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The three wise monkeys as a symbol of taboo

A taboo is based on a tacitly practiced social set of rules or a culturally reshaped agreement that dictates or prohibits certain behaviors in an elementary way . Taboos are unquestioned, strict, unconditional, they are universal and ubiquitous , they are therefore part of a functioning human society . Taboos remain unspoken as social norms or are indicated by indirect thematization (e.g. irony) or eloquent silence: In this respect, what is covered with taboo is withdrawn from any rational justification and criticism. It is precisely because of their tacit, implicit character that taboos differ from express prohibitions with formal penalties from the area of ​​codified laws. Almost all living beings, objects or situations that come into the human field of vision can be made taboo. Taboos can relate to words, things (e.g. food taboo ), actions (e.g. incest taboo ), topics of conflict, to plants and animals, to the use of resources (see Tapu ), to individual people or social groups .

The terms 'taboo' and political correctness overlap; they are not easy to distinguish from one another.

Word origin

Taboo as a sign: "No passage" in Bora Bora

The term “tabu” comes from the Polynesian language area and is derived from the word “ tapu ”. Tabu as a term found its way into the German language at the beginning of the 20th century - both as an adjective (“something is tabu”) and as a noun (“something is a tabu”). As an adjective, tabu describes a condition that can be described as “inviolable”, “holy”, “untouchable”: taboo things - according to the religious belief of the Polynesians - should be strictly avoided because they have dangerous powers. On the Tonga islands, tabu or tapu originally means “prohibited” or “not allowed”. In its current usage, the word in Tonga means "holy", "sanctified", but also in the sense of "restricted" or "protected by custom and law". For example, the main island of the Kingdom of Tonga is called Tongatapu, which here means “holy south” rather than “forbidden south”. In Timor there is a comparable concept with “ Lulik ”.

At the end of the 18th century brought the with James Cook about traveling Georg Forster the word tapu = bid to avoid to Europe. When the English explorer and navigator Cook discovered Tonga in 1777, he called the archipelago "the friendly islands". He wrote about the people of Tonga:

“None of them wanted to sit down or even eat a piece of anything ... When I showed my amazement, they said they were all taboo: this word has a very complex meaning: but it generally means that something is forbidden be. If something is not allowed to be eaten or used, they say that is taboo. "

Other sources attribute the expression to the word tabu, which also exists in the Fiji language. According to some residents of the Solomon Islands , the word tabu (pronounced “tam-bu”), which means “holy”, also exists in their language. The word refers to places in the bush where holy spirits dwell. Usually such a place is marked with an object, a large shell or a carved stone. Such areas must not be disturbed or entered until a redemption ceremony takes place. In the case of the Mono Alu (Shortland, Solomon Islands), taboo refers to those totem animals that are not allowed to be eaten by the clan members.

Definitions of terms

Sigmund Freud gave a definition of the term taboo in his fundamental work Totem and Tabu :

“The taboo prohibitions have no justification, they are of unknown origin; incomprehensible to us, they seem natural to those who live under their rule. "

Correspondingly, a taboo is something deeply forbidden, but it also stands for something unspoken, even unspeakable, which can go far beyond a restriction through reasonable forms of behavior ( custom or law ). Rather, we are dealing with barriers to obscurity that stem from pre-rational, instinctive and / or religious attitudes of disgust or even awe : Caused by an attitude that in a single, taboo object, two apparently opposing aspects, the extremely pure and the holy as well as the unclean or the to be avoided. In any case, there is a fundamentally perceived distance that is culturally conveyed - from often concrete collective experiences of the endangerment (cf. edible - inedible, rituals around birth, marriage, illness, dying and death). The closest thing to taboo behavior is perhaps the Latin translation of Jesus' saying Noli me tangere after the resurrection to Mary Magdalene (Gospel according to John 20:17), which translates as “do not touch me” or “do not touch me”: this is about the purity of what is beyond, or of what is contaminated with death, but also of what is sanctified, on the one hand, and the protection of this world from the numinous on the other. Taboo is always to be seen in the reciprocity of ambivalent references. Taboo behavior corresponds to the culturally acquired techniques of bridging a socially perceived tension between limitation and border crossing.

Anyone who lives in a world of prohibitions, the meaning of which is rationally comprehensible (e.g. prohibition of euthanasia or preserving the peace of the dead ), may find it difficult to accept norms as meaningful that come from an unspoken, pre-rational area, i.e. are taboos . In fact, the object or living being provided with “ mana ” is incomprehensible and unassailable. Presumably, it is very central to the person with the stigma ofdying ” and “ death ” who causally triggers a general taboo feeling - an attitude that extends secondarily to other living beings or things that appear strange. Due to its resemblance to those who are still alive, the corpse , which has suddenly become irrevocably different, is experienced in all cultures as the most taboo phenomenon of all, as its physicality shows remnants of its anthropomorphic existence, but at the same time already endangered by decay and transience. The deceased is absolutely taboo. Presumably, a taboo feeling - as well as the need for religiosity and legality - corresponds to a bulwark against an existentially perceived chaos: Taboos are supposed to offer magical protection against any intrusion into existing and life-sustaining order. Dying and mortality show existential threats, being dead is the taboo par excellence. The dead himself, since he cannot be heard, cannot be addressed, audible, visible, touchable. According to pre-rational logic it is therefore “impossible” to address death, to see, to hear, to grasp, or to recognize the “other world” in another way. Unauthorized contact with the deceased would be tantamount to an encroachment into the world of the “completely different” and “numinous” ( Rudolf Otto ), the sacred, the otherworldly, etc. that people are normally not allowed to touch: possibly uncontrollable magical powers must remain banished. Analogous to a strictly ritualized behavior towards the deceased, it is therefore the language, sight, action and contact tabus that adhere to the most varied of life issues, if they only convey the smell of a disruption of the culture-specific rhythm of life.

Taboo behavior

The following characteristics are characteristic of taboo behavior:

  1. The trigger for taboo precautionary measures is a spectrum of perceptions that can range from awe and shyness to fear and panic to disgust .
  2. Because of this very existential experience, taboos are closely related to physicality and sensory perception. Differs according to the ethnographic / ethnological research between speech, sight, touch and action taboos.
  3. Taboos are based on socially - predominantly non-verbally - agreed behavior and only work in the synergetic experience of a reference group.
  4. Taboos limit the scope of action of individuals in a society affected by corresponding behavioral norms - both in “logical” and “illogical” ways.
  5. Taboos “work” through collectively felt (faith) energies. The object provided with “mana”, whether a living being or an object, has a magical effect: taboo behavior is experienced as both protective and defensive magic.

"Tabu" and "Mana", both terms from the Polynesian language area, are two reference values ​​that, like action and re-action, cannot be separated from one another: " Mana " is the stigma that becomes independent, distancing behavior (one Living being, an object, a state), "taboo" is the corresponding distance.

Taboo behavior in society as a whole manifests itself in a correlation to deeper layers of belief that result from fearful, magical, animistic or demonic ideas: Actions subject to taboo are tacit agreements that interfere more deeply with general behavior than linguistically sanctioned codes of conduct from law and officially mediated religion. Beyond the codified law, taboos guarantee an almost maximum agreement on a certain level of the behavior and actions of a social group; nevertheless, they enable a few who, so to speak, to "watch" over the observance of taboos, have enormous influence: These are usually persons with special charismatic competence, often specially appointed or consecrated, sacrosanct and in any case familiar with the effects of rituals ( magicians , Medicine men , priestesses , attending physicians, chief physicians, empresses, heads of state and others). Taboos stabilize the power structure of a society by manipulating its relatives with the existential fear of punishment. Taboos are ubiquitous: in fact, there is no society without taboos.


In the imagination of many indigenous peoples (for example in Polynesia) the person of the tribal leader, but also burial places, places of worship, some natural sites etc. are considered "taboo". In Oceania , the taboo area is afflicted with mana , ie with “magical energy”. “Taboos” and “Mana” are qualities that are not only invisible, but also work, and can even be extremely effective.

Tabu can basically people, living beings, things, and also any - its location - afflicted with corresponding beliefs: a tree, a deserted house, even a single piece of property: These areas are before approaching, touching or removing protection . From a collectively perceived, taboo feeling, magical protective rituals emerge: Areas stigmatized in this way (with “mana”) are, for example, bounded or integrated with a simple thread in Polynesia. The members of the same ethnic group are convinced that if this thread were breached, all the evils that the knot tied into it would inevitably fall on them through such " damage magic ".

Taboo ideas create such and a multitude of other security measures among the most diverse peoples all over the world: Just think of the various practices of “white” or “black” magic , based on that in West Africa and the descendants of the slaves in the Caribbean very lively " voodoo magic ".

Further examples: Taboos can also relate to certain foods , in such a way that, for example, a clan is not allowed to hunt or eat their totem animal . About marginalized groups knew also often several ethno religious founded hunting taboos that should ensure to protect the wild stocks. This applied very far, for example, to the Aché Paraguays. In Africa there are special, sometimes very far-reaching food taboos for pregnant women, and it can be found in a weaker form in all societies . These can be religiously motivated , for example, like the Jewish dietary laws or fasting ( Ramadan , Passion Time , ban on pork in Judaism and Islam ), but they can also be based on any traditions and ethical and moral influencing factors. In Germany, eating dog and cat meat is largely taboo, in the People's Republic of China, on the other hand, eating rabbits and, in North America, eating horse meat . Cannibalism or the incest taboo also fall under a comprehensive taboo in almost all societies .

In Polynesian and other societies it can be a taboo to pronounce the names of relatives in marriage or recently deceased. For folklore / ethnological research it is then a question of a speaking ban (as it often appears around the globe in folk tales - legends and fairy tales), in addition there are also taboos on sight, touch taboos and action taboos. The striking physical relationship to taboos, especially those relating to the sense organs, can be seen. In fact, taboos are represented in a sensual and concrete way, they are expressed through all channels of perception (see, hear, feel, taste and smell).

Social changes are often created by breaking taboos: every revolution has its taboo-breaking protagonists and martyrs. In many cultures, verbal disregard for taboos serves as a starting point for jokes and swear words : The unusual, direct mention of a taboo creates narrative tension in the audience. Breaking taboos can break through fears and demystify the taboo subject . Some fairy tales contain the message that heroines and heroes may be endangered by breaking prohibitions, but mostly survive them successfully.

Sociology, social psychology

The term “taboo” is of particular importance from a sociological and social-psychological point of view. Taboos protect a topic from the discourse in a group , community or society: “You don't talk about it!”. The topic is not given a place, no “place” in the public “space” of the reference system, it does not appear in public opinion .

The more members of the reference system participate in this form of exclusion of a topic, the more “ power ” the taboo has over the individual. Collective repression mechanisms take effect (“You mustn't even think that!”). This strong emotional charge is the reason why "the direct mention of a taboo creates tension in the listener" (see above).

Common taboos stabilize people's frames of reference, especially because of the emotional charge they experience together. Members who dare to break a taboo are therefore usually exposed to severe sanctions up to and including exclusion from the community. On the other hand, these socially excluded people relieve society as a whole " pars pro toto ", so to speak , they make their "dark" side clear and make themselves available as a repeatedly wanted and even necessary " victim " by the reference group : in their assigned roles as martyrs, as an outsider, etc., which is now taboo for its part: the sacrificial lamb who bears the guilt of humanity - a not only biblical human theme. If, however, the cohesion of the frame of reference is endangered for other reasons, repeated taboos will no longer stabilize the group, but the transgressions make the frame of reference implausible and accelerate its decline.

Breaking taboos is generally considered despicable. But taboos and legal regulations are not always identical. Some taboo acts or taboo practices are prohibited by law and violations will result in severe penalties.

Taboo subjects

A “taboo topic” is a topic that is not or only to a limited extent publicly discussed. Often these are areas that touch weak points in society . Even if today in Western countries there is often talk of a “society without taboos”, here too, as in every society, there are taboo topics that address particular states of physicality, e.g. B. Sexuality , puberty , illness , bowel movements and cleansing , old age and death . An important taboo area in some western societies is one's own personal or financial circumstances. In some countries where marriage between cousins ​​is widespread, it is taboo to talk about the consequences for children of such relationships ( hereditary diseases ).

There are taboos in a wide variety of areas such as food ( food taboo ), language ( language taboo or euphemism ) or areas covered by a taboo (taboo zone ). In the field of politics there are positions that are taboo, such as discrimination against minorities. Political correctness is the term used for language (e.g. choice of words) that is characterized by a special sensitization towards minorities and that feels committed to anti- discrimination .

A faux pas (French for "misstep") is like breaking a taboo.

A taboo is different from a no-go or an express prohibition .

The weekly newspaper Die Zeit compiled an overview of modern taboo topics in a detailed article in April 2010.

Examples by country


Federal Republic

  • In 2011, Hans-Werner Frohn wrote in retrospect on the term planning : " Planning was in the Federal Republic up to the mid-1960s both for historical reasons ( four-year plan as an instrument of rule of the Nazi regime ) and for reasons of foreign policy or within Germany ( state economies in the USSR Generally speaking, planning was associated with a “danger to freedom”, it was seen as “proof of political oppression” (Metzler 2005: 12). In the 1950s, the first political plans such as the Federal Youth Plan (1950 ) or the " Green Plan " (1955) passed - but only strictly delimited policy areas were affected. Ordoliberal market economists such as Federal Economics Minister Ludwig Erhard advocated the position that national planning would contradict the principles of the market economy (Metzler 2005: 83 ff.) As a result, the first IPA initiative failed in 1955 [Note: Interparliamentary Working Group] on a federal spatial planning law (Runge 1990: 143). After Michael Ruck 's phase division for the history of planning in Germany, the “ Green Charter of Mainau ” was adopted in the taboo phase that lasted until 1962 (Ruck 2000). Other western states turned out to be nowhere near as hostile to planning. "
  • The discussion about the legitimacy of church taxes in the secular German republic was considered a political taboo until the 1990s. Since 1969 at the latest, this taboo began to falter.



  • In France , especially in the French state apparatus, it was long considered taboo to speak of the “ Algerian War ” (Guerre d'Algérie). This took place from 1954 to 1962 and ended with a victory for the Algerians against France, which Algeria had occupied as a colonial power for a long time . Rather, one spoke euphemistically of "événements d'Algérie" (for example: events in Algeria). On October 18, 1999, a law was passed that officially allows the term 'Guerre d'Algérie'. A noteworthy social debate about the massive systematic use of torture , illegal executions and other French war crimes against Algerians during this war (see French doctrine ) did not take place until the years 2000 to 2002.


  • In Norway from 1945 to around 1980 it was taboo to talk about how Norwegians had treated over 10,000 Tyskerbarn (children between German-born occupation soldiers and Norwegians) and their mothers since 1945 after the Second World War . Around 8,000 of these occupation children were conceived and born as part of the Lebensborn program.


  • This taboo also existed in Austrian institutions. For example, the ÖBB ( Austrian Federal Railways ) did the first exhibition on this topic in June 2012 (title: Displaced Years - Railways and National Socialism in Austria 1938–1945 ).
  • Federal Chancellor Franz Vranitzky contributed significantly to the dissolution of this taboo: On July 8, 1991, in the National Council, he took the positive assessment of the “proper employment policy” of National Socialism by the Carinthian governor and FPÖ chairman Jörg Haider as an opportunity for a detailed reflection on the role of Austria in a changed Europe against the backdrop of history.
  • On June 9, 1993, on the occasion of his trip to Israel, Vranitzky gave a speech at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and asked the victims of the Austrian perpetrators for forgiveness on behalf of the Republic.
  • On November 15, 1994, Federal President Thomas Klestil, the first President of the Republic of Austria, gave a speech to the Knesset, in which he spoke of a "difficult legacy of history, to which we Austrians must also acknowledge".
  • In 1998 the Republic of Austria set up a Commission of Historians . It submitted its final report on February 24, 2003.

On October 26, 2000, the Holocaust Memorial (Vienna) initiated by Simon Wiesenthal was opened at Judenplatz .

Soviet bloc, earlier


  • In Syria it was not expressly forbidden to speak of the Hama massacre ; Nevertheless, it was considered a taboo among the Syrian population until demonstrators took up the topic in their protest marches during the Arab Spring in 2012.


  • In Turkey it is still taboo and for a long time it was a criminal offense to talk about the Armenian genocide (early 20th century). It is true that the relevant events themselves are essentially not denied, but vehemently that they were, as a whole, genocide .

United States

  • In the USA, no information about the denomination of an applicant appears in any résumé of a government employee or in any application process . It is taboo for the employer to ask about it, and for the applicant to give this information, because religion is a private matter (details here ). "... the ban on thematization is America's recipe for maintaining the appearance that it really doesn't matter what the secular state claims shouldn't."
  • In the US Army , the don't ask, don't tell principle applied until December 2010 . Its practice made it taboo for homosexual members of the US Army to come out .

Examples by topic


Stephan J. Kramer (General Secretary of the Central Council of Jews in Germany and Head of the Berlin Office of the European Jewish Congress) said in October 2012 that the circumcision of male newborns on the eighth day after their birth should not be a taboo in Judaism.

Cartels, cartel buildings

After the Second World War , business cartels were banned and criminalized. Before, these corporate mergers were legal and publicly recognizable. In the 1930s and early 1940s in particular, they had even been instruments of state economic policy. Today's (actually harmful) breakfast cartels, which (have to) work in silence and above all drive up prices, were lumped together with their more useful predecessors, who had rationalized sales and production in many ways. We should not speak positively about cartels in general; Critical historians regard the prevailing dealings with cartels as “absurdity” or even “character assassination”. It is noticeable that the sometimes stately buildings of earlier large cartels, mostly syndicates with joint sales management, were in no case placed under monument protection because of their special origin . The Essen Ruhr coal house was silently demolished; the Walzstahlhaus and Stahlhof in Düsseldorf are listed buildings, but without any explanatory signs as former cartel buildings.


For many prostitutes it is a taboo to tell their private environment that they are working as prostitutes. It can be taboo for parents of prostitutes to tell others what their daughter or son does for a living. Even clients usually do not admit to using the services of prostitutes; this is particularly true within the partnership. The subject of prostitution is taboo in two respects in the context of physical disabilities and age-related restrictions. Alternative terms such as surrogate partnership, sexual accompaniment or sexual assistance can be understood as approaches to positively occupying sex work in this area and to establish it outside of the taboo area.

Theater scandals

Many theater scandals are regarded as such because they touch social, moral, religious or artistic taboos. There are rallies of disapproval, protests or even violence in the auditorium , occasionally newspaper campaigns or political consequences, including censorship or a ban.


  • Gundolf Krüger, Ulrich Menter, Jutta Steffen-Schrade (eds.): TABU ?! Hidden Powers - Secret Knowledge. Imhof Verlag, 2012, ISBN 978-3-86568-864-4 .
  • Gerd-Klaus Kaltenbrunner (Ed.): "The Inner Censor". New and old taboos in our society. Herder, Freiburg a. a. 1977, ISBN 3-451-09522-X .
  • Sigmund Freud : Totem and Taboo . (1912-1913).
  • Anja Hesse, Hans-Joachim Behr, Alexander Schwarz, Annette Boldt-Stülzebach (eds.): Tabu: About how society deals with disgust and shame. (= Braunschweiger cultural studies. Publications of the department of culture of the city of Braunschweig. ) Volume 1. Kulturverlag Kadmos, Berlin 2009
  • Hartmut Kraft: Taboo. Magic and social reality . Walter, Düsseldorf a. a. 2004, ISBN 3-530-42177-4 .
  • Ursula Reutner : Language and Taboo. Interpretations on French and Italian euphemisms. (= Journal for Romance Philology, Supplements to the Journal for Romance Philology . Volume 346). Niemeyer, Tübingen 2009, ISBN 978-3-484-52346-3 .
  • Lutz Röhrich : Taboos in customs, legends and fairy tales. In: Lutz Röhrich (Ed.): Sage and fairy tales. Narrative Research Today . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau et al. 1976, ISBN 3-451-17599-1 , pp. 125-142.
  • Franz Steiner : Taboo. Cohen and West, London 1956
  • Ute Ströbel (Ströbel-Dettmer): Dead and taboo. On cultural history and worlds of imagination in the demonological sagas . (ethnological master's thesis). Freiburg 1976.
  • Hutton Webster: Taboo. A Sociological Study. Stanford University Press 1942 ( )

Web links

Wiktionary: Tabu  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Taboo term. Faculty of Cultural Studies. European University Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder), accessed on September 8, 2019 .
  2. See, for example: Matthias Dusini, Thomas Edlinger: In quotation marks - gloss and misery of political correctness . Suhrkamp, ​​Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-518-12645-5 . ( Review In: Die Zeit . September 8, 2012)
  3. cf. also Hawaiian kapu in Hawaiian Dictionaries
  4. ^ The Three Voyages of Captain James Cook Round the World. ..., Volume V, London 1821, 348
  5. ^ GC Wheeler: Sketch of the Totemism and Religion of the People of the Islands in the Bougainville Straits (Western Solomon Islands) . (= Archive for Religious Studies. 15). Leipzig / Berlin 1912, pp. 24–58, 321–358.
  6. Sigmund Freud: "Totem and Tabu", Hamburg 2014, 29
  7. Heiko Feser: The Huaorani on the way into the new millennium. Ethnological Studies Vol. 35, Institute for Ethnology at the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg, published by LIT Verlag, Münster, 2000, ISBN 3-8258-5215-6 . Pp. 359-361.
  8. Torsten Junge: Death taboos. In: Forbidden, confidentiality, improper. A look at taboos and taboos. Logos Verlag, Berlin 2010.
  9. ↑ Cousin marriage risk for children. In:
  10. What you are NOT allowed to say in Germany. In: The time. April 15, 2010.
  11. Frank-Walter Steinmeier in Die Zeit : "Breaking taboos must not pay off", September 27, 2017
  12. Bodo Ramelow on ARD: "The whole world has seen the taboo break in Thuringia" at Maischberger "February 13, 2020
  13. Left party leader Riexinger: "FDP and CDU are the stirrup holders of the right-wing extremist AfD". Westdeutsche Zeitung , accessed on February 5, 2020 .
  14. Robert Habeck on ZDF : "About right wing to power - breaking taboos in Thuringia", " maybrit illner ", February 6, 2020
  15. ^ Central Council of Jews "horrified" by the election of the Prime Minister in Thuringia. Der Tagesspiegel , accessed on February 5, 2020 .
  16. 50 years of the “Green Charter of Mainau” A pioneering nature conservation and environmental document opened a window to modernity in Germany. - On the genesis of the “Green Charter of Mainau”. In: Study archive environmental history. 16 (2011), p. 63.
  17. Church tax: Holy Revier . In: Der Spiegel . No. 10 , 1992, pp. 25 ( Online - Mar. 2, 1992 ).
  18. Church / Tax: Secular poor . In: Der Spiegel . No. 13 , 1969, p. 42-50 ( Online - Mar. 24, 1969 ).
  19. ^ Philipp Ther : German and Polish expellees. 1998, ISBN 3-525-35790-7 , p. 50.
  20. Loi n ° 99-882 ​​du 18 octobre 1999: Loi relative à la substitution, à l'expression "aux opérations effectuées en Afrique du Nord", de l'expression "à la guerre d'Algérie ou aux combats en Tunisie et au Maroc "
  22. a b The “victim myth” in Austria: origin and development ,
  23. ^ ÖBB: Exhibition opening on the railway 1938 - 1945. In: ÖBB press release. APA-OTS Originaltext-Service GmbH, June 11, 2012, accessed on September 8, 2019 .
  24. ^ Anton Pelinka (ed.): The great taboo: Austria's handling of its past. 2nd Edition. Verlag Österreich, 1997, ISBN 3-7046-1094-1 .
  25. “... We are committed to all deeds in our history and to the deeds of all parts of our people, both good and bad. And just as we claim the good for ourselves, we have to apologize for the bad, to the survivors and to the descendants of the dead. Austrian politicians have repeatedly made this commitment. I would like to do this today expressly on behalf of the Austrian Federal Government: as a yardstick for the relationship that we must have with our history today, as a yardstick for the political culture in our country, but also as our contribution to the new political culture in Europe . “In: Manfred Jochum: 80 Years of the Republic. Vienna 1998, p. 165, quoted from [1]
  26. Page 33. Quotation: Vaculík's speech caused a shock among the writers gathered in the hall, although the majority shared his views. He had broken all the taboos that he and his colleagues had observed so far in order not to endanger the limited freedom of their association and their press. The KPČ had not been so clearly criticized in public since February 1948. (Reinhard Veser, 2008; PDF; 351 kB)
  27. Patrick J. McDonnell, Alexandra Sandels: In Syria, attacks continue as 1982 massacre victims are honored. Los Angeles Times, February 4, 2012
  28. ^ Christoph von Marschall : America is no longer what it was. - Obama's new US Supreme Court candidate Elena Kagan has to go to the Senate hearing. With her appointment, no Protestant will be represented in the Supreme Court. In: from June 28, 2010.
  29. Mariam Lau : Rituals: “The Jewish community must talk about circumcision” . In: The time . October 12, 2012.
  30. ^ Harm G. Schröter: The ban on cartels and other inconsistencies. New approaches in international cartel research , in: Margrit Müller (ed.), Regulated Markets. Guilds and Cartels , Zurich 2011, 199–211; Holm A. Leonhardt: Cartel theory and international relations. Theory-historical studies , Hildesheim 2013, p. 350.
  31. My job is sex - family secret prostitution ,, series 37 Degrees , November 27, 2012.
  32. Brenda Strohmaier: brothel taboo. Puff visitors enjoy - and remain silent. In: Spiegel Online. DER SPIEGEL GmbH & Co. KG, June 22, 2006, accessed on September 8, 2019 .
  33. Sarah Ehrmann: Taboo sex and physical disabilities: "Customers with disabilities see us as human beings". In: Süddeutsche Zeitung, January 29, 2012, accessed on September 8, 2019 .
  34. Tobias Landwehr: Sexual Assistance: "Is that now promoting prostitution or pimping?" In: time online. January 9, 2017, accessed September 8, 2019 .