prayer is either not prayed by reform congregations and many conservative congregations, who view the temple and its sacrificial service as a historical, outdated expression of Jewish worship, or are correspondingly redesigned. On Shabbat, the eighteen petitions (Amida) are reduced to seven individual requests, because on Shabbat one should not worry, but trust in God's care. Tefillin are not laid on Shabbat either .
Saturday lunchtime to evening
The subsequent joint meal is opened again with the kiddush. The blessing over the wine is traditionally preceded by Ex 31.16 EU : "And the children of Israel are to keep the Shabbat ..." Freely chosen words for the interpretation of the current Parascha during the meal and the singing of Semirot are also customary . The interim times serve for rest, self-reflection, going for a walk and learning the Torah.
After the Mincha prayer in the afternoon, the “third meal” ( Se'uda schlischit ) of Shabbat follows . Words from the Torah, chants for spiritual edification and reflection during the twilight shape it. According to ancient tradition, the final redemption of the Jewish people takes place on a Shabbat afternoon. Dreams and sadness, longing and hope are mixed in the melodies of this hour. After the common grace, in which the person who has previously prayed speaks the blessing over a "glass of blessing", the full glass remains until the evening.
At the “Shabbat exit” ( Hebrew מוצאי שבת Motza'e Shabbat ) in the context of the hawdala , a blessing is spoken over the glass of wine again after the weekly evening prayer. When lighting the multi-wick hawdala candle , the following blessing is said:
|הנה אל ישועתי אבטח ולא אפחד||Hineh El jeschuati, evtach v'lo efchad.||See, God is my salvation, I will trust and not be afraid,|
|כי עזי וזמרת יה יי ויהי לי לישועה.||Ki ozi v'zimrat Yah ADONAI va-y'hi-li lishuah.||For the Lord my God is my strength and my song. He has also become my salvation.|
|ושאבתם מים בששון ממעיני הישועה.||U-schavtem mayim b'sason mi-ma'ainei ha-yeshuah.||And with joy you shall draw water from the well of salvation.|
|ברוך אתה יי אלהינו מלך העולם בורא פרי הגפן.||Baruch Atah ADONAI, Eloheinu Melech ha-olam, borei p'ri hagafen.||Blessed are you, Lord our God, King of the universe, who creates the fruit of the vine.|
|ברוך אתה יי אלהינו מלך העולם בורא מיני בשמים.||Baruch Atah ADONAI, Eloheinu Melech ha-olam, borei minei v'samim.||Blessed are you, Lord our God, King of the universe, who creates all kinds of spices.|
|ברוך אתה יי אלהינו מלך העולם בורא מאורי האש.||Baruch Atah ADONAI, Eloheinu Melech ha-olam, borei m'orei ha-eisch.||Blessed are you, Lord our God, King of the universe, who creates the lights of fire.|
|ברוך אתה יי אלהינו מלך העולם המבדיל בין קדש לחול.||Baruch Atah ADONAI, Eloheinu Melech ha-olam, ha-mavdil bein kodesch l'chol.||Blessed are you, Lord our God, King of the universe, who distinguishes between holy and worldly.|
|שבוע טוב||Schavua tov||have a good week!|
Alternatively, prayer אַתָּה חוֹנַנְתָּנוּ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ לְמַדַּע תּוֹרָתֶךָ. וַתְּלַמְּדֵנוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת חֻקֵּי רְצוֹנֶךָ Ata Honantanu (for men) orברוך המבדיל בין קודש לחול Baruch Hamavdil Bein Kodesch LeHol (for women: Blessed be he who distinguishes between what is holy and what is profane. ).
The flame of the multi-wick hawdala candle , which heralds the end of Shabbat like a torch and shines into the new week, is extinguished by the rest of the wine in the glass. This also includes a vessel with spices, the besamim box , the fragrances of which are intended to remind of Shabbat in the week that is now beginning. Then you wish a “good week” ( Schawua tow ).
Religious Jews in particular eat another meal afterwards, called “Accompanying the Queen” ( Melawe Malka ). Such meals are also organized as social gatherings among friends or as fundraising for charity.
The Sabbaths in Ordinary always conform to their Sidra (סדרא, also Parasha פרשה), the part of the week read from the Torah . (see list of weekly sections ). However, some have their own function and meaning that their name indicates:
|Shabbat Shuwa||שבת שובה||Shabbat "Repent!" Or "Shabbat of Repentance"||between Rosh Hashanah (New Year) and Yom Kippur ( Festival of Reconciliation) according to the Haftara read on that day : Hosea 14.2-10 EU , Micha 7.18-20 EU , Joel 2.25-27 EU .|
|Shabbat Shabbaton||שבת שבתון||"The Shabbat of the Shabbats", "the highest Shabbat"||Name for Yom Kippur , the seventh of the high holidays; sometimes also for the 49th day of the Omer counting .|
|Shabbat Bereshit||שבת בְּרֵאשִׁית||"The Shabbat of the beginning"||the first Shabbat after Simchat Torah , after the first section beginning with Bereshit .|
|Shabbat Hanukkah||שבת חֲנֻכָּה||Hanukkah Shabbat||is a Shabbat during the 8-day Hanukkah festival .|
|Shabbat Shira||שבת שירה||Shabbat of the song||Beschalach , 4th section of Ex. After the song of Moses ( Deuteronomy 32 EU ).|
|Shabbat Shekalim||שבת שקלים||Shekel's Shabbat||Shabbat before or on Adar 1 , after the additional Parasha reading, which deals with the shekel donation: Exodus 30.11-16 EU .|
|Shabbat Zechor||שבת זכור||Shabbat "Remember!" Or "Shabbat of Remembrance"||the Shabbat preceding the festival of Purim . The commemoration relates to what Amalek did to the Jewish people according to the Torah. Additional Parasha reading: Deuteronomy 25, 17-19 EU . Haftara: ashk .: 1 Samuel 15: 2–34 EU , sef .: 1 Samuel 15 : 1–34 EU .|
|Shabbat Para||שבת פרה||Shabbat of the red cow פָּרָה אֲדֻמָּה||the Shabbat after the festival of Purim according to the additional reading about the sin by means of the red cow. Additional parasha reading: Numbers 19 : 1-22 EU .|
|Shabbat ha-Chodesh||שבת החודש||"Shabbat of the month"||the Shabbat before or on the 1st of Nissan to institute Nissan, the month of liberation, as the first of the months (in the Jewish year the first month is not the month after New Year's Day ). Additional Parasha reading: Exodus 12 : 1-20 EU .|
|Shabbat ha-Gadol||שבת הגדול||"The great Shabbat"||the Shabbat before Passover in the month of Nissan , his Haftara: Malachi 3, 4–24 EU .|
|Shabbat Chazon||שבת חזון||Mourning Shabbat||the Shabbat before the 9th Av ( Tischa beAv ), on which Isaiah 1: 1–27 EU is read out as Haftara ( beginning with chason , “revelation”).|
|Shabbat Nachamu||שבת נַחֲמוּ||Shabbat of Consolation||the Shabbat after the 9th Av, on which Isaiah 40: 1–26 EU (beginning with nachamu , “comforts!”) is read out as Haftara.|
|Shabbat Mevorchim||שבת מברכים||Shabbat of blessings||The church will bless the coming new month|
|Shabbat Chol HaMo'ed||שבת חול המועד||Shabbat within the middle holidays||Middle Holidays of Passover (Exodus 12: 1-20) and Sukkot .|
|Shabbat Rosh ha-Khodesh||שבת ראש החודש||Shabbat of the month (Nissan)||the Shabbat that follows the new moon ( Rosh Chodesh ) in the month of Nissan.|
|Shabbat Chatan||שבת חתן||Shabbat of the groom||On the Shabbat before the chuppah (wedding), according to Ashkenazi custom, the groom reads the
Torah ( Hebrew קְרִיאַת הַתּוֹרָה Kriat haTora ) called ( Yiddish אויפרוף oifruf )
The שמיטה Schemitta (also: Schmitta, Schemitah orשנת שמיטה Schnat schmitta , Schmittajahr, Germanized sabbath year ) is according to the Torah a year of rest for arable land and other agricultural cultivation in Israel. After six years of cultivation, the land is left fallow for a year - in analogy to Shabbat as a day of rest . ( Ex 23.10-11 EU ; Lev 25.1-7 EU ) The Shemita year is seen as “an extension of the basic idea of Shabbat command ”, the purpose of which was“ not to get the most out of it - not from the earth's resources, not from capital, not from the labor of others and not from one's own either. ”In the Shabbat year the fields were accessible to everyone, so could even the poor eat the finest fruit. At the end of the Shabbat year, the debts that could not be paid were canceled, because without the opportunity to start over, many people never get an economic opportunity.
The year after the Second Temple was destroyed was the first year of a seven-year Shabbat cycle. In the Jewish calendar, based on creation, this was the year 3829 (68–69 AD in the secular calendar). If one counts seven years from then on, the next Shemitah year will be the year 5782 after creation, which lasts from September 7, 2021 to September 25, 2022. The Schemita therefore has a different meaning than the sabbatical , which is a working time model and is often also referred to as the sabbatical year.
Year of release
After seven times seven years, a "jubilee year" or anniversary year ( Hebrew שנת היובל schenat hajobel ) follow (v. 8–34). Every 50 years after the seventh of seven Shabbat years, that is, every 49 years, the Israelites were togranttheir subordinate people complete debt relief, return their hereditary lands, and lift bondage . These protective rights for slaves, strangers, animals, soil and plants anchored the life-sustaining alternation of work and rest as a divine legal order in order to curb exploitative relationships of violence. In the Talmud , the commandment of the year of Jubilee was abolished for practical reasons: the Jews no longer owned the land of Israel, and the biblical prohibition of interest also proved impracticable in the Roman Empire. The Torah protection rights were in the form of a detailed poor relief under the generic term ofצְדָקָה Zedaka (charity, literally: justice) preserved. Besides prayer and religious study, charity is the third substitute act for temple sacrifice and thus contributes to the messianic work of redemption.
The term "jubilee year" comes from the Hebrew word jobel (יובל), which originally meant "Aries". The wind instrument shofar was built from ram horns and was blown among other things to mark the opening of a Jubilee year. Therefore, the term jobel was transferred to the instrument and the year of Jubilee opened with it. The alternative term `` jubilee year '' has been common in Christianity since 1300 for church calls for a year of indulgences , which is about the forgiveness of sins and which was carried out in a lively, especially papal, indulgence trade until the 16th century.
Meaning in Christianity
The New Testament reflects the Sabbath practice in Palestinian Judaism at that time: the Sabbath was celebrated in houses with a feast, guests (Lk 14.1) and rest from work (Lk 23.56). In synagogues, the Torah and prophets were read and the texts were interpreted (Mk 1.21; 6.2; Lk 4.16-21; 13.10; Acts 13.15.27; 15.21; 17.2). Harvesting (Mk 2.23), trade (Mk 16.1), the transport of loads (Mk 15.42–47; John 5.10; 19.42), a Sabbath journey (Acts 1:12) and priestly sacrifices were allowed (Mt 12,4), circumcision of the sons on the eighth day of life (Joh 7,22f.) And rescue of animals and people from danger of life (Mt 12,11; Lk 14,5).
Jesus of Nazareth participated in the Sabbath discussions of his day. All four canonical Gospels record his actions on the Sabbath and statements about the Sabbath that provoked approval or rejection. According to Mk 2.23ff. EU gathered Jesus' followers from the fields on the Sabbath. This shows the acute famine of destitute migrant beggars who did not own land and who could not collect sufficient food supplies the day before. When asked by some Pharisees for permission to do so, Jesus justified their behavior as follows:
- In times of hunger, David received and ate sacred bread from the priest's altar from the priest for himself and his followers. (v.25, 26)
- Let the Sabbath be made for man, not man for the Sabbath (v. 27)
- The Son of Man is "Lord also of the Sabbath" (v. 28).
As is customary among Torah teachers, the first two sentences argue with passages from the Bible ( 1 Sam 21.7 EU ; Gen 2.2 EU ). The example of David has nothing to do with the Sabbath, but is intended to show that other, comparably high-ranking Torah commandments such as the temple sacrifice were broken by chosen Jews when their lives were at risk. The implicit conclusion is that acute hunger is one of the exceptions that justify breaking the Sabbath, because God has made the day of rest benefit human life. So this interpretation only reinforced the meaning of the Sabbath commandment, which the Torah itself explains. It corresponded to the principle "saving life supersedes the Sabbath", which other Torah teachers also publicly represented in Jesus' time and which, according to Mishnah, prevailed among rabbis (compare criterion for difference ).
However, the third sentence can only be found in Jesus. He claims the authority of the Son of Man, whom the apocalyptic vision of Dan 7.1–14 EU awaited as the representative of God's rule after the final judgment . The prerequisite that God has already given him all of his eternal power ( LXX : exousia ) justifies his permission to break the Sabbath law as an exception, as was his right to the forgiveness of sins (Mk 2:10). Both actions are presented as anticipating the universal rule of God (cf. Mt 8:20; 11:19).
"Should one do good or bad, keep life or kill on the Sabbath?"
Although the chronically ill was not acutely life-threatened, Jesus counts his healing as part of the life-saving command that is also offered on the Sabbath. In doing so, he did not break the Sabbath command, since he was not doing any healing work, but only spoke a healing word. Therefore the mentioned reaction of the Pharisees to planning Jesus' death together with Herod's followers (v. 6) is considered to be ahistorical.
Texts like Lk 13: 10-17; 14.1–6 (Lukan special property ); Jn 5,1ff, 7,22ff and Jn 9,16 confirm that Jesus healed on the Sabbath, triggered quarrels and commented on it. None of the sick people healed on the Sabbath are reported to be in danger of death; all could have been healed on other days. It was about demonstrative Sabbath violations, so that it was not discussed whether there were rule violations, but only whether these were allowed in the sense of the Torah. In doing so, Jesus referred to exceptions that were already permitted and concluded, for example, from the permitted saving of animals to the equally permitted healing of people (cf. Mt 12: 11f.). In the end times, Satan's fetters must also be loosened for chronically ill children of Abraham (Jews) (Lk 13:16). According to Lk 13:17, this eschatological justification also met with praise from Jewish eye-witnesses of healing and overcame the initial rejection of some. In doing so, Jesus did not abolish the Sabbath commandment, but rather relativized it for the sake of life: helping those in acute need come first. Saving life on the Sabbath also fulfills the purpose of this commandment, because it is intended to protect people, especially the weak and also domestic animals, from the merciless exploitation of their labor.
The early Christians naturally recognized and kept the Sabbath commandment, just like the surrounding Judaism, since neither the pre-Markan Passion Report nor the Gospels nor the Acts of the Apostles record inadmissible Sabbath breaks by Christians and criticism of the Sabbath commandment. Paul of Tarsus has himself in Gal 4,10f. for the first time expressed criticism about the adoption of Jewish Sabbath Halacha by Gentile Christians, which in his view endangered their overarching unity with Jewish Christians in the faith in Jesus Christ . In Rom. 14,5 he pleads for mutual respect for different Sabbath observance of Jewish and Gentile Christians in Rome. In Col 2:16 he emphasizes: No Christian should be condemned because of food or festival rules such as the Sabbath. It is questionable whether this condemnation emanated from a group outside or within the addressed, predominantly Gentile Christian community. Internal conflicts between Jewish and non-Jewish Christians are often assumed that were not about a specific interpretation of the commandments of the time, but about the validity of the Torah for the Christian faith as a whole.
The old church named the days of the week unchanged like the Jews and celebrated the Sabbath until at least 130 years next to Sunday (Apostolic Constitutions). It was only after the final separation from Judaism (around 135) that some Gentile Christian authors called for the Sabbath to be replaced by Sunday, according to Barnabas' letter .
Constantine the Great made Sunday 321 a public holiday and a public day of rest in order to privilege Christian worship. Thus Sunday replaced the Sabbath as a weekly holiday in Christianity. This went hand in hand with its theological interpretation as the “great Sabbath” (Epiphanes, Expositio fidei 24) and the equation of the resurrection day with the “eighth day of creation”. Jewish Christians often continued to celebrate the Sabbath, and some Gentile Christians also celebrated services on the Sabbath in addition to Sunday. The Council of Laodicea condemned this custom in 363/64 as Judaizing. Only the Ethiopian Church remained the Sabbath on an equal footing with Sunday until modern times and even suppressed it there at times.
Following the interpretation of God's rest in the Letter to the Hebrews (Hebrews 4.1-11), a spiritualizing and an eschatological interpretation of the Sabbath emerged in patristicism, similar to the earlier in Jewish apocalyptic . Justin , Irenaeus and Tertullian interpreted the work that was forbidden on the Sabbath as sins , so that the Sabbath became a symbol of the Christian turning away from the old sinful life. Augustine of Hippo therefore interpreted the Sabbath as a permanent condition of Christians: in the calm of a good conscience they celebrated it constantly in their hearts. Thomas Aquinas and Bonaventure followed this interpretation . For Origen , Irenaeus, Athanasius and Hippolytus , the Sabbath symbolized the salvation of creation that was completed with Christ's second coming . Some understood the seven days of creation with reference to Ps 90.4 (“a thousand years before you are like one day”) as periods of world history ( chiliasm ). For Tertullian, Julius Africanus , Methodius and others, however, the completion of creation fell on the symbolic eighth day on which Christ was risen. That is why the Sabbath symbolized for them an eon before the Parousia, a thousand-year intermediate kingdom in which the saints would rule the earth with Christ.
In anti-Judaism of the High Middle Ages , Christians adopted the ancient tradition of mocking the Sabbath, for example through satirical caricatures. The Spanish Inquisition persecuted Marranen by looking for typical Sabbath features: glowing candles, extinguished stoves, clean shirts, fresh tablecloths in their houses on the Sabbath were evidence to arrest converted Jews, then torture them and in the end mostly burn them.
The term witch's sabbath connects the concept of witches coined in the early 15th century with the word sabbath. The anti-Judaism demonized the Jews and their customs, especially in the High Middle Ages increasingly: One subordinated to them satanic rites in their religious practices, including the worship of demons , ritual murders , black magic , poisoning wells , host desecration . This often justified or brought about pogroms and persecution of them.
During the Reformation , spiritualizing and eschatological interpretations of the Sabbath were brought to a christological level . In his early days, influenced by mysticism , Martin Luther advocated the former: In the rest of one's own works, the soul becomes empty and ready for God's sole grace (WA 6,244,3ff). Following him, Andreas Karlstadt declared in a treatise in 1524 that the Sabbath had been offered to practice calm. However, Luther now turned against making the Sabbath a condition for God's sanctification of man. After his catechisms appeared, this interpretation receded into evangelical theology. Karl Barth (KD III / 4), Jürgen Moltmann and Christian Link renewed it in the 20th century. According to Joachim von Fiore, the eschatological interpretation of the “world sabbath” or “sabbataeon” was represented by the Taborites , Thomas Müntzer and Hans Hut .
Because of their literal understanding of the Reformation Sola scriptura principle and newly discovered Jewish interpretations of the Sabbath, the English Puritans have been demanding strict observance of the Sabbath commandments, especially the rest of work, on Christian Sundays since the 16th century; some also called for a corresponding rest on Saturday. Often the aspect of enjoying the Sabbath, which is decisive in Judaism, was missing.
Since the 16th century, Christian communities emerged that, for various theological reasons, observed the Sabbath as a day of rest instead of Sunday. Some were Jewish Christians for whom Jesus had not lifted the Sabbath, others saw observance of the Sabbath as a condition that had become actual for their salvation from the final judgment, which was expected to be near . Both groups are not historically interdependent, but are summarized as Sabbatians . The apocalyptic group includes the Moravian Sabbathers founded around 1528 , the Seventh-day Baptists who emerged in England from 1650 and the Seventh-day Adventists founded in the USA in 1863 , the Jewish-Christian type the Transylvanian Sabbatians founded in 1588 and the Russian Subbotniki who appeared from 1640 . A distinction is made between the followers of the Jewish pretender Shabbtai Zvi named after him . In the 90s of the last century, several Messianic Evangelical Congregations came into being in Germany , which also celebrate the Sabbath.
Meaning in Islam
In Islam , the Sabbath resulted in a corresponding weekly rest period for the worship gathering ( al-dschumu'a ) for Friday afternoon prayers . It is believed that Mohammed chose this day because it was the first time he set foot on Mecca and the seventh day - possibly due to the influences of Zoroastrianism - was considered to be an unlucky day.
Sura 62,9f. contains the command to:
“You believers! If on Friday (on the day of the meeting) there is a call to prayer, then turn to the remembrance of God with zeal and let the business deal (rest for so long)! That is better for you if you (differently) know how to judge correctly. 10 But when the prayer is over, go your way (w. Spread yourselves in the land) and strive for God to show you favor (by going about your business). "
Accordingly, Muslims interrupt work on Friday only for the duration of common prayer and continue afterwards.
- Erich Spier: The Sabbath (= Judaism. Volume 1). Institute Church and Judaism, Berlin 1989, ISBN 3-923095-71-6
- Kenneth A. Strand (Ed.): The Sabbath in Scripture and History. Review and Herald Publishing Association, Washington, DC 1982, ISBN 0-8280-0037-9
- Georg Beer : Sabbath . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume IA, 2, Stuttgart 1920, Sp. 1551-1557.
- Origin and development
- Gnana Robinson: Origins and Development of the Old Testament Sabbath. 1st edition, Indian Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, Delhi 1998; unmodified reprint 2008, ISBN 81-7214-430-X
- Hans – Joachim Kraus: Divine service in Israel. Outline of a story of Old Testament worship. 2nd, completely revised edition, Kaiser, Munich 1962 (p. 88ff)
- Daniel C. Timmer: Creation, Tabernacle, and Sabbath. The Sabbath Frame of Exodus 31: 12-17; 35: 1-3 in Exegetical and Theological Perspective. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2009, ISBN 978-3-525-53091-7
- Piet van Boxel: And he rested on the seventh day. Early Jewish traditions for the celebration of the Sabbath. Pustet, Regensburg 1990, ISBN 3-7917-1256-X
- Abraham Ezra Millgram: Sabbath: The Day of Delight. Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia 1944
- Abraham Joshua Heschel : The Sabbath. Its importance for today's man. 1st edition, Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen-Vluyn 1990, ISBN 3-7887-1326-7
- Pinchas H. Peli: Shabbat Shalom. Shabbat - An island in our time. 1st German edition, Morascha, Basel / Zurich 1993
- Nosson Scherman: Zemiroth-Sabbath Songs. Mesorah Publications Limited, New York 1979, ISBN 0-89906-156-7
- Mark Dov Shapiro (Ed.): Gates of Shabbat = [Sha'are Shabat]: a guide for observing Shabbat. Central Conference of American Rabbis, New York 1991, ISBN 0-88123-010-3
- Lori Palatnik: Friday Night and Beyond: The Shabbat Experience Step-By-Step. Aronson, 1994, ISBN 1-56821-035-3
- Joseph F. Mendelsohn: Oneg Shabbat a Delight: Prayers and Blessings for the Shabbat Home Table. The United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism, Northvale (NJ) 1999, ISBN 0-8381-0231-X
- Israel Meir Lau : How Jews Live: Faith - Everyday Life - Festivals. 7th edition, Gütersloher Verlagshaus, Gütersloh 2001, ISBN 3-579-02155-9
- Adalbert Böning: The order of the Kabbalat-Shabat and Shabbat evening service in the synagogue: The Hebrew texts of the service at the beginning of the Sabbath on Friday evening for teaching and self-teaching. Catholic Academy, Schwerte 2005, ISBN 3-927382-50-7
- New Testament
- Ernst Haag: From Sabbath to Sunday. A biblical theological study. Paulinus-Verlag, Trier 1991, ISBN 3-7902-1280-6
- Berndt Schaller: Jesus and the Sabbath. In: Berndt Schaller: Fundamenta Judaica. Studies on ancient Judaism and the New Testament (1994) Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2001, ISBN 3-525-53379-9
- Sven Olav Back: Jesus of Nazareth and the Sabbath Commandment. Abo Akademi University Press, 1995, ISBN 952-9616-58-9
- Lutz Doering: Shabbat : Sabbath Halacha and practice in ancient Judaism and early Christianity. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 1999, ISBN 3-16-147202-0 ( book excerpt online )
- Andrea J. Mayer-Haas: Gift from God's treasury (bSchab 10b). Jesus and the Sabbath in the mirror of the New Testament scriptures. Aschendorff, Münster 2003, ISBN 3-402-04790-X
- Impact history
- Uwe Becker: Sabbath and Sunday. Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen-Vluyn 2006, ISBN 3-7887-2166-9
- Jürgen Kaiser: Peace of mind and seal of hope. The interpretations of the Sabbath in the Reformation. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1997, ISBN 3-525-55169-X
- Johannes Mager: Celebrate the Sabbath: switch off - breathe easy - worship. Advent-Verlag, Lüneburg 2002, ISBN 3-8150-1865-X
- Jürgen Kegler: Sabbath - Sabbath rest - Sunday rest. A theological contribution to a current discussion. In: Jürgen Kegler (ed.): That justice and peace kiss: collected essays, sermons, radio speeches. Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2001, ISBN 3-631-37140-3 , pp. 147-170
- A. F – l .: In the peace of the Sabbath light - From the four walls of Jewish family life . In: The Gazebo . Issue 20, 1867, pp. 313-319 ( full text [ Wikisource ]).
- Corinna Körting: Sabbath (AT). In: Michaela Bauks, Klaus Koenen, Stefan Alkier (eds.): The scientific biblical lexicon on the Internet (WiBiLex), Stuttgart 2006 ff.
- Emil G. Hirsch, Joseph Jacobs: Sabbath . In: Jewish Encyclopedia (English)
- Wilhelm Bacher , Jacob Zallel Lauterbach: Shabbat (summary of the most important rabbinical treatises) In: Jewish Encyclopedia (English)
- Joseph Jacobs, Emil G. Hirsch: Sabbath and Sunday In: Jewish Encyclopedia (English)
- Louis Jacobs: Shabbat . In: Lindsay Jones (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Religion . Vol. 12. 2nd ed. Macmillan Reference USA, Detroit 2005, pp. 8256-8258; Gale Virtual Reference Library (English)
- Shabbat: An island of time - rest. Awareness. Jewish identity. Family… In: synagoge-karlsruhe.de. Retrieved December 27, 2018 .
- Smanim - Halachic Times. In: de.chabad.org. Chabad-Lubavitch, Jewish Info, December 26, 2018, accessed December 27, 2018 (prayer times and the beginning of the Sabbath worldwide).
- Bernhard S. Jacobson: The Shabath and Work: Awodah and Malakhah. The 39 Types of Work Forbidden on Shabath. In: hagalil.com. Retrieved December 27, 2018 .
- on Passover : Lev 23.6; 11.15; Rosh Hashanah : Lev 23:24; Yom Kippur : Lev 23:32; Sukkot : Lev 23:39
- Ex 16.23 EU ; 31.15; 35.2; Lev 16.21 EU ; 23,22.214.171.124; Erich Spier: Der Sabbat , Berlin 1989, p. 12
- Hos 2: 11-15; Isa 1: 10-14; 2 Kings 4,22f.
- Ez 45.17 EU ; 46,1.3.9; 1 Chr 23.21 EU ; 2 Chr 2,3 EU ; 31.3; Esra 3.5 EU ; Neh 10.33 EU ; Jdt 8.6 EU ; 10.2
- Gerhard F. Hasel: Article Sabbath , in: David Noel Freedman (Ed.): The Anchor Bible Dictionary , Volume 5, New York 1992, pp. 849f.
- W. Gunther Plaut (Ed.): The Torah in Jewish Interpretation, Volume 2: Schemot / Exodus (1981), Christian Kaiser Verlag / Gütersloher Verlagshaus, Gütersloh 2000, ISBN 3-579-02647-X , p. 219
- Erich Spier: Der Sabbat , Berlin 1989, p. 13
- Werner H. Schmidt: Old Testament Faith in His History , Neukirchener Verlag, 4th edition 1982, pp. 95f
- Corinna Körting: Sabbath (AT). In: Michaela Bauks, Klaus Koenen, Stefan Alkier (eds.): The scientific biblical lexicon on the Internet (WiBiLex), Stuttgart 2006 ff.
- W. Gunther Plaut (ed.): The Torah in Jewish interpretation, Volume 2: Schemot / Exodus (1981), Gütersloh 2000, p. 219
- Pi. Refers to the conjugation stem Pi'el, in which the middle consonant is doubled.
- Martin Noth: The second book Mose: Exodus (1959), in: Das Alte Testament Deutsch , Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 7th unchanged edition, Göttingen 1984, ISBN 3-525-51115-9 , p. 139
- Ernst Ruprecht: Position and meaning of the story of the Mannawunder (Ex 16) in the structure of the priestly script, in: Journal for Old Testament Science 86/1974, pp. 269-307
- W. Gunther Plaut (ed.): The Torah in Jewish interpretation, Volume 2: Schemot / Exodus (1981), Gütersloh 2000, pp. 171 and 220
- Eckart Otto: Festivals and Holidays II. , In: Theologische Realenzyklopädie Volume 11, pp. 96-106
- Walther Zimmerli: Outline of the Old Testament Theology , Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1972, p. 108
- Geoffrey Bromley et al. a. (Ed.): The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia , William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan 1988, ISBN 0-8028-8164-5 , p. 250
- Ez 20,12-24 EU ; 22.8-26; 23.38; 44.24; 45.17; 46.1-4.12
- Moshe Greenberg: Ezekiel 1-20, Anchor Yale Bible Commentaries , 1983, ISBN 0-385-00954-2 , p. 367
- Gerhard F. Hasel: Article Sabbath , in: The Anchor Bible Dictionary Volume 5, New York 1992, p. 854
- Gerhard F. Hasel: Article Sabbath , in: The Anchor Bible Dictionary Volume 5, New York 1992, pp. 853f.
- Pinchas H. Peli: Shabbat Shalom - Shabbat, an island in our time . 1st edition. Verlag Morascha, Basel 1993, p. 39 (Original edition: The Jewish Shabbath, a renewed encounter , Salman Schocken Publisher, 1991. Page 39 contains the complete list of the Awot Melacha ).
- Israel M. Lau: How Jews live , Gütersloher Verlagshaus, 3rd edition, Gütersloh 1993, pp. 149f.
- Albrecht Lohrbächer u. a. (Ed.): What Christians can learn from Judaism , Stuttgart 2006, p. 115
- Gerhard F. Hasel: Article Sabbath , The Anchor Bible Dictionary Volume 5, New York 1992, p. 854
- quoted from W. Gunther Plaut (ed.): The Tora in Jewish interpretation, Volume 2: Schemot / Exodus (1981), Gütersloh 2000, p. 173
- quoted from Erich Spier: The Sabbath. Berlin 2005, p. 43
- Albrecht Lohrbächer u. a. (Ed.): What Christians can learn from Judaism , Stuttgart 2006, p. 50
- William H. Shea: Sennacherib's Description of Lachish and of its Conquest , Andrews University Scriptures 26/1988, pp. 171-180
- Alger F. Johns: The Military Strategy of Shabbath Attacks on the Jews , Vetus Testamentum 13/4, Brill Academic Publications, Leiden 1963, pp. 482-486
- Dio Cassius: Historia Romana XXXVII, 16 and XLIX, 22,3,4; lectured by Erich Spier: Der Sabbat , Berlin 1989, p. 27
- Flavius Josephus: Bellum Judaicum II, 16.4
- Flavius Josephus: Antiquitates 12,1,1; 12.6.2; Bellum Judaicum 2,17,10; 18.1
- Erich Spier: Der Sabbat , Berlin 1989, p. 27
- Flavius Josephus: Antiquitates XIV, 190-267; XVI, 162-173; Robert Goldenberg: Sabbat II: Judentum , in: Theologische Realenzyklopädie Volume 29, 1998, p. 522
- Peter Schäfer: The Bar Kokhba Uprising. Studies on the Second Jewish War against Rome. Tübingen 1981, p. 50
- Jules Isaac: Genesis of Antisemitism , Europa-Verlag, Vienna 1969, p. 50
- Rene S. Bloch: Ancient ideas of Judaism: The Jewish excursion of Tacitus in the context of Greco-Roman ethnography. Franz Steiner, Historia - Einzelschriften 60, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-515-07664-6 , pp. 86 and 189, note 9
- quoted in Augustinus von Hippo in: De civitate Dei VI, 11: Erich Spier: Der Sabbat , Berlin 1989, p. 29
- Aulus Persius Flaccus: Saturae V, 180-184
- quoted in Théodore Reinach: Textes d'auteurs grecs et romains relatifs au judaïsme. (Paris 1895) Reprint: Verlag Belles Lettres, Paris 2007, ISBN 2-251-78014-9 , pp. 136, 262 and 305f.
- Rutilius Namatianus: De reditua suo I, 317-398; translated by Karl Hermann Schelkle: Israel in his environment , Theologisches Viertel 164/1984, p. 85
- Erich Spier: Der Sabbat , Berlin 1989, p. 48ff.
- Elisabeth Hollender : Sabbat II: Judentum , in: The religion in history and present , 4th edition 2004, volume 7, column 714f.
- Erich Spier: Der Sabbat , Berlin 1989, p. 45f.
- Erich Spier: Der Sabbat , Berlin 1989, p. 47f.
- Nachum T. Gidal: The Jews in Germany from Roman times to the Weimar Republic , Könemann, Cologne 1997, ISBN 3-89508-540-5 , p. 127.
- Hans Dieter Betz (Ed.): The religion in past and present: Concise dictionary for theology and religious studies, Volume 7: RS. 4th edition, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 1998 ( Sunday article )
- Erich Spier: Der Sabbat , Berlin 1989, p. 51 ff.
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