Mary Magdalene

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Byzantine icon of St. Maria Magdalena with her attribute, the myrrh vessel

About Mary Magdalene or Mary Magdalene is in the New Testament says. The evangelists mention her as a companion of Jesus and a witness to the resurrection . Your nickname refers to the place Magdala on the Sea of ​​Galilee in the Holy Land .

In the New Testament Gospels

Giotto : Maria Magdalena meets the risen Christ ( Noli me tangere ). Fresco , around 1320, basilica in Assisi , lower church

According to the Gospels , Jesus cast out seven demons from you ( Lk 8.2  EU ; Mk 16.9  EU ). Mary Magdalene was one of the women who followed Christ and provided for his and the disciples' maintenance ( Lk 8.3  EU ). These women followed their Lord to Jerusalem and watched the crucifixion from afar ( Mt 27.55f  EU ), helped with the burial ( Mt 27.61  EU ; Mk 15.47  EU ) and discovered the empty tomb on Easter morning ( Mk 16, 1-5  EU , Joh 20,1  EU ). After Mary Magdalene had reported this to the disciples, she was the first to meet the risen One and gave her the message of the resurrection to the disciples ( Jn 20 : 11-18  EU ).

Extra-biblical traditions

Gospel of Philip

Magdala around 1900, likely birthplace of Maria Magdalena

In the Gospel of Philip found in Nag Hammadi , Mary Magdalene is named in two verses, in verse 32 and 55.

“Three (women) had constant contact with the Lord: his mother Mary,, his' sister and Magdalena, who is called 'his consort'. Because 'Maria' is the name of his sister; and his mother's name is so; and his mate is called that. "

- Nag Hammadi Codex II, 3 verse 32

Verse 55 is fragmented in the original in several places and differentiated readings of letters result in various supplementary suggestions and interpretations. Here is a modern reading:

“The Sophia, who is called: the sterile, she is the mother of angels. And the consort [of the Savior] is Mary Magdalene. The [Savior loved] them more than [all] the disciples and He [often] kissed them on their [mouth]. "

- Nag Hammadi Codex II, 3 verse 55

Note that, among other things, the word “mouth” has not survived in the original, but only a reconstructed addition. For comparison, the reading by the American coptologist Wesley W. Isenberg:

“Wisdom, which is called the sterile, is the mother [he] the angel and [the] companion of the savior. - The Savior loved [Ma] ria Mag [da] lena more. "

- Nag Hammadi Codex II, 3 verse 55

In this reading, the Savior's Companion is therefore not Mary Magdalene, but Sophia. As possible variants for the missing word after “and he kissed her”, Isenberg also suggests “foot”, “cheek” and “forehead”. Since there is a hole in the papyrus at this point in the original, none of these variants can be substantiated or refuted philologically based on current knowledge. All interpretations of the lost fragments of verse 55 are therefore speculative. The first variant "kissed her [often] on the [mouth]" became very well known through Dan Brown's novel The Da Vinci Code , but it is only a speculative reconstruction, not a scientifically proven representation.

Gospel of Thomas

In the Gospel of Thomas (verse 114) narrated that Simon Peter "Mariham" (Mary Magdalene) wanted to send them out of the middle of the disciples, because "women are not worthy of life." Jesus is reported to have replied: “See, I will make her male so that she will become a living spirit, just like you men! For every woman, when she makes herself masculine, enters the kingdom of heaven. "(Logion 114)


In Gnosis it is narrated that Mary Magdalene was the companion of Jesus. The Gnostic Gospel of Mary , dated to the second half of the second century, may have been named after her.

Pistis Sophia

Statue in the parish church of St. Mauritius (Mülheim-Kärlich) around 1730

In the Coptic- Gnostic Pistis Sophia , Maria Magdalena plays a dominant role as interpreter of texts and as questioner: 22 out of 48 interpretations, 43 out of 57 questions. The runner-up, Johannes, has nine parts of the conversation (two interpretations and seven questions) . It must be emphasized that the parts of the conversation in this book are related to the degree of spirituality - all the more remarkable is the dominance of this woman in an androcentric society.

There are three chapters in particular that the Savior says about them:

  • "You are blessed in front of all women on earth, because you will be the highest abundance and highest perfection". (Chapter 19)
  • "You are blessed in abundance, you are the all-blissful fullness that is blessed by all generations". (Chapter 34)
  • “But Mary Magdalene and John the Virgin will tower above all my disciples and all people who receive the mysteries of the unspeakable. And they will be on my right and on my left. And I am them and they are me ”(chap. 96).

The honorary designations of Maria Magdalenas in the Pistis Sophia are in detail:

Spirit-filled seven times (chap. 87, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 130)
Gifted five times (17, 34, 59, 73, 74)
Heir to the kingdom of light twice (61, 62)
Pure twice (87, 130)
All-gifted twice (114)
All blissful fullness twice (96)
The gifted in abundance once (34)
Favored in front of all women once (19)
Supreme fullness and perfection once (19)
Illuminator once (25)
Pure light once (116)


In Manichaeism too , Mary Magdalene was given a prominent position in relation to the other disciples. She is referred to as the “spirit of wisdom” and even the “net thrower” who caught the other disciples who were lost. In a poetry from the 3rd century, which is in the Manichaean Book of Psalms from the 4th / 5th century. It was handed down in the Coptic language in the 17th century, and is portrayed as the only faithful Jesus. Mary encounters Jesus in the situation of the Gospel of John, which takes place after the resurrection there. The disciples have become fishermen again and Mary is to bring them back. Jesus, the Master, anticipates their refusal and advises Mary as a last resort to remind Simon Peter of a secret interview. In it, he indirectly said to Peter that he had no one to trust.


"Tell him: remember what I
said between you and me on the Mount of Olives:
'I have something to say,
but nobody to whom I could say it.'"


“Rabbi, oh my Master,
I will serve your commandment
with the joy of my whole heart.

I will not give my heart any rest,
my eyes no sleep
and (also) my feet no rest
until I have brought the sheep into the pen. "

The Manichean Assembly:

"Glory be to Mariammê
because she listened to her master."

Maria Magdalena, who is also known in the Central Asian tradition as myrophore, i.e. the woman who wears ointments, can be regarded as the ideal type of a Manichaean Electa. In the Manichaean book of psalms, she is even assigned a psalm (Sar 24) in which she is referred to as a “hymn lover” and plays for various figures in the “world of light”.

Giotto: Levitation of Mary Magdalene. Fresco, around 1320, Assisi, lower church

Medieval lore

The story in the Legenda aurea , the best known and most widespread religious folk book of the late Middle Ages, was influential for the Western Church . According to this tradition in southern France, Maria Magdalena was abandoned by Jews on a sailless ship with Maria des Cleophas , Martha von Bethanien and Lazarus , landed in the French fishing village of Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer near Marseille and proselytized in Provence . A servant who is said to have come with the three Marys is also venerated there , the black Sarah , a patroness of the Roma and Sinti . Mary Magdalene is said to have spent the last 30 years of her life as a hermit in a cave in the Massif de la Sainte-Baume . According to other Christian tradition, Mary Magdalene accompanied the apostle John and Mary , Jesus' mother, to Ephesus a few years after the resurrection of Christ and died there too.

Ecclesiastical significance of Mary of Magdala


Because Mary Magdalene is named as the first who met the risen One and was appointed by him to preach the message of his resurrection to his disciples ( Jn 20 : 11-18  EU ), she was already venerated as an apostle in the early Church . In the 3rd century, Hippolytus of Rome founded the honorable name Apostola apostolorum  - "Apostle of the Apostles", which was taken up by the theologians Hrabanus Maurus and Thomas Aquinas . At the express request of Pope Francis, the Vatican once again upgraded the role of St. Mary Magdalene on June 10, 2016 and placed her liturgically on an equal footing with the apostles. The previous “required day of remembrance” on July 22nd was converted into a “festival” in the Catholic Church.

Equation with the sinner washing the feet

In a sermon in 591 (following Hippolytus) Pope Gregory I equated Mary Magdalene with the anonymous sinner who washed Jesus' feet ( Lk 7.36–50  EU ). This identification became part of the Catholic tradition around Mary Magdalene.

This tradition or attribution is at least unclear. Tradition also knows the equation of the woman washing the feet with Mary of Bethany , the sister of Martha of Bethany and Lazarus . The washing of the feet reported by John ( Jn 12 : 1-8  EU ) is expressly linked to this there; the reports in Matthew 26 and Mark 14 are parallels to this (they mention Bethany as the place and the discussion about the waste of the expensive ointment, but not a sinner). The focus is different in Luke ( Lk 7.36–50  EU ), in which the woman is called a sinner and Jesus speaks about the forgiveness of sins. Exegetes discuss whether Luke is a different event.

Later the term "sinner", which now belonged to the tradition of Mary Magdalene, was interpreted as " prostitute ". Until 1996 there was Magdalenenheime in Ireland , an organization led by Roman Catholic nuns to take in “ fallen women and girls ”. In the Middle Ages, motifs from the legend of Mary of Egypt were mixed with those of Mary Magdalene.

In the liturgical calendar of the Catholic Church from 1969 it is recorded that the feast of St. Mary Magdalene on July 22nd refers to the person to whom Jesus appeared after his resurrection and not to the sister of St. Martha or the sinner who washed Jesus' feet.


Mary Magdalene surrounded by angels, above the risen Christ. Altar of La Madeleine Church , Paris

The feast day of St. Mary Magdalene is July 22nd (Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Anglican, Protestant, Old Catholic). For the Roman Catholic Church, the day of remembrance was raised to the rank of a festival in the Calendarium Romanum Generale by a decree of June 3, 2016 . In the history of the Church, the feast has long enjoyed this status among canons . The saint is the patron saint of women, the seduced, repentant sinners, schoolchildren, students and prisoners as well as winemakers, wine merchants, glove makers and hairdressers. Maria Magdalena is the patroness of the religious order of the Magdalenerinnen founded in the 13th century . She is also the patroness of the Spanish city of Viana and the Italian city of Cavareno . She is called against thunderstorms, vermin and eye ailments.

Two churches in France, Ste-Marie-Madeleine in Vézelay and Ste-Marie-Madeleine in Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume , each claim to have relics of St. Mary Magdalene.

Feminist Religion Research

More recent feminist research has attempted to portray the story of Mary Magdalene in the film Jesus and the Vanished Women . It is a documentation for which scientists from three universities worked together: Humboldt University of Berlin , University of Vienna and Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg . Four biblical women are introduced whose existence has been falsified or has disappeared in the course of the writing of church history. They are the stories of Mary Magdalene, Phoibe , Junia and Lydia . Among other things, the Gospel of Mary is shown in Coptic language, which - after its restoration - is exhibited in the Egyptian Museum Berlin . However, since this text itself only speaks of “Maria” in general, this assignment remains uncertain.

Farmer rules

Peasant rules for the Magdalenentag:

  • If it rains on St. Magdalen's Day, more rain will certainly follow
  • It likes to rain on Magdalena because she wept for the Lord

Christian iconography

Maria Magdalena with an ointment vessel, wall painting around 1420, in the collegiate church (Neustadt an der Weinstrasse)

In the history of art, in addition to the depiction of Mary Magdalene as a sinner, there are other depictions, for example at the grave ( Noli me tangere ), anointing the feet of Jesus, as penitent, under the cross. Her iconographic saints attributes are the ointment pot, scourge and a skull. According to the tradition of equating Mary Magdalene with the sinner who anoints Jesus' feet, she is repeatedly depicted with flowing, loose hair. In depictions of the cross, Maria Magdalena has often been depicted since the 15th century as a very emotional woman who openly expresses her despair (see e.g. Grünewald or old Dutch painters ), in contrast to the calmer, more composed pain or the impotence of Mother Maria . Magdalena can often be recognized by her relatively expensive clothes, not infrequently in very cheerful colors ( yellow , red ), while mother Mary is usually dressed in reserved blue or dark blue. The theme of Maria Magdalena as a penitent was particularly popular in the 17th century, she is in the desert or in a cave , sometimes in a dark room; In addition to a Bible and a skull, this also includes other vanitas symbols such as hourglass , flickering candles, jewelry, etc. She herself is usually poorly dressed, or half undressed. Since the Renaissance, the theme of Maria Magdalena as a sinner or prostitute has repeatedly served as a pretext for blatantly erotic depictions of beautiful women, often with bare breasts (e.g. Titian ) or as a half- nude (rarely even as a nude ).


The story of Maria Magdalena was set to music again and again. A Historia Mariae Magdalenae comes from the Middle Ages from the antiphonary of St. George's Monastery in Prague Castle ( Gregorian chant ).

Since the Renaissance , Maria Magdalene motets , which were normally intended for Easter Sunday, have been written by composers such as Jacobus Clemens non Papa , Pierre de Manchicourt , Andrea Gabrieli , Francisco Guerrero , Michael Praetorius (in Musarum Sioniarum , 1607). The Latin text describes the events on Easter morning when Mary Magdalene and "the other Mary" ( altera Maria ) find the empty tomb at sunrise and an angel who proclaims the resurrection of Jesus to them; the motet ends with an " Alleluia ". Also Palestrina wrote a five-part motet Beatae Mariae Magdalenae (in: Liber Primus ... Motettorum ... , Rome 1569), which, however, has a very different text than the aforementioned motets.

Some mass compositions are also dedicated to Maria Magdalena : the motet by Guerrero, for example, served Alonso Lobo (1555–1617) as a model for his Missa Maria Magdalene (in: Liber primus missarum , 1602), and Giovanni Felice Sances also composed a Missa Sanctae Maria Magdalenae for voices and instruments. More modern is the Missa Sanctae Mariae Magdalenae by William Lloyd Webber .

Maria Magdalena is also the title figure of some oratorios , such as in Antonio Caldara's Maddalena ai piedi di Cristo (around 1698) or in Johann Adolph Hasse's Sanctus Petrus et Sancta Maria Magdalena . In Georg Friedrich Handel's oratorio La Resurrezione (premiered in Rome in 1708) the figure Maria Magdalena has one of the leading roles. In Johann Sebastian Bach's Easter oratorio Come, Hurry and Run, BWV 249, the alto part is an embodiment of Maria Magdalena. It has an aria with the following text:

“Tell me, tell me quickly, tell me where I can find Jesus, whom my soul loves! Come on, come, embrace me, because my heart is completely orphaned and sad without you. "

- Johann Sebastian Bach : Easter Oratorio BWV 249

Jules Massenet processed the subject in his oratorio Marie-Magdeleine in 1873 and Henning Frederichs created the oratorio Passion Tale of Maria Magdalena in 1985 .

In pop music , too , allusions were sometimes made to the figure of Maria Magdalena, especially in the song (I'll Never Be) Maria Magdalena from 1985, sung by Sandra . In contrast to Jesus' consort, who, according to general understanding, lived her life as a prostitute gave up and repented and became a holy woman, the song depicts a woman who wants and propagates a life in complete sexual freedom. In the Euro Vision Song Contest 1999 in Jerusalem was Croatia's contribution Marija Magdalena .


In 1843 Friedrich Hebbel published his Maria Magdalena , a drama in three acts.

In 1981 the pseudoscientific work The Holy Grail and its Heirs by Henry Lincoln, Michael Baigent and Richard Leigh claimed that Mary Magdalene was married to Jesus and went to Gaul, where the Merovingian dynasty is said to have descended from their child . Mary Magdalene is also associated with the Holy Grail , with the expression “San Greal” being interpreted as “Sang Real” (Occitan for “royal blood”). The topic is later taken up by the esoteric authors Louis Pauwels and Jacques Bergier and addressed in Peter Berling's five-volume Grail cycle and later in Dan Brown's novel The Da Vinci Code.

Luise Rinser paints a very feminist picture of Maria Magdalena in her novel Mirjam . The book tells the story of Jesus from the perspective of the protagonist . The same is true of Marianne Fredriksson's book Maria Magdalena .

In his novel The Last Temptation of Christ, Nikos Kazantzakis indirectly takes up the legend of a love affair between Jesus and Mary Magdalene: Jesus is tempted to give up his mission as Son of God and Savior and instead to begin a civil marriage and family life with Mary.

Patrick Roth's story Mulholland Drive: Magdalena am Grab (2002) stages the Magdalena story of the Gospel of John as a drama rehearsal in an empty house on Mulholland Drive in Los Angeles. While the young director and his actress are re-enacting the Easter scene exactly to the line, they discover a skipped verse by the evangelist, which conceals the secret of the relationship between man and God.

In Lena Naumann's story Mariam goes away , Maria Magdalena is a critical partner of her lover Yeschua and at the same time a protagonist for the emancipation of the individual from any religion. She denies Yeshua the sonship of God and exposes - as a historical, but already enlightened woman - the double standards of the Judeo-Christian patriarchy.

Other works

  • José Manuel Cova Maza: Miriam de Magdala (Novela). Roman, 1911 ( digitized in the Internet Archive ).
  • George H. Eisenhart: Mary of Magdala. Roman, 1919 ( digitized in the Internet Archive).
  • Paul Heyse : Mary of Magdala. Drama in five acts , 1901/03 ( digitized in the Internet Archive).
  • Michèle Roberts : The Lord's Friend. Roman (Original title: The Wild Girl , 1984; also published under the title The Secret Gospel of Mary Magdalene ). Translation from English by Sieglinde Körnstke. Droemersche Verlagsanstalt Knaur, Munich 1986, ISBN 978-3-426-08055-9 .
  • Edgar Saltus : Mary of Magdala. A chronicle. Roman, 1891 ( digitized in the Internet Archive).

Film adaptations


  • Andrea Verena Glang-Tossing: Maria Magdalena in literature around 1900. Femininity construction and literary life reform. Akademie Verlag, Berlin 2013 ( preview on Google Books).
  • Dick Harrison : Traitor, Whore, Guardian of the Grail: Judas Iscariot, Maria Magdalena, Pontius Pilate, Joseph of Arimathäa - Stories and Legends , Patmos-Verlag, 2007, ISBN 978-3491725157 .
  • Urban Holzmeister: The Magdalene Question in Church Tradition. (1-2). In: Journal of Catholic Theology. 46, 1922, ISSN  0044-2895 , pp. 402-422, and pp. 556-584.
  • M. Janßen: Maria Magdalene in occidental art. Dissertation. Freiburg 1961.
  • Jean-Yves Leloup : Gospel of Mary Magdalene. The spiritual secrets of the consort of Jesus. (Original title: L'Évangile de Marie. Myriam de Magdala , 1997). From the French by Wolfgang Höhn. Munich 2004.
  • Ingrid Maisch: Maria Magdalena. Between contempt and adoration. The image of a woman in the mirror of the centuries. Herder, Freiburg (Breisgau) et al. 1996, ISBN 3-451-23971-X .
  • Christa Mulack: Maria Magdalena. Apostle of the Apostles - the woman who knows the universe . Pomaska-Brand, Schalksmühle 2007, ISBN 978-3-935937-50-4 .
  • Reinhard Nordsieck: Maria Magdalena, the woman at Jesus' side. On the question of the identity of Maria Magdalena, the “great sinner” and Mary from Bethany and their historical significance. 2nd Edition. Lit, Münster 2006, ISBN 3-8258-5289-X .
  • Silke Petersen: "Destroy the works of femininity!" Maria Magdalena, Salome and other disciples of Jesus in Christian Gnostic writings. Brill, Leiden et al. 1999, ISBN 90-04-11449-1 , ( Nag Hammadi and Manichaean Studies 48).
  • Renate Schmid: Maria Magdalena in Gnostic writings. Working group for religious and ideological issues, Munich 1990, ISBN 3-921513-93-6 .
  • Andrea Taschl-Erber: Mary of Magdala - first apostle ? Joh 20,1-18: Tradition and Relecture. Herder, Freiburg / Basel / Vienna 2007, ISBN 978-3-451-29660-4 (also Univ. Vienna, diss. 2006).
  • Christoph Wrembek: The so-called Magdalenerin. Bonifatius GmbH print, revised new edition 2013, ISBN 978-3-89710-512-6 .

Web links

Commons : Maria Magdalena  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Hebrew מרים המגדלית
  2. Greek Μαρία Μαγδαληνή .
  3. Nag Hammadi Deutsch, Hans-Martin Schenke, Hans-Gebhard Bethge, Ursula Ulrike Kaiser (Eds.), 2001, p. 196
    The angle brackets stand for an interpretive addition; "<His> sister" is the correction of a spelling mistake, in the original it says "'her' sister".
  4. Nag Hammadi German, ed. Hans-Martin Schenke, Hans-Gebhard Bethge, Ursula Ulrike Kaiser, 2001 p. 199. This is the modern reading, compare also Renate Schmid: Maria Magdalena in Gnostischen Schriften, Munich 1990, p. 30
  5. Isenberg, Wesley W./Layton, Bentley, 1989: The Gospel According to Philip. In: Bentley Layton (ed): Nag Hammadi Codex II, 2-7
  6. All counts and quotations in this section are based on the following translation of Pistis Sophia: * [Valentinus]: The Gospel of Pistis Sophia , Bad Teinach-Zavelstein 1987, ISBN 3-925072-03-9 .
  7. Peter Nagel : Codex apocryphus gnosticus Novi Testamenti. Volume 1: Gospels and Acts of the Apostles from the Scriptures of Nag Hammadi and related codices. Coptic and German. Tübingen 2014, pp. 311–319.
  8. ^ Siegfried G. Richter . Investigations into the form and content of a group of the Herakleides Psalms (PsB 187: 1-36). In: G. Wießner and H.-J. Klimkeit (ed.), Studia Manichaica. II. International Congress on Manichaeism, 6. – 10. August 1989, St. Augustin / Bonn. Studies in Oriental Religions 23, Wiesbaden 1992, pp. 248-265.
  9. ^ Translation after Siegfried G. Richter . The Herakleides Psalms (Corpus Fontium Manichaeorum. Series Coptica 1. Liber Psalmorum pars 2 fasc. 2). Brepols: Turnhout 1998, 124 pages.
  10. Jessica Kristionat: Between being taken for granted and being silent. The role of women in early Manichaeism. Heidelberg 2013, pp. 237-272.
  11. Bart D. Ehrman: Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene. The Followers of Jesus in History and Legend , Oxford 2006, p. 184.
  12. Julian R. Backes : "Apostola Apostolorum". Observations on the Magdalenenproprium of the Breviarium Praemonstratense . In: Analecta Praemonstratensia . 90, 2014 [published 2015], ISSN  0517-6735 , pp. 287-290, here 287f.
  13. ^ Rhabanus Maurus: De vita beatae Mariae Magdalenae , c. CCVII; Thomas Aquinas: In Ioannem Evangelistam expositio , c. XX, L. III, 6. Documents, "Apostolorum Apostola" , accessed on April 13, 2020.
  14. Vatican upgrades the role of Maria Magdalena - . In: . June 10, 2016 ( [accessed April 2, 2018]).
  15. ^ Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), p. 131
  16. ^ Decreto della Congregazione per il Culto Divino e la Disciplina dei Sacramenti: la celebrazione di Santa Maria Maddalena elevata al grado di festa nel Calendario Romano Generale. In: Daily Bulletin. Holy See Press Office , June 10, 2016, accessed June 10, 2016 (Italian).
  17. Julian R. Backes : "Apostola Apostolorum". Observations on the Magdalenenproprium of the Breviarium Praemonstratense . In: Analecta Praemonstratensia . 90, 2014 [published 2015], ISSN  0517-6735 , pp. 287–290, here 290.
  18. Jesus and the Missing Women . A search for clues on YouTube
  19. See also Silke Petersen: Maria from Magdala. In: WiBiLex The scientific Bible lexicon on the Internet. September 2011, accessed April 11, 2020 .
  20. cf.
  21. CD Historiae - The Officies of St. Lawrence's and Mary Magdalen's with the Schola Hungarica, László Dobszay, from Hungaroton 1998. On Youtube: Hymn from Historia Mariae Magdalenae , seen on March 29, 2018.
  22. on the Internet , as seen on March 29, 2018.
  23. Recording on CD Manchicourt with the Huelgas Ensemble under Paul van Nevel , seen on March 29, 2018. From this on Youtube: Manchicourt: Maria Magdalene , Huelgas Ensemble, P. v. Nevel , as seen on March 29, 2018.
  24. Maria Magdalene by Andrea Gabrieli at IMSLP , as seen on March 29, 2018.
  25. textbook for CD: Sacred music by Alonso Lobo , with Tallis Scholars under Peter Phillips, Gimell 1997, pp 18-19
  26. There is a CD recording of both with the Tallis Scholars under Peter Phillips from 1997
  27. Sances' Missa Sanctae Maria Magdalenae on CPDL , viewed March 29, 2018.
  28. Recording of the Crucifixus with the Ensemble Arpeggiata under Christina Pluhar on Youtube: Sances “Crucifixus” , seen on March 29, 2018.
  29. Sheet music on IMSLP , viewed March 29, 2018.
  30. See the text book for the CD: JS Bach - Easter Oratorio , Barbara Schlick , James Taylor , Peter Kooy et al., Collegum Vocale , Philippe Herreweghe , published by Harmonia mundi, 1995/2003, pp. 14-18
  31. ↑ Text book for the CD: JS Bach - Easter Oratorio , Barbara Schlick, James Taylor, Peter Kooy et al., Collegum Vocale, Philippe Herreweghe, published by Harmonia mundi, 1995/2003, pp. 14-18
  32. Lena Naumann, Mariam is leaving. Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-9815426-1-5
  33. Evelyn Finger: Maria Magdalena - The wife of the Savior . In: The time № 12/2018 from March 14, 2018.
  34. ↑ Film expert recommends the upcoming film “Maria Magdalena” - “In the Spirit of the Bible” . Article on from March 12, 2018.
  35. ^ Description and excerpt from the paperback edition on the Heyne Verlag website.