from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Prostitution (from the Latin prostitute , 'to show forward / to display, to reveal' ) describes the performance of sexual acts for remuneration , also known as sex work since the 1970s , jokingly also a horizontal trade . If the prostitution is involuntary, it is forced prostitution . Prostitution has been found in all cultures and eras since the dawn of history and is closely related to the history of women's rights , women's sexuality and the history of LGBTconnected. The social evaluation is subject to unbroken strong change and is influenced by political, ideological and religious ideas.

People working in prostitution , prostitutes , belong in many cultures to a social group that is still threatened by human trafficking , violence, exploitation , discrimination , stigmatization and persecution. For centuries, prostitutes have also been exposed to the risk of social and political hostility, including barracking , deportation and murder. While in many places they were labeled either as criminals or as victims, there has been a change in public opinion since the end of the 19th century . In western societies since the late 20th century a few small prostitution associations and Amnesty International have been turning against discrimination and calling for a positive view of the sex trade, in Germany above all with legal recognition as legal work. In contrast, other organizations are campaigning against discrimination against prostitutes, but are calling for the conditions for getting out of prostitution to be improved by criminalizing sex buyers, as this deprives the prostitutes of their income (see Nordic model for prostitution ). Helper associations pursue this approach, nationally such as Solwodi , regionally such as KARO or Mission Freedom , a large number of feminist organizations as well as the magazine Emma with its editor Alice Schwarzer .



Courtesan in Greece
Depiction from a Lupanar in Pompeii
View into a cell of the Pompeian brothel owned by Africanus and Victor

In ancient times, for example in Babylon and with the Phoenicians in Tire , the so-called temple prostitution existed more than 3000 years ago . Women performed sexual acts there in exchange for "gifts" to the temple or offerings to the deity. This always stood in a cultic context and was considered to please the gods. In the Gilgamesh epic 6th panel, verses 5 to 79, Albert Schott sees a criticism of the excesses of cultic prostitution.

Prostitutes in the modern sense are attested for the time of ancient Greece , i.e. without a sacred background. The Greeks differentiated between the common “ whore ” (πόρνη pórnē ) and the “companion” ( ancient Greek ἑταῖρα , hetaera ). The campaigns of Alexander the Great were also accompanied by numerous prostitutes. Both men and women offered their sexual services, but as with the Greeks, the Romans only allowed men to use these services.

In Rome, free-born prostitutes mostly worked on the street, slaves in "pubs" and brothels. Findings from the lupanaries in Pompeii provide an insight into the brothel system .

In the Old Testament the trade is mentioned both as cultic and as paid prostitution, for example Spr 6,26  EU . The prostitution bans Lev 19.29  EU and Dtn 23.18  EU only relate to cultic prostitution. It is considered obvious that a widower would seek the services of prostitutes. This is of Tamar , the daughter of Judah, exploited the prostitutes herself, so Judah her withheld levirate still unfolding ( Gen 38.12 to 30  EU ). The son Perez and his mother Tamar conceived in this way are named in the New Testament as an ancestor of Jesus in his family tree ( Mt 1,3  EU ). In addition to Tamar, there is another woman in the family tree of Jesus, Rahab , who is usually interpreted as a prostitute ( JosEU ; Mt 1.5  EU ).

In the New Testament it is said that Jesus with all social misfits maintained a respectful relationship ( Lk 7.36 to 50  EU ), but prostitution is in the letters of Paul discarded ( 1 Cor 6.15 f.  EU ), the Christian dominated world view then Associated with shame or sin .

The first written records of prostitution in Japan go back to the 8th century, but are likely to go back much further. Courtesans enjoyed prestige and recognition.

middle Ages

Brothel scene by the Braunschweig monogramist (1537), Gemäldegalerie Berlin

The church morality condemned prostitution; however, influential authors like Augustine argued that it was a "lesser evil". Prostitution was assigned a valve function for the sexual needs of those who were disadvantaged by medieval marriage law . Especially in the late Middle Ages there were brothels in many German cities owned by the municipality - prostitution was not only tolerated, it was institutionalized. The city ​​councils leased the brothels to whore landlords who undertook to comply with certain conditions, such as hygiene regulations or agreements on the payment of whores.

In addition to this special form of prostitution in the late Middle Ages , historians assume that occasional prostitution and traveling prostitutes were more common, especially in rural areas.

In the Middle Ages, prostitutes in urban women's shelters or private brothels were not only referred to with Latin expressions, but also with paraphrases such as “free women”, “free daughters”, “common women” (gemeyn frauwen) , “common women”, “window hens ” ( vensterhennen ), “Pretty women”, while prostitutes who moved from place to place were referred to as “traveling women”, “trippâniersen” or “soldiersen”.

Renaissance and early modern times

In addition to art, culture and science in Europe , the Renaissance was also a heyday of courtesans, a socially accepted form of prostitution. Especially in Rome , which was also called “Head of the World” ( Roma caput mundi ), this form of prostitution essentially determined the reputation and appearance of the city. The special social structures and the cultural climate in Rome in the 16th century created the conditions for a coexistence of clerical splendor and commercial sexual intercourse.

At celebrations, theater performances, feasts and receptions, especially for church dignitaries, the absence of women was increasingly perceived as a loss and lack. To fill this “void”, courtesans were invited to these societies. The word “courtesan” is derived from Cortigiana (“lady-in-waiting”) and around 1500 referred to the sophisticated prostitute, comparable to the hetaerae of ancient Greece .

In late medieval and early modern cities, the "pretty women" were often organized like a guild . With the split in the church and the ensuing Reformation , many prostitutes lost their rights and were expelled from the cities, as the Protestant view saw prostitutes as a symbol and remnant of the depravity of Catholic society. Many of them were burned as witches.

At the time of the Thirty Years' War and the associated collapse of society and as a result of the devastation of the villages and cities, many uprooted women, but also other female relatives and wives of the soldiers, moved with the armies as baggage whores . The entourage reached in some cases such dimensions that it had to be professionally organized by so-called whore women . A woman's fate at this time was dealt with by Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen in the Trutz Simplex novel cycle.

17th century

In the kingdom of France prostitution in was 17th century punishable. In 1658 had Louis XIV. Decreed that all women who were prostitutes, were convicted of fornication or adultery were to be interned in the Salpêtrière, until they repent would have done, and by a priest, the absolution would have received. Nevertheless there was street prostitution and brothels. At the same time, the culture of courtesans and mistresses flourished , some of whom became so powerful and rich that they could even influence government affairs and were portrayed on numerous oil paintings. The whole guild of art at that time was dependent on prostitutes as models, since the bourgeois woman would never have made herself available as a model for a painting. Even in the performing arts , such as theater, opera or ballet, the transitions to prostitution were fluid, so that in Italian opera women were even completely forbidden to sing out of propriety and female roles were cast with castrati .

18th century

Transporting the girls to the police station, Étienne Jeaurat , 1755

In 1794, § 999 of the Prussian General Land Law stipulated that "dissolute women ... in the whore houses tolerated under the supervision of the state" had to go. Women “who want to run a trade with their bodies” were considered to be “dissolute women”.

The British-Dutch doctor and social reformer Bernard de Mandeville spoke out in a popular pamphlet in 1724 for legalized, state-controlled prostitution. His modest pamphlet for public brothels contains a gender psychology that is quite sensitive and differentiated for the time in view of the various Querelles des femmes . Jonathan Swift's satire A Modest Proposal , published a little later, probably alludes to the title, which had already become proverbial in 1729. As a remedy against the spread of STDs , Mandeville recommends that prostitutes be given medical treatment free of charge if they volunteer to report an infection, but that they should be banished and severely punished if they conceal it.

19th century

Au Salon de la rue des Moulins by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec , 1894
Prostitute in a Yokohama brothel , late 19th century; Photography by Kusakabe Kimbei

Because of the population growth during the industrial revolution , the number of prostitutes increased, especially in the 19th century. An increasing proportion of the urban population lived in poverty . Women were particularly affected, most of whom had only little training and who were often only able to do jobs where they earned low salaries. The casual prostitutes included maids , milliner women , flower women and laundresses, who had to increase their salaries in this way. Some women were only able to earn enough money for a living through prostitution. In 1844, Karl Marx connoted prostitution as a special form of expression of the general prostitution of the worker.

More and more states started to regulate prostitution by law. Such regulation, justified by an intended social, health-political or moral control, made it practically impossible for prostitutes to escape their milieu. The regulation also cemented the sexual double standard that socially ostracized prostitutes, but at the same time saw prostitution as a necessary evil or a desirable testing ground for men. One wanted to be able to fall back on them at any time, but not recognize them as social normality. Many middle-class women resisted this double standard.

In Bremen , the so-called Bremen Regulations of 1852 stipulated that prostitution was "not a trade in the strict sense". Through this distinction between prostitution and legal trade, the immorality was directly anchored in legal terms.

In Great Britain , the Contagious Diseases Acts were enacted in the years from 1864 with the purpose of medical control to prevent the ever-increasing spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Josephine Butler led the Ladies' National Organization's struggle against the Contagious Diseases Acts. This campaign, which saw prostitutes less 'guilty' than victims of male lustfulness, “changed [...] the political landscape of Britain during the late Victorian era . The campaign challenged social and sexual conventions that had never been publicly discussed before. The campaign radicalized numerous women, hardened them against public attacks and slander and created an infrastructure for political protest ”. The edicts were repealed in 1883 and completely repealed in 1885. But that didn't solve the problem because the edicts were important. After the women's movement achieved its goal, interest in prostitutes' rights subsided. The result was great impoverishment, as the brothels had been closed at the instigation of the women's associations and the prostitutes were forced to take to the streets, where they were exposed to police arbitrariness and violence from customers and competing pimps . The result was that prostitution crime skyrocketed. The sexually transmitted diseases spread unchecked by the now no longer controllable and controlled prostitution and began to enforce the bourgeoisie, as the main customers were mostly the sons and husbands of the bourgeois women who were involved in the associations.

In the art of the late 19th century, a clear change in the valuation of prostitution could be observed. For political reasons this was often dismissed: “Representatives of the naturalistic school such as Richard Dehmel , Max Dauthendey , Otto Erich Hartleben , Otto Julius Bierbaum and Karl Bleibtreu dedicated themselves to the liberation of women from moral conventions, free love and the elevation of prostitutes to ' venus vulgivaga '(wandering Venus) in a way that was more lustful than political. ”( Gordon A. Craig ).

20th century

Soldiers brothel in a former synagogue, Brest, France, 1940

At the level of international law, there have been attempts to agree on standards to combat prostitution and human trafficking. Examples include the International Convention of May 18, 1904 on Granting Effective Protection against Trafficking in Girls and the Convention on the Prevention of Trafficking in Human Beings and the Exploitation of Prostitution of Others of December 2, 1949.

During the Second World War were of the Wehrmacht and the SS Wehrmacht brothels set up. Women infected with sexually transmitted diseases through this form of forced labor were taken to extermination camps or executed. There were camp brothels in the concentration camps . It was customary for all warring parties to set up war brothels. The euphemistically so-called " comfort women ", mostly Chinese and Koreans, threatened by the Japanese occupiers of East Asia .

In the GDR , the Ministry of State Security used prostitution, which has been officially punishable since 1968, to obtain information about the "class enemy". Prostitution was not only tolerated, it was even promoted through training. Both male and female prostitutes were used. The State Security of the GDR called this type of operation "women-specific use". Dissidents could be blackmailed with information about sexual deviations of the “target persons” (i.e. the customers). The main locations for visitors to the West were the Intershops and the Leipziger Messe , international congresses and events and the currency hotels used for this purpose .

In connection with the sexual revolution , prostitution has gradually moved from a taboo subject to the rank of an everyday phenomenon that is at least socially accepted. Sections of the women's movement opposed and strongly oppose prostitution, while others expressly support its legality and support prostitutes in their labor disputes.

An official German paraphrase for prostitutes used to be people with frequently alternating sexual intercourse (HWG). People who frequently had alternating sexual intercourse on a commercial basis were obliged to regularly submit an official confirmation of examination, the " Bockschein ".

21st century

In its decision of November 20, 2001, the European Court of Justice declared that prostitution is one of the gainful activities that are "part of the community's economic life" within the meaning of Article 2 EC . In Germany, on December 1, 2001 , Felicitas Schirow won a lawsuit with a ruling by the Berlin administrative court , which she called for the closure of her brothel, the Café Pssst! , led. In the judgment of the court it was said that prostitution is no longer to be regarded as immoral today, that there has been a change in values. Prostitution has become a social reality that has to be accepted. Nevertheless, in February 2001 the district office of Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf filed an application against the judgment to allow the appeal . At the same time, Stephanie Klee won a lawsuit in which she successfully sued for her wages for sexual services. Both judgments could be seen as a precedent and are considered significant for the coming into force of the Prostitution Act, which came into force on January 1, 2002 .

The Committee on Women's Rights and Gender Equality (FEMM) of the European Parliament proposed the recommendation of the " Swedish Model " to Parliament in the so-called Honeyball Report, named after chairwoman Mary Honeyball . As early as 2004 it was established that 6 years after the introduction of customer punishment, prostitution in Sweden in general as well as prostitution in outdoor areas is decreasing. On February 26, 2014, the resolution recommending the Swedish Model was passed by the European Parliament. The non-binding resolution was passed with 343 votes, 139 MPs voted against and 105 abstained. The Council of Europe took a similar position on April 8, 2014 with resolution 1983 (2014). Human rights, women's and prostitute associations, such as health experts, scientists and police associations criticized the taking of evidence and source research as inadequate, selective and manipulative and argued that in the event of a customer punishment, the prostitute could slide into illegality and dark channels, wherever it is to be feared would no longer be available. In Sweden, where this fear was examined in a study, the all-clear was given. Overall, the number of illegal prostitution that already existed did not increase, the number of human trafficking cases fell significantly, and all in all it was easier to record prostitution via virtual appointments.

The social perception of prostitution in the beginning of the 21st century is characterized by its fragmentation into different positions and views, ranging from total prohibition and massive criminalization to complete legalization and recognition as gainful employment. As a counterpoint to the opponents of prostitution, who call themselves abolitionists (after abolitionism for the abolition of slavery ), national and international human rights associations and activist groups were formed, who demanded the recognition and decriminalization of prostitution with ever greater self-confidence. Up to the present day the fights between the parties in the public discussion and in the media are bitter, for which the social media and the internet are used with the possibilities of manipulation .

Increasing globalization and the opening of borders is changing the image of prostitution. Many refugees and residents from nations with precarious living conditions are pushing into the rich states or are recruited or lured, so that a large sector of poverty and misery prostitutes has emerged, which largely displaces the local prostitutes and with it an associated shadow economy and new criminal structures brings. Depending on the region, young Eastern European women, especially from the poorest areas of Romania and Bulgaria, make up 80 to 100% of the prostitutes.

Supported by the European Parliament and trauma research, a movement is growing that is also calling for a regulation in Germany where, as in Sweden, Norway, Iceland, Ireland and France, it is not the prostitute but the client who is threatened with punishment. It is argued that the often proclaimed “voluntariness” is a myth and that human dignity is violated in this “dehumanized trade”, especially because of the employer's right to give instructions, namely the brothel operator (formerly called pimps), even in a registered employment relationship that is subject to social insurance .

Forms and characteristics

Data situation

There is no systematic, coherent collection of data on all historical, health or social hygiene aspects of prostitution, neither in Germany nor internationally, because many non-public aspects of prostitution due to the environment are difficult to record. Scientific surveys are therefore mainly collected at crisis locations such as hospitals, psychiatric hospitals, children's homes, refugee camps, police stations and / or prisons and are influenced by the special social circumstances of the groups of people concentrated there, the problems associated with them and the cultural, social and political backgrounds.

Many women do this job only occasionally or for a short period of life. There is no precise information about the number of prostitutes.

Prostitution in public spaces

Prostitution in mobile homes in Lyon (France) 2006
Koberfenster in Amsterdam
Bar in a noble brothel

In public prostitution , the prostitutes stand at certain officially designated or unofficially known, openly visible places and offer themselves to potential customers. Alternatively, prostitution takes place on streets, in hotel bars, rest stops and similar places. The performance box as a controlled variant of street prostitution is relatively new . With street prostitution, the service is usually carried out either in the car or in hotels , often in so-called hour hotels . Caravan prostitution can be found on some country and federal highways, mostly in rural areas. The prostitutes wait for customers in caravans or mobile homes that represent their workplace, at parking lots, motorway service stations or at the mouth of dirt roads.

Prostitution sites

Entrance doors to apartments where prostitution is being pursued

Brothels are special houses that have a contact area in which the customer is a prostitute or a hustler ( House of Boys can choose) and then or a room for sex (like a him with her hours Hotel ) visits. Variations are whorehouses or streets with shop window-like rooms on the ground floor in which the prostitutes sit.

In model prostitution, the prostitutes rent rooms in so-called model apartments, sometimes only for a limited time. For example, they advertise in local newspapers or on the Internet to attract customers. Some operators of such model apartments specifically rely on this type of offer in order to always guarantee new faces and thus arouse customer interest. Some of these houses are networked with one another and the employees are involved in a rotation principle .

In prostitution in swinger clubs or so-called party meetings, the prostitutes sit together with the customers in a deliberately homely atmosphere. For the exercise of sexual acts one either looks for individual rooms or they take place on so-called "playgrounds", whereby it can happen that several couples carry out the negotiated activity at the same time (up to group sex ). Here, however, the participation of visitors who do not engage in prostitution is expected from the guests. Usually the customer pays a fixed amount in advance for a certain amount of time, which enables him to have intercourse with several sex partners. Cold or warm buffet, drinks are included in the price. Additional services such as erotic massages , sauna or whirlpool are also part of the program.

An extreme form was found in so-called flat-rate brothels, also known as all-inclusive clubs. At the beginning the customers paid a lump sum and were then able to use the services of the women without limitation. This business strategy has been illegal since the Prostitute Protection Act was introduced in 2016.

In night clubs , prostitutes sit as animators at the bar. Some get a commission for drinking with the guests and thus promoting their consumption.

Escort service and visitor prostitution

In the case of escort services or visiting prostitution (call girls, call boys), prostitutes are booked directly via contact ads on the Internet and in print media or via placement agencies (so-called escort agencies ). The desired sexual service is provided at the customer's home, in a hotel or in a separately rented apartment. With upscale escort services, the booked prostitutes may also go on a trip or can be flown in and out of abroad on request. On the Internet, the initiation usually takes place via erotic portals and forums. The latter also serve to exchange information about performance criteria. Xaviera Hollander was one of the most famous call girls .

Offer of various sexual practices


A number of sexual practices are offered , which are usually discussed in advance because of the remuneration. The images on the Spintriae from the Roman Empire already bear witness to the diversity of positions and practices .

Prostitution works according to the laws of the market; Thus, the practices, people and preferences demanded by paying customers with regard to gender, age, appearance, tattoos, intimate jewelry, skin and hair color, figure as well as physical and other special features of any kind are offered according to the demand.

For sadomasochists , a form of prostitution takes place in SM studios, which is based on the sexual enjoyment of "severity and pain". The active practitioners are called domina / sado , the passive "tolerant" slave / slave. As a rule, this scene does not count itself as part of the conventional prostitution industry. However, some prostitutes are in favor of explicitly naming prostitution in the BDSM area as such.

In some East Asian countries great apes are also offered for sexual abuse, although it is not clear whether the satisfaction of sodomist customers or the enslavement of the animals is the main motive.

Sex assistant or surrogate partner

A special form of prostitution is the offer of so-called surrogate partners (also known as sexual assistance or sexual accompaniment ): People who have no other possibility of sexual satisfaction due to a disability or who lack a partner in sex therapy with whom they can trust again, for example due to a weakness in potency can use the services of male or female substitute partners. This service can be carried out passively through supporting actions as well as actively through direct physical contact. Sex assistants in Germany are trained through special (therapeutic) training courses in order to cater to the special needs of disabled people. However, in many other countries the training is regulated differently or does not exist. In contrast to many other therapeutic or disability-specific aids, the financing of this service is usually incumbent on the affected people themselves. In Germany - unlike in the Netherlands, for example - the health insurance companies are legally excluded from assuming the costs ('sex on a sickness certificate'). In Denmark , with government support, better ways of satisfying sexual needs are offered to disabled people, that is, prostitutes are hired for these people if desired.

target group

The target group of prostitution is called customers, clients or guests , but colloquially it is clients . Corresponding female forms have become commonplace as designations for female prostitution customers (customer, client).

Percentage of men who have paid for sex before
country %-Proportion of sample year source
Finland 13% 624 1999 Rotkirch et al.
Norway 11% 1617 1992 Leridon et al.
Sweden 13% 1475 1996 Lewin et al.
Denmark 14% 6350 2005 Lautrup
Great Britain 7% 7941 1991 Wellings et al.
Netherlands 14% 392 1989 Leridon et al.
Switzerland 19% 1260 1992 Leridon et al.
Spain 39% 409 1992 Leridon et al.
Russia 10% 870 1996 Rotkirch et al.
USA 16% 1709 1992 Michael et al.
Australia 16% k. A. 2003 Weitzner
Germany 18% 524 1994 Kleiber et al.

It is not exactly known how many prostitution customers there are. Udo Gerheim, University of Oldenburg, wrote in 2012: "It must therefore be stated that there are currently no reliable and secured quantitative primary data on the social field of prostitution." The magnitude of 1.2 million customers per day mentioned in scientific and journalistic works and 400,000 prostitutes in Germany are only estimates and projections, some of which date from the 1980s. Extrapolated to the male population, this means that on average every man between 20 and 59 visits a prostitute once a month.

The background to the poor data situation is that prostitution as a topic in the often male-dominated scientific system promises little reputation and is considered offensive. Existing studies are limited to the institution of prostitution and prostitutes. Legal, medical and socio-hygienic aspects predominate. Gerheim wrote about this in 2012: "The male demand for sex for sale has remained and remains structurally excluded from this discourse and disciplinary regime, and its social practice remains untouched."

The few studies that deal with the male demand side concentrate on criminological and psychiatric aspects (customers as sex offenders, customers of migrant prostitutes) as well as on medical issues such as HIV infections and on power constellations and the prevalence of violence . Gerheim writes: “Compared to the previous administrative regulation of prostitution, this state-feminist-inspired power technology can be seen as a decisive socio-political and legal paradigm shift. The roles in this social drama are irrevocably determined in the form of the customer as a male (violent) perpetrator and the female prostitute as a helpless female victim. ”In this context, the male prostitution demand is equated with sexual violence and rape . The sparse quantitative results are also subject to high uncertainties. These result from different survey methods (by telephone, online, in writing, in person), survey staff (man or woman), understanding of prostitution and the frequency of prostitution demand (one-off, occasional, regular).

In 1994 Kleiber and Velten presented the results of their quantitative empirical study for Germany. According to this, 18% of the male population between 15 and 74 years of age have already asked for sex for sale. For the Danish data, it was also possible to differentiate in 2005 that 60% of prostitutively active men had only one-time or only slight (up to five times) contact with prostitutes.

Overall, the number of prostitution customers in the western world is declining, which is attributed on the one hand to an increase in the possibilities of sexual activities outside of partnerships in the form of fling portals, swinger clubs as well as telephone and Internet offers and on the other hand to the consequences of financial and economic crises. At the same time, there is an increase in the number of prostitutes on offer.

Male prostitution customers come from all social classes and age groups, with the 20–40-year-olds being overrepresented at 72% according to a socio-structural analysis of the Federal Republic of Germany's client group according to Kleiber (2004). Unmarried men were also most strongly represented at 56% compared to 34% married and 10% divorced. In the past, there was occasional talk of overrepresentation of older men , for example in the Kinsey Report . In addition, Kleiber and Velten stated that an above-average number of customers are between 20 and 40 years old, single or divorced and have a high school diploma or come from academically educated circles. Three idealized customer types are presented: 1. The Playboy, 2. The loser and 3. The family man.

In her dissertation in 1997, Doris Velten described two significant age cohorts when prostitutes first visited in 62 qualitatively standardized interviews with customers. 47% of the men were younger than 20 years of age and 45% between 20 and 30 years of age on their first visit.

With regard to female sex tourism in the Caribbean, there are indications of an over-representation of women from the American white middle class.

Significant differences in income and education can, however, be observed with regard to the prostitution segments requested by male customers. The financial strength of the customers is decisive for the prostitution segment in demand. While street and procurement prostitution tends to be in demand by financially weak men, financially stronger men tend to orientate themselves more in the high-price segment of escort and hotel prostitution. Whether and how the demand for prostitution is implemented is also a question of money. Money and sexuality are therefore both products of shortage that are exchanged in prostitution. On the symbolic level, this is an exchange of material (sex) for spiritual (money) fertility. Paying can mean power and powerlessness at the same time, as it marks the need of customers and points to their inability to be successful with women without money.

Everyone hypothesis

According to the Everyman Hypothesis, there are no typical customers in terms of social characteristics. While the Everyman Hypothesis has also been proven internationally several times, it contradicts the finding that a majority of men are not prostitution customers. The author Tamara Domentat therefore contrasts the Everyman Hypothesis with the assumption that from an ethnological perspective and in view of age and global distribution, prostitution is a transcultural universality of female behavior, with sexuality as a means of asserting one's own interests and used to increase economic power. Accordingly, the simple purpose of prostitution would be to earn money by satisfying the customer's sexual desires.

Gerheim wrote in 2012 regarding the volume of male prostitution demand:

"It can be stated that, from a global perspective, only a small part of the total male population actively and regularly uses prostitution and that for a relevant size of men the demand for sex for sale is only a singular or marginal event."

Feminist views

According to the feminist criticism of the historical and second women's movement, prostitution represents an existential attack on the sexual self-determination of women and degrades them to an object of exchange for male sexual submission. Accordingly, customers are equated with rapists, but this is controversial in the scientific discussion. Radical feminist Andrea Dworkin expressed this equation of male sexuality with violence back in 1987 with the journalistic support of EMMA editor Alice Schwarzer . Dworkin assumes that violence is an essential and natural component of male sexuality and the male penis, and that every genital penetration is therefore a violent act. Accordingly, prostitution customers are understood as “normal” violent men who rape women. Prostitution is interpreted as a special form of male violence against women. As a result , all clients are rapists because they abuse women by forcing their consent through money.

Sexual pathology

Another approach to characterizing male prostitution customers is pathologization. As a result, male customers have a wrong sexuality that is sick and needs to be cured. The Swedish police assume that men who continue to ask for sex after the introduction of the customer penalty have a sick perverse sexuality .

On the basis of their sample, Velten differentiates between six categories of customers in their biographical customer study in Germany:

  1. Disappointed romantic: He is mostly older than 40 years and married, divorced or single and occurs in all levels of education. He uses prostitution as a substitute for perceived deficits in the private partnership. He would rather have a steady partner and be loyal to her. But he does not succeed because either there is currently no partner or she refuses sexually.
  2. Rational strategist: He is 39 years old on average and is also married, divorced or single. In contrast to the disappointed romantic, he can rationally explain his prostitution visit by deficits without having the feeling of doing something that could harm a private partnership.
  3. Liberalized customer: He is also over 40 but usually divorced and has a lower level of education. He has freed himself from traditional concepts of partnership (liberalized) and goes to whores because he enjoys crossing borders. Nonetheless, his first prostitutional contact can also have resulted from a feeling of deficit. In Veltens example, this type of customer is an exception.
  4. Hedonist: On average, he is in his 30s, single and with different levels of education. He visits prostitutes less because of private sexual deficits, but more out of a desire for prostitution. He has rather unconventional partnership ideals and no difficulties in reconciling his own customer activities with his self-image.
  5. Ambivalent customer: He is between 20 and 30 years old. He cannot reconcile his customer activities with his self-image at all, although he has no conventional relationship concepts. He experiences the prostitution visits as an uncontrollable, intoxicating dynamic that he uses to restore his masculinity and on which he feels dependent. He regrets going to prostitution, but the feeling of inferiority as a man forces him to repeat and to restore manhood again.
  6. Curious single: Like the liberalized customer, he is also an exception in the sample examined. He has non-traditional relationship desires and far more spontaneous sexual contacts than other types of customers. He goes to prostitutes out of curiosity, possibly after a stable partnership and usually only a few times in the course of his life. Being a customer is incompatible with his self-image because the contact does not seem erotic enough to him.

A historical evaluation of Finnish files from the police, courts and health and regulatory authorities in the context of prostitution in the 19th century divides the customers into

  1. Students, soldiers, sailors, workers and groups of men,
  2. Married older men from the middle and upper classes,
  3. single, homeless poor men as well
  4. Adventurers in search of specific sexual experiences.


The findings of sociological and psychological motivation research on the reasons for male demand for sexuality for sale beyond pathologizing psychiatry discourses are sparse and point to very different bundles of motives. More recent research models, however, assume that male demand is less of an identity or role, but rather is understood as a social process that can be broken down into different structures of meaning.

The prodigal son of Johannes Baeck (1637). The prodigal son wastes his inheritance on the whores. Oil on canvas, 123 × 184 cm

Historically, male demand has been associated with a valve function. This is based on the idea of ​​male steam boiler sexuality. According to this, male shoots accumulation and drive removal are spoken of. This idea has its origins in the medical theory of the juices , according to which the male genitals are closely connected to the so-called uro-genital apparatus. Male sexuality is limited to ejaculation , which, like the urge to urinate, requires a supposedly "natural" emptying.

In addition, there is the widespread assumption that men have a stronger sex drive than women, which then makes a corresponding drive removal necessary, since otherwise society would be endangered. Together with the historical ban on masturbation , the first reason for the male demand for prostitution is to avert danger.

The whore protects civil society from fornication, rape, seduction, fraud, adultery, self-defilement (pirates, murderers, pirates). Only through the shamelessness of the whores is the chastity of women and virgins possible. "

- Doris Velten : Aspects of sexual socialization. Berlin, 1994.

Evolutionary explanations for gender-specific attenuation or hyperactivity, which are cited as interpretations for female monogamy and male promiscuity, separation of sexuality and emotionality, qualitative vs. quantitative reproduction strategies, etc., appear increasingly fragile in the light of recent research and are the result of socially constructed role expectations and societal desired attributions. In this regard, R. Conell speaks of a trend towards convergence of male and female sexual behavior.

A special object-relatedness is also assumed for male sexuality. The founder of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud described this object reference of male sexuality with the words: where they love, they do not desire, and where they desire, they cannot love. They need objects they don't need to love to keep their sensuality away from their beloved objects. Against the background of this assumed self-centeredness of male sexual desire, the reduction of women to a sexual object is postulated. Prostitution thus has a compensation and surrogate function for regulating the male instinctual balance compared to civil marriage . It enables men to act out their “always present” sexual energy at any time without any expectations of emotional attachment and without social consequences such as marriage or engagement. Accordingly, the male demand for sex for sale arises from a bourgeois double standard with the patriarchal myth that male supremacy and female subordination are an “erotic” gain in pleasure for men.

In contradiction to the assumed self-centeredness and object fixation of male sexual desire, however, there are findings according to which the prostitute's sensation of pleasure is an essential demand feature of customers and the credible staging of female pleasure and desire is an essential quality feature of the sexuality in demand.

In 2005, the prostitution researcher Sabine Grenz identified the following central discourse patterns on male prostitution demand based on 19 narrative interviews on male demand for sexuality: 1. Heteronormative reproduction of masculinity by excluding homosexuality, 2. drive-dynamic self-concepts and 3. the persistence of sexual double standards as a male power strategy. She explains: “The most frequently cited reason for going to prostitutes, especially for single men, is easy and guaranteed access to sex, and for men who live in partnership, the search for variety or the desire for sex Practices that the wife does not want to share. "Doris Velten sums up accordingly:

"Prostitution contacts almost always serve to minimize sexual dissatisfaction."

- Doris Velten : Aspects of sexual socialization. Berlin 1994.

In the most recent field-habitus-dynamic study of male prostitution demand from 2012, based on Pierre Bourdieu , Udo Gerheim finally described the following four generalized motive structures:

  1. The sexual motive dimension. It is considered to be the most important motive dimension and is geared to all supply patterns in the prostitution environment that aim at a direct physical-sexual functional logic. This includes both genuine sexual motives and the men's physical and erotic desires for tenderness and physical contact.
  2. The social motive dimension. This is divided into two parts: On the one hand, it is functionally geared to the communicative-emotional needs of customers. On the other hand, it is related to destructive motive patterns of human or male society (power, violence and dominance patterns, misogyny).
  3. The psychological motive dimension. It aims at the psychodynamic need structures of customers. The primary aim is to act out psychological tension such as feelings of shame and guilt, narcissistic insults, self-esteem crises, depression, etc. or other unpopular tension (such as boredom or frustration) in prostitution.
  4. The eroticization of the subculture. On the one hand, it includes the libidinal occupation of the prostitution environment as an (anti-bourgeois) subculture. On the other hand, it is connected with the enormous sexual attraction of the field as a sexual omnipotence dimension of the generation and satisfaction of sexual desires and fantasies.

Furthermore, Gerheim differentiates between the motives for entry and the motives for continuous demand practice.

  • The initial motives mentioned are curiosity about the prostitution environment and sexuality for sale and unwanted or situational processes that are triggered by randomly perceived stimuli and override existing “moral doubts or aesthetic concerns” through “alcohol consumption, acute psychological problems or group dynamics” . As a third motif, Gerheim names "habitual crises or identically charged sexual-biographical process disorders". These include “a lack of sexual experience, communicative problems in contact with women, subjectively perceived unattractiveness, loss of the partner, an 'agonizing' desire for sexual variety, privately unrealizable sexual practices”.
  • The continuous demand practical reasons Gerheim the one with a "continuing compensation strategy with continued habitual crisis, primarily as a classic compensate for problems in the private or cooperative sexuality." Accordingly, the prostitution environment has a strong “pull effect” on customers. "The following motifs have been empirically shown: the always possible, guaranteed, direct and uncomplicated access to every conceivable desired sexuality, the practice of 'pure' or 'pornographic' sexuality without lead time, adjusted from a romantic, tender physical approach phase, the Ego-centering of the interaction with the exclusion of relationship expectations, the spatial-temporal limitation of the intimate encounter, the liberation from responsibility for the (sexual) situation, the possibility of transcending male role models and gender-specific requirements (being able to be 'passive' or 'different') and to achieve privately unrealizable sexual settings and stagings ”.

The latter, however, contradicts previous findings insofar as the sexual practices actually in demand differ only little or not at all from private sexual practices based on partnerships. The majority of the customers surveyed for the Hydra study expressed more passive needs for tenderness, closeness, petting, cuddling, entertainment and lots of time.

Statements and testimonials from customers

In so-called customer forums, customers express themselves in a variety of ways to protect anonymity . The analysis of 350 citations from 2003 to 2018 revealed statements about so-called rip - offs , anger about borders, poverty , drugs , false advertising , fetishization , misogyny , cheating , crossing borders , poor hygiene , no contraception , listlessness , human trafficking , compassion , masculinity , objectification , Porn sex , racism , pain , self-image , self-pity , doesn't speak German, rape , feigned lust and pimping . In the debate about customer punishment, the manifesto “Hands off my whore” appeared in France and the “Open Letter to Alice Schwarzer” of the so-called “Free Offensive” in Germany. In some documentaries, customers have their say as interviewees.


Involuntary prostitution and forced prostitution

The reasons why people feel compelled to have sex for work can vary widely and are often multi-faceted. The distinction between coercion and voluntary career choice can be difficult. In economically weak countries, for example in third world countries, people usually take up this activity because otherwise they see no other way of making a living.

Even voluntary prostitutes, if there is a lack of support from their environment, be it socially, socially or materially, can become dependent and ultimately end up in involuntary prostitution, from which they can only find a way out of their own accord. It is not uncommon for prostitution to be combined with other criminal offenses such as pimping, extortion and human trafficking.


A pimp's waiting for a prostitute after a medical check-up (Berlin, 1890)

Pimps often coerce the prostitutes who work for them, either so that they prostitute themselves at all or so that they give him or her the desired share of the income. In all forms of prostitution, the prostitute can be under the control of a male or female pimp. It is not uncommon for pimps to keep prostitutes in a state of dependency by using violence or psychological manipulation (that is, by deliberately exploiting personal weaknesses), including occasional addictive drugs ; a particular violent dependency is created in the case of human trafficking (see also modern slavery ). Uneducated people from second or third world countries are often affected . In such situations all or most of the earnings go to the pimps. At best, consideration is given by ensuring the protection of the prostitute in the often dangerous environment.

Despite their commission, pimps can mean that prostitutes earn more with less work. An empirical analysis of prostitutes in Chicago shows that pimps recruit more solvent and willing customers than prostitutes alone. Prostitutes with pimps can also be better protected from violence by customers.

The boundaries are sometimes blurred: the wife or girlfriend can contribute to the livelihood of the community through prostitution or even deny it entirely without the participating partner being called a pimp.

human trafficking

On human trafficking members are often criminal organizations or relevant organizations ( Mafia , Outlaw Motorcycle gangs and the like) involved.

In particular, there is an area of ​​cross-border human trafficking in which people from economically weak countries or poor rural areas are lured or abducted by human traffickers under the pretense of legal work opportunities, where they are brought into personal and financial dependency through physical and emotional violence and the deprivation of liberty then be forced into prostitution.

Prostitution of minors and child prostitution

Child prostitution was already known in ancient times. The Roman poet Martial already welcomed in one of his epigrams that Emperor Domitian had passed a law against the prostitution of minors.

UNICEF estimates that four million children are commercially sexually exploited as part of international child prostitution; according to UNESCO estimates, two million.

In German criminal law, if consent or even an offer from a person under the age of 14 is available, Sections 176 and 176a of the Criminal Code ( sexual abuse of children ) apply to sexual acts . In countries like Germany or the Netherlands, the phenomenon of loverboys is observed who recruit underage girls.


Sex worker memorial Belle in Amsterdam's red light district De Wallen with the inscription "Respect sex workers all over the world."

Prostitution often takes place “in secret”, which is often seen as a reason why prostitutes are sometimes victims of psychological and physical violence. Serial killers sometimes choose prostitutes as victims, such as Jack the Ripper and Robert Pickton . In addition, 92% of all prostitutes surveyed reported in a study commissioned by the Federal Ministry for Family, Seniors, Women and Youth in 2004 that they experienced physical violence in their environment. 70% of all women surveyed also stated that they had experienced sexual violence at least once. These findings are several times higher than those of the representative federal study of all women living in Germany.

Interest groups proclaimed December 17th the “International Day to End Violence Against Sex Workers”.

A prostitute in Tijuana, Mexico

Prostitution as part of the crime of acquisitions

One reason for prostitution can be financial distress. Therefore, crime plays a major role in this context because, for example, an addictive substance can subsequently and supposedly simply be acquired. This gave rise to the term procurement prostitution .

Health and social hygiene aspects

Poor working conditions, but also the lack of social acceptance and related lawlessness which results in female prostitutes about a double life must lead, are the cause of a physical and psychological burnout ( Burnout seen), under which some prostitutes suffer. A 2005 study found that 41% of street prostitutes experienced violence while clients performed sexual services. But the perpetrators are also one's own relationship partners. Broken bones, sprains, injuries to the face and even burns have been described.

In a Lübeck study (110 participants) from 2007, a quarter of the street prostitutes examined were diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease requiring treatment. Almost half were affected by an acute or previous infection. With regard to syphilis and hepatitis B , the percentage was significantly increased compared to a non-prostituting control group. Were not significantly increased: chlamydia infection , aminocolpitis , Candida infection and HIV . The prevalence of hepatitis C in prostitutes was 4.5% and in the non-prostituting control group 0%.

Sexually transmitted diseases can persist for a longer period of time and result in considerable consequential damage and costs, which are increased by unprotected sexual intercourse, the number of customers and their other sexual partners. Due to the voluntary nature of the investigation, which has been mandatory in Germany since 2001, the study recommends reaching out to prostitutes more and creating a long-term basis of trust. However, the high turnover among prostitutes stands in the way of this.

A study by the Robert Koch Institute (1425 subjects) from 2010/11 in several health authorities came to the conclusion that the rates of sexually transmitted diseases among prostitutes in the study group differed drastically across the health authorities, but did not appear much higher than overall in the general population. However, a high infection rate was found among people who have recently started prostitution, are under 20 years old, take drugs, have no knowledge of German, are not literate, have no health insurance or, when asked, practice sex without a condom. The study sees an urgent need for preventive measures, including outreach counseling and examination offers by street workers and states: "Preventive behavior is difficult as long as women do not experience that they can shape their future through their own behavior and see positive long-term prospects . And finally, as with many people, there is a tendency to seek medical help only with acute complaints. Women who are forced into prostitution are often unable to protect themselves from sexually transmitted diseases or unwanted pregnancies. ”The HIV rate is 0.2% and is many times higher for prostitutes in the Netherlands at 2%.

Nevertheless, the Bochum dermatologist Norbert H. Brockmeyer , President of the German STI Society (DSTIG), warned in December 2013 on the occasion of the “Sex work and STI research” conference in Cologne against restrictions for female prostitutes and against prosecuting customers: “If we are from If we want to learn our approach to HIV infection, then we see that all the countries that have tried to contain the HIV epidemiology by means of coercive measures, had dramatic increases in infections. ”He warns of similar effects in Germany when female prostitutes and customers in Germany have to fear penalties or even stronger stigmatization.


The conditions for dropping out are generally difficult for prostitutes, as problems arise with the presentation of the résumé, for example in the case of applications. Environment-related social dependencies make it difficult to choose another career and even to return to the home country in view of the high transfer fees to pimps. For many women, leaving does not only seem financially risky.

In Germany, the responsibility for promoting exit lies primarily with the federal states.

Social and political acceptance

Social reviews

Prostitution is often viewed as "immoral", "immoral" and "socially corrupting". Prostitutes are seen by parts of the population as "inferior". They are usually automatically assigned negative characteristics, such as amorality or indignity. They have a marginal group status, as they do not correspond to the ideas of normality held by the majority of the population .

In the Nazi state they were considered anti- social . As a result of the National Socialist propaganda , the idea spread in Germany that this discrimination would correspond to a “ healthy popular feeling ”.

Up until the 1960s, women were already considered despicable as soon as they were viewed by society as “ fallen women ”.

Even today, extramarital and premarital sex is a criminal offense in some countries. Prostitution is prohibited in most countries (see Prostitution by country ).

According to a survey by Infratest dimap in Germany in 1999, over 70% of the age groups between 18 and 59 years answered yes to the question of whether prostitution should be a recognized profession with tax and social security obligations. 66% of men and 69% of women were in favor. Methodologically, however, the survey was criticized insofar as it was asked about “duties” and not about “rights” for prostitutes. According to the critics, a different formulation could have led to different results.

In Germany, according to an Emnid survey published in early 2014, a majority of the population spoke out against the prohibition of prostitution. The appeal for prostitution , a reaction to the appeal against prostitution launched by Alice Schwarzer and signed by numerous public figures, was initiated by the professional association for erotic and sexual services and also found prominent supporters. Visiting prostitutes, however, is usually done in secret.

State persecutions

The fight against prostitution is justified with concern about the general moral condition of society, but at the same time with the enforcement of certain values ​​and morals (prohibition of work and training for women or related restrictions, prohibition of abortion, criminal liability for homosexual acts, etc.) . In addition, prostitutes were publicly stigmatized: In the Middle Ages , prostitutes had to wear special veils and ribbons. Right up to modern times, women and men who were suspected of prostitution were listed as “sexually conspicuous” or “abnormal”. At the time of National Socialism , these were systematically recorded. In the concentration camps , as anti-social , they had to wear a black triangle .

Legal position

From a legal perspective, there are basically four models for regulating prostitution:

  1. With the prohibition principle , all acts and persons connected with prostitution are punished.
  2. The Abolitionsprinzip has a long-term goal of the abolition of prostitution. With this principle, the prostitutes themselves are viewed as victims and not legally prosecuted. Prostitution-related acts such as pimping, brothel entertainment and trafficking in women are indeed punished, and in some places customers are also punished.
  3. The regulatory principle tolerates prostitution as a necessary evil and places it under state control. The law prescribes brothel licensing and registration, health control and tax liability for prostitutes.
  4. The decriminalization principle regards prostitution as a form of gainful employment and regulates it accordingly, i.e. prostitution is decriminalized and the exploitation of prostitutes is legally counteracted.

While there is currently a strong trend in some European countries, such as Sweden , towards the principle of abolition (→ Nordic model ), other countries such as Germany, Austria, Switzerland and the Netherlands tend to follow the principle of decriminalization.

In Germany, prostitution by adults who do it voluntarily has been legally legalized since the Prostitution Act (ProstG) came into force on January 1, 2002. With regard to immorality, however, there are reservations, primarily for the purpose of protecting minors. However, while contracts on sexual behavior were previously viewed as immoral and thus void in accordance with Section 138 (1) of the German Civil Code (BGB), Section 1 Clause 1 Prostitution Act for the first time recognizes prostitutes' claim to remuneration that arises - retrospectively - when the sexual acts have been carried out . Accordingly, the disposition transaction for this fee is also effective. However, a distinction must be made between the obligatory business . Since the willingness to engage in sexual behavior for the sake of human dignity must be revocable at any time, a performance claim with regard to the performance of the prostitute cannot exist.

Prostitution takes place depending on the local moral code. Some cities have set up restricted areas. This means that prostitutes are only allowed to pursue their profession in places where there is no residential area and no schools, hospitals, churches or other social or religious institutions are located. As a result, it is not uncommon for a red light district to develop , if not an entire red light district . Concise examples are in Hamburg-St. Pauli the Reeperbahn or the Bahnhofsviertel in Frankfurt am Main .

On February 2, 2016, the women's political spokesman for the Union parliamentary group, Marcus Weinsberg, announced that a compromise had been found within the grand coalition (CDU / CSU, SPD) to reform the prostitution law that came into force in Germany in 2002. Said draft law should reach a vote in the cabinet in March 2016 and finally come into force in summer 2016. [outdated] The law comprised the following new regulations:

  • A legal condom obligation, if this regulation is not adhered to, the client faces a fine
  • Stricter requirements for brothel operators, authorization to open a prostitute, reliability check
  • Annual health advice for everyone working in prostitution is mandatory
  • Every two years mandatory notification to the authorities for all those working in prostitution. This reform is also viewed by critics as half-hearted.

In fact, a new prostitute protection law was passed in the summer of 2016 with effect from July 1, 2017.

Discussion about legalization

In addition to the dangers of financial and sexual exploitation of the prostitute ( forced prostitution ) or the spread of venereal diseases, critics of prostitution also criticize the sexualization of society associated with its public acceptance, but above all the degradation of the person's intimate area to an available commodity. The viability of the sexual service runs at least the risk of degrading the person himself to a viable object. Herein lies a violation of the human dignity of the prostitute and at the same time the violation of the personal claim to respect of the customer who receives goods where he should receive the gift of free personal attention.

Gloria Steinem points out that legalization could lead the state to encourage women to prostitute. In Nevada, the government viewed prostitution as a win-win situation compared to social welfare and pushed it forward until this was stopped by massive publicity campaigns.

Proponents of the decriminalization principle, on the other hand, endeavor to establish prostitution as a normal profession, the practice of which is to be protected from abuse and other professional risks. In 2004, the Viennese urban sociologist Julia Ortner claimed that the experiences in various countries that have banned prostitution showed that the ban did not work and that the conditions for women had become even worse as a result of a ban. This is especially true if it is not the clients but the prostitutes who are punished.

Proponents of the regulatory principle expect regular examinations and the official registration of all prostitutes to help combat AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases more effectively .

An age limit was also discussed in Germany. In 2014 there were proposals within the grand coalition to raise the age limit to 21 years. The extent to which such a measure protected against forced prostitution was controversial. Critics feared that this would push 18 to 21 year olds back into illegality.

Associations, self-help groups and specialist advice centers

The whore movement that was only visible to the public in the 20th century is organized very decentrally.


As an organization against prostitution, Sisters eV is actively committed to getting out of prostitution. In the association, social workers, politicians, trade unionists, journalists and former prostitutes support other prostitutes in getting out of prostitution. The main objective is to convey a realistic view of conditions in prostitution, to actively support prostitutes in their exit and to improve the legal framework for an exit. Sisters eV is networked worldwide and participates in the “3. World Congress Against Sexual Exploitation of Women and Girls in Mainz ”.

The ver.di trade union tries to represent the interests of prostitutes with a working group on prostitution (department 13 special services). The union is concentrating on the labor law protection of prostitutes, among other things with a model employment contract . In addition, the Federal Association of Sexual Services (BSD) was founded in 2002 for self-employed prostitutes and operators of brothels or brothel-like businesses . Since 2007 there has been a pure employers' association, the German Erotic Trade Association. As a network, the members support each other in dealing with authorities and try to educate the public about the industry. The professional association for erotic and sexual services (BesD), founded by prostitutes with the aim of improving their living and working conditions, has also existed since October 2013 . In general, the level of organization is currently still low, both on the labor side and on the capital side.

The alliance of specialist counseling centers for sex workers (bufas) is committed to the permanent improvement of the working and living conditions of prostitutes, their legal and social equality with other workers and the decriminalization of prostitution. The oldest German self-help organization for "sex workers" Hydra is located in Berlin and has existed as an association since 1980. In 2014, 16 specialist advice centers were members of bufas. They are organized in private or church sponsorship and are financed by public funds and donations. Every two years bufas organizes an annual conference. In 2014 this was organized together with the BesD under the name “Sexarbeitskogress”. The Federal Ministry of Family Affairs is funding three model projects for prostitutes to switch jobs for the period 2009-14. Diwa in Berlin, OPERA in Nuremberg and P. I. N. K. in Freiburg. Similar projects, for example at the Madonna association in Bochum, have been and are temporarily financed at the municipal level.

The working group of German-speaking male prostitutes (AKSD), founded in 1993, consists of eight member institutions throughout Germany and is committed to improving the social and psychosocial situation of male prostitutes. The focus of the activities are health-promoting measures (including STI prevention ), socio-educational and psychosocial care by means of contact and advice centers, and the online and chat advice Info4Escorts for escorts, call boys and pocket money boys. In addition, health authorities have been offering free testing and advice on sexually transmitted diseases since 2001.

The self-help organization Doña Carmen for prostitutes, founded in 1998, is based in Frankfurt am Main . It works independently of state funding and particularly represents the rights of migrant prostitutes. She offers guided tours of the brothel for women, publishes the newspaper “La Muchacha” and has been organizing the Frankfurt Prostitution Days for three years.

The nationwide coordination group against human trafficking has existed since 1987. V. This is an association of specialist advice centers for those affected by human trafficking . This includes victims of sexual exploitation, labor exploitation and forced marriage. The coordination group unites 36 member organizations, the largest of which is SOLWODI , founded in 1985 by the Catholic nun Lea Ackermann .

International organizations

Internationally, advice centers and interest groups are organized in the Network of Sex Work Projects (NSWP) founded in 1991 . A forerunner of the NSWP was the International Committee for Prostitutes 'Rights (ICPT), which published the World Charter For Prostitutes' Rights in Amsterdam in 1985 . The International Committee on the Rights of Sexworkers in Europe (ICRSE) has been an association of European whore organizations since 2004 .

Parallels in the animal kingdom

In the animal kingdom, too, sexual services are offered for a discount, although the "currency" is different. Females usually offer sexual services to males, from power torches to copulation. In the case of the Adelie penguins , the females acquire the coveted and difficult to obtain stones that are necessary for the safe hatching of the eggs fertilized by their steady partner (who is actually responsible for collecting stones) so that they do not sink into the mud. Monkeys, on the other hand, use sex in all its forms to get bananas, grapes or even a number of minutes of grooming minutes depending on supply and demand , which was observed in both capuchin monkeys and bonobos , according to biologist Mario Ludwig .

Artistic implementations

In connection with the redesign of the Munich restricted area in 1980, the band Spider Murphy Gang had great success with their song Scandal im Sperrgebiet . In 2012 the Munich hip-hop band Blumentopf recorded a continuation of the song together with Günther Sigl and Rosi .

In 1996 ProSieben produced the film Merciless - Forced to Prostitution , which tells the story of Milena, an 18-year-old student from Prague. First she is kidnapped at the Berlin Zoo and forced into prostitution, at the end of the film Milena claims that she would do it voluntarily.

Frequently prostitution is also discussed in novels, for example in The Whore of Iny Lorentz , which was made into a film of 2010.

See also

Portal: Prostitution  - Overview of Wikipedia content on the subject of prostitution



  • Sabine Grenz: (Un) secret pleasure: About the consumption of sexual services. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2005, ISBN 3-531-14776-5 .
  • Sabine Grenz, Martin Lücke (Ed.): Negotiations in the twilight. Moments of prostitution, past and present. Transcript, Bielefeld 2006, ISBN 3-89942-549-9 .
  • Vern Leroy Bullough : History of Prostitution. University Books, New Hyde Park, NY 1964. (translated into Italian as Italian as Storia Della Prostituzione. Dall Oglio, Milan 1967)
  • Norbert Campagna: Prostitution. A philosophical inquiry. Parerga, Berlin 2005, ISBN 978-3-937262-15-4 .
  • Nils Johan Ringdal: The New World History of Prostitution. [1997] Piper, Munich / Zurich 2006, ISBN 3-492-04797-1 .
  • Max Gruber: Prostitution viewed from the point of view of social hygiene. Lecture. 1900.
  • Elisabeth von Dücker (Ed.): Sex work. Prostitution - worlds and myths. Edition Temmen, Bremen 2005, ISBN 3-86108-542-9 .
  • Marcel Feige: The lexicon of prostitution. The whole ABC of lust. Schwarzkopf & Schwarzkopf, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-89602-520-1 .
  • Michaela Freund-Widder: Women under control: prostitution and the state fight against it in Hamburg from the end of the German Empire to the beginning of the Federal Republic, Münster 2007.
  • Alice Frohnert: Views of Prostitution. Dimensions of today's image of women, illustrated using the example of prostitution in texts in the tabloid press. RG Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1992, ISBN 3-89406-675-X .
  • Alice Frohnert: Dimensions of prostitution, poly- and monogamy: analyzed in the context of the patriarchal social order. Weidler, Berlin 1992, ISBN 3-925191-67-4 .
  • Malte König: The state as a pimp. The abolition of regulated prostitution in Germany, France and Italy in the 20th century. (Library of the German Historical Institute in Rome, vol. 131), De Gruyter, Berlin 2016.
  • Fritz Koch: Managed lust: City administration and prostitution in Frankfurt am Main 1866–1968. Wiesbaden 2010.
  • Sybille Krafft: Breeding and fornication: prostitution and moral police in Munich at the turn of the century. Munich 1996.
  • Julia Roos: Weimar through the Lens of Gender. Prostitution Reform, Woman's Emancipation, and German Democracy, 1919–33, Ann Arbor 2010.
  • Claudia Thoben: Prostitution in Nuremberg: Perception and measures between 1871 and 1945, Nuremberg 2007.
  • Christian Friedrich Majer: The prostitution contract and good morals . In: Law Studies & Exams . Issue 3, 2012, p. 5–22 ( [PDF]).
  • Cecilie Høigård, Liv Finstad: Side streets - money, power and love or the myth of prostitution. Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg 1987, ISBN 3-499-18390-0 .
  • Tamara Domentat: Let yourself be pampered - prostitution in Germany. Structure, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-7466-7046-2 .
  • Prostitute project Hydra (ed.): Freier: The secret doings of men. Verlag am Galgenberg, Hamburg 1991, ISBN 3-87058-103-4 .
  • Prostitution among the peoples of the old and new world represented historically and under constitutional law. Stuttgart 1874. (Reprint: Reprint Verlag Leipzig, Holzminden 1999, ISBN 3-8262-1602-4 )
  • Laurie Penny: Meat Market: Female Bodies in Capitalism. Edition Nautilus, Hamburg 2012, ISBN 978-3-89401-755-2 .
  • Philipp Sarasin : Prostitution. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
  • Margit Brückner, Christa Oppenheimer: Life situation prostitution. Safety, Health and Social Aid. Helmer Verlag, Königstein 2006, ISBN 978-3-89741-205-7 .
  • Pierre Dufour: "History of Prostitution", two volumes, Reprint Eichborn-Verlag, FFM 1995, ISBN 3-8218-0517-X

Prostitution milieu and pimp economy:

Migration and sex work:

  • Laura María Agustín: Sex at the Margins: Migration, Labor Markets and the Rescue Industry. Zed Books, London 2007, ISBN 978-1-84277-860-9 . (For a review, see )
  • Sheila Jeffreys: The Industrialized Vagina. The political economy of the global sex trade. Marta Press, Hamburg 2014, ISBN 978-3-944442-09-9 .

Web links

Commons : Prostitution  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Prostitution  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. The Epic of Gilgamesh. translated and annotated by Albert Schott. Verlag Reclam, Stuttgart 1988, ISBN 3-15-007235-2 , p. 12.
  2. ANCIENT: dirty sex in lamp soot ; In: DER SPIEGEL 22/1998.
  3. ^ Bettina Eva Stumpp: Prostitution in Roman antiquity. Akademie Verlag, Berlin 2001.
  4. ^ Franz Kogler (ed.): Herders new Bibellexikon. Freiburg im Breisgau 2008, ISBN 978-3-451-32150-4 .
  5. Helmut Hundsbichler, Harry Kühnel (ed.): Everyday life in the late Middle Ages. Verlag Styria, Graz / Vienna / Cologne 1996, ISBN 3-222-12451-5 , p. 41 f.
  6. Peter Schuster: The women's shelter. Urban brothels in Germany (1350–1600). Schöningh, Paderborn 1992, ISBN 3-506-78251-7 .
  7. Stephan Gottschalt: The reorganization of commercial prostitution through the Reformation. Grin Verlag, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-640-97504-4 .
  8. ^ Franz S. Hügel: On the history, statistics and regulation of prostitution. Dogma, 2012, ISBN 978-3-95507-579-8 , p. 143.
  9. a b c d Bernard de Mandeville: A Modest Pamphlet for Public Whorehouses Or An Attempt at Fornication as it is now practiced in the UK. Posted by a layperson. Translated from English, annotated and provided with an essay by Ursula Pia Jauch. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich 2001, p. 60, note 55, also p. 140.
  10. ^ "Prostitution is only a particular expression of the universal prostitution of the worker", from Karl Marx: Economic and philosophical manuscripts, 1844.
  11. ^ Romina Schmitter: Prostitution - The oldest trade in the world? In: From Politics and Contemporary History. 9/2013, p. 23 f.
  12. ^ Philipps, p. 86.
  13. Sonja Dolinsek: Convention for the Suppression of Trafficking in Persons (1949) and statement on prostitution and human rights (1986). (No longer available online.) In: Sources for the history of human rights. Working Group Human Rights in the 20th Century, September 2016, archived from the original on January 11, 2017 ; accessed on January 11, 2017 .
  14. Source perhaps (!): Der Spiegel, January 4, 2004.
  15. ECJ of November 20, 2001 - Case C-268/99
  16. ^ "Café Pssst" against the State of Berlin, February 28, 2001. In: Website of the Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf district office of Berlin (accessed on July 1, 2014)
  17. Mary Honeyball: REPORT on Sexual Exploitation and Prostitution and Its Impact on Gender Equality. (PDF) Retrieved April 24, 2020 .
  18. Transcrime, MON-EU-TRAF II - A Study for monitoring the international trafficking in human beings for the purpose of sexual exploitation in the EU member States, Transcrime Report no.9, Trento 2004, p. 101
  20. Punish the clients, not the prostitutes, demands the parliament In:
  21. Sexual exploitation and prostitution and its impact on gender equality - ( Memento of March 8, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  22. ^ Council of Europe: Resolution 1983 (2014)
  23. German Women's Council : Statement of the Women's Council for Free Punishment - German Women's Council rejects FEMM's initiative against prostitution ( Memento of February 22, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), January 29, 2014
  24. Alice Schwarzer on prostitution: "Voluntariness is a myth" In:, October 31, 2007.
  25. ^ Federal Ministry for Family, Seniors, Women and Youth : Prostitution. January 2014 (online)
  26. A small question from the Left Group
  27. Flatrate brothels: The meat market on the outskirts of Berlin In:, August 13, 2015.
  28. Cem Yıldız: Fucking Germany: The last taboo or my life as an escort. Westend Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2009, ISBN 978-3-938060-39-1 .
  29. Hannes Jaenecke reports on the sexual exploitation of orangutangs in brothels
  30. ^ German Bundestag: Sexual assistance for people with disabilities. In: Scientific Services. Bundestag, April 27, 2018, accessed on February 1, 2021 .
  31. Bazuin, Anneke; Eisen-Raetsch, Renate; Weiser, Sigrid; Zinsmeister, Julia: Sexual assistance for women and men with disabilities. Pro Familia, 2005, accessed February 1, 2021 .
  32. E. Haavio-Mannila, A. Rotkirch: Gender liberalization and polarization: Comparing sexuality in St. Petersburg, Finland and Sweden, The Finish Review of East European Studies. Volume 7, 2000, No. 3-4.
  33. a b c d H. Leridon, G. Zesson, M. Hubert: The Europeans and their sexual partners. 1998 In: M. Hubert, N. Bajos and T. Sandfort (Eds.): Sexual Behavior and HIV / AIDS in Europe. P. UCL Lyngbye, London 2000; Mænd der betaler kvinder - om brug av prostitution. Roskilde Universitetsforlag, Roskilde
  34. ^ B. Lewin (Ed.): Sex in Sweden. On the Swedish Sexual Life. The National Institute of Public Health, Stockholm 1998.
  35. Claus Lautrup: It shall ikke vaere eb krop mod krop - oplevelse… En sociologisk undersogelse om prostitution customer. Copenhagen 2005, ISBN 87-91509-24-6 .
  36. ^ K. Wellings et al .: Sexual Behavior in Britain. The National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles. Penguin Books, London 1994.
  37. E. Haavio-Mannila, A. Rotkirch: Gender liberalization and polarization: Comparing sexuality in St. Petersburg, Finland and Sweden. The Finish Review of East European Studies, Vol. 7, 2000, No. 3-4
  38. ^ RT Michael, JH Gagnon, EO Laumann, G. Kolata: Sex in America: A Definitive Survey. Little, Brown and Company, Boston 1994.
  39. ^ Ronald Weitzner: Prostitution as a form of work. In: Sociology Compass. 1 (1), 2007.
  40. Dieter Kleiber, Doris Velten: Prostitution customers: A study of social and psychological characteristics of visitors of female prostitutes in times of AIDS. Nomos Verlag, Baden-Baden 1994, ISBN 3-7890-3260-3 .
  41. Udo Gerheim: The production of the suitor - power in the field of prostitution A sociological study. transcript Gender Studies. transcript Verlag, Bielefeld 2012, ISBN 978-3-8376-1758-0 , p. 7 ( ( Memento from May 13, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) PDF).
  42. Gudrun Friese: Whores on the barricades. In: Emma. 2/1986, p. 20. Quoted from: Petra Schmackpfeffer: Women's movement and prostitution: on the relationship of the old and new German women's movement to prostitution. BIS Verlag, 1999, ISBN 3-8142-0329-1 , p. 85. (online)
  43. Petra Schmackpfeffer: Women's movement and prostitution: on the relationship of the old and new German women's movement to prostitution. BIS Verlag, 1999, ISBN 3-8142-0329-1 , p. 85. ( online ). Quoted from: Sabine Grenz: (In) secret pleasure - About the consumption of sexual services. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2005, ISBN 3-531-14776-5 , p. 19.
  44. For a male population between 18 and 60 years of age of 23.831 million in 2012 according to the 12th coordinated population projection DESTATIS, variant 1 (online)
  45. Gerheim, p. 8.
  46. Gerheim, p. 9.
  47. Udo Gerheim: Motives of the male demand for sex for sale. In: From Politics and Contemporary History. 9/2013, p. 44.
  48. Claus Lautrup: It shall ikke vaere eb krop mod krop - oplevelse… En sociologisk undersogelse om prostitution customers. Copenhagen 2005.
  49. ^ Sven-Axel Månsson: Man's Practice in Prostitution: The case of Sweden. Lecture by the author at the 15th World Congress for Sexology, 24. – 28. June 2001, Paris.
  50. ( Memento from May 13, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF) Kleiber 2004, quoted from Gerheim
  51. Dieter Kleiber, Doris Velten: Prostitution customers: A study of social and psychological characteristics of visitors of female prostitutes in times of AIDS. Nomos Verlag, Baden-Baden 1994, ISBN 3-7890-3260-3 .
  52. Doris Velten: Aspects of sexual socialization. An analysis of qualitative data on the biographical development patterns of prostitution customers. Dissertation. Berlin 1994.
  53. Lorna Martin: Sex, sand and sugar mummies in a Caribbean beach fantasy. In: The Guardian. July 23, 2006.
  54. Grenz, p. 32.
  55. ^ Grenz, p. 234.
  56. Grenz, p. 34.
  57. ^ Grenz, p. 50.
  58. Gerheim, p. 15 ( ( Memento from May 13, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) PDF).
  59. Cecilie Høigård, Liv Finstad: Side streets - money, power and love or the myth of prostitution. Rowohlt Verlag, Reinbek near Hamburg 1987, ISBN 3-499-18390-0 .
  60. ^ J. Chetwynde et al .: Knowledge, attidudes and activities of male clients of femal sesx workers: risk factors for HIV. In: New Zealand Medivcal Journal. September 14, 1994.
  61. Tamara Domentat: Let yourself be pampered - prostitution in Germany. Aufbau Verlag, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-7466-7046-2 , p. 86.
  62. Tamara Domentat: Let yourself be pampered - prostitution in Germany. Aufbau Verlag, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-7466-7046-2 , p. 132.
  63. Gerheim, pp. 16-17.
  64. Petra Schmackpfeffer: Women's movement and prostitution. About the relationship of the old and new women's movement to prostitution. Oldenburg 1989.
  65. ^ Mary Honeyball: Treat prostitution like rape. In: The Independent. Open house. January 28, 2008. Quoted from: Gerheim, p. 9 ( ( Memento from May 13, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) PDF).
  66. see Gerheim, p. 24 ( ( Memento from May 13, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) PDF).
  67. Andrea Dworkin: Pornography - Men rule women. With a foreword by Alice Schwarzer. EMMA-Frauenverlag, Cologne 1987, ISBN 3-922670-15-6 , p. 24.
  68. Andrea Dworkin: Pornography - Men rule women. With a foreword by Alice Schwarzer. EMMA- Frauenverlag, Cologne 1987, ISBN 3-922670-15-6 , p. 24.
  69. ^ Sheila Jeffreys: The idea of ​​prostitution. Spinifex Press, North Melbourne (Australia) 1997. Quoted from: Grenz, p. 14.
  70. ^ Janice G. Raymond: Prostitution as Violence Against Women. NGO Stonewalling in Bejing and Elsewhere. Women's Studies International Forum. OO 1998. Quoted from: Grenz, p. 14.
  71. ^ Report 2004: Purchasing Sexual Services in Sweden and the Netherlands. Legal Regulation and Experiences. An abbreviated English version. A report by a Working Group on the legal regulation of sexual services, Ministry od Justice and the Police, Oslo, Norway. Quoted from: Gerheim, p. 11 ( ( Memento from May 13, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) PDF).
  72. Doris Velten: Aspects of sexual socialization. An analysis of qualitative data on biographical development patterns of prostitution customers. Dissertation. Berlin 1994. Quoted from: Grenz, pp. 20-21.
  73. ^ Anti Häkkinen: Clients of Prostituttes - A historical Perspective of Finland. Nordic Symposium of Prostitution Research. 2nd-4th April 1997. Quoted from Gerheim, p. 15 ( ( Memento from May 13, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) PDF).
  74. Gerheim, p. 18 ( ( Memento from May 13, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) PDF).
  75. Volker Handke and others: Male sexualities. Discussion paper for workshop 10 of the workshop of the Forum Men in Theory and Practice of Gender Relations: Masculinity in Movement - Analyzes, Perspectives, Positions. Gunda Wernder Institute for Feminism and Gender Democracy at the Heinrich Böll Foundation. Berlin, 1./2. October 2010. (online)
  76. Andrea Rothe: Men, Prostitution, Tourism. When gentlemen travel ... Verlag Westfälisches Dampfboot, Münster 1997, ISBN 3-89691-408-1 . Quoted from: Grenz, p. 22
  77. Christina von Braun: Shame and Shamelessness. In: T. Natter, et al. (Ed.): The naked truth. Klimt, Schiele, Kokoschka and other scandals. Prestel publishing house, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-7913-3284-8 . Quoted from: Gerheim, p. 68. ( ( Memento from May 13, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) PDF).
  78. ^ Robert Connell: Sexual Revolution. In: L. Segal (Ed.): New Sexual Agenda. Routledge. London. Quoted from: Tamara Domentat: Let yourself be pampered - prostitution in Germany. Aufbau Verlag, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-7466-7046-2 , p. 134.
  79. ^ Sigmund Freud: Contributions to the psychology of love life. Quoted from: Doris Velten: Aspects of sexual socialization. An analysis of qualitative data on biographical development patterns of prostitution customers. Dissertation. Berlin 1994.
  80. Gerheim, p. 67. ( ( Memento from May 13, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) PDF).
  81. Gerheim, p. 67. ( ( Memento from May 13, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) PDF).
  82. Gerheim, p. 20. ( ( Memento from May 13, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) PDF).
  83. Tamara Domentat: Let yourself be pampered - prostitution in Germany. Aufbau Verlag, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-7466-7046-2 , p. 102.
  84. Sabine Grenz: (Un) secret pleasure. About consuming sexual services. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2005, ISBN 3-531-34776-4 .
  85. ^ Grenz, p. 22.
  86. Doris Velten: Aspects of sexual socialization. An analysis of qualitative data on the biographical development patterns of prostitution customers. Dissertation. Berlin 1994. Quoted from: Grenz, p. 23.
  87. Gerheim, p. 20. ( ( Memento from May 13, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) PDF).
  88. Gerheim, pp. 301-302. ( ( Memento from May 13, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) PDF).
  89. Gerheim, p. 303. ( ( Memento from May 13, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) PDF).
  90. ^ Prostitute project Hydra (ed.): Freier: The secret bustle of men. Verlag am Galgenberg, Hamburg 1991, ISBN 3-87058-103-4 . Quoted from: Tamara Domentat: Let yourself be pampered: Prostitution in Germany. Structure, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-7466-7046-2 , p. 96.
  92. Manifesto "Touche pas à ma pute!" (Hands off my whore!)
  93. Open Letter of the suitors offensive on Alice Schwarzer January 2014
  94. NZZ documentary: "Sex work, prohibition or tolerance"
  95. Frau-TV (WDR), documentary: "The suitor, the unknown being" ( Memento from January 18, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
  96. Steven Levitt, Sudhir Venkatesh: Empirical Analysis of Street-Level Prostitution. ( Memento from June 12, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) September 2007 (PDF; 1.6 MB).
  97. Jens Leberl: Domitian and the poets Poetry as a medium of power representation . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2004, ISBN 978-3-525-25253-6 , pp. 290 ( preview in Google Book Search - reference to Henriksen).
  98. Worldwide Systems of Prostitution ( Memento from September 12, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
  99. Kristina Touzenis: Trafficking in human beings. Human rights and trans-national criminal law, developments in law and practices. In:, 2003 (PDF), ISBN 978-92-3-104182-2
  100. PROSTITUTION: Math in the morning, whore at noon - DER SPIEGEL 27/2010.
  101. BMFSMJ (Ed.): Living situation, safety and health of women in Germany. A representative study on violence against women in Germany, summary of central study results Bonn 2004 ( ).
  102. Sonja Dolinsek: December 7th: The International Day to End Violence Against Sex Workers In:
  103. Martina Schuster: With professionalism against burnout. In: Elisabeth von Dücker, Museum der Arbeit Hamburg (ed.): Sex work: Prostitution-Lebenswelten und Mythen. Bremen 2005.
  104. Christa Oppenheimer: Experiences of violence and health situation among prostitutes. In: Social Extra. September 2005, Springer Verlag, p. 37.
  105. Anna Wolff: Investigation of the infection status of prostitutes in Lübeck. Doctoral thesis Lübeck 2007, pp. 52–54 ( PD: 484 kB, 78 pages on
  106. RKI - Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) - KABP-Surv STI study in female prostitutes (2010/2011) ( Memento from April 24, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  107. ^ Prostitution: Doctors encourage unprejudiced interaction. In: Doctors newspaper . Retrieved October 22, 2016 .
  108. Leaving prostitution - Sperrgebiet Hamburg In: , accessed on December 19, 2018.
  109. Gießen: Prostitute reports on International Women's Day about life before and after leaving. Gießener Anzeiger, March 11, 2018, accessed on July 14, 2018 .
  110. How does the federal government intend to promote the exit from prostitution? (No longer available online.) In: Questions and Answers on the Federal Government's Report on the Effects of the Prostitution Act. BMFSFJ, January 2, 2010, archived from the original on November 1, 2014 ; Retrieved November 5, 2014 .
  111. Beate Leopold, Elfriede Steffan, Nikola Paul: Documentation on the legal and social situation of prostitutes in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1997, p. 13.
  112. Robert Sommer in an interview with Franziska von Kempis: Himmler's concentration camp brothels - “The cursed hours in the evening” . In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , June 19, 2009.
  113. Cornelia Helfferich et al. Social Science Women's Research Institute Freiburg: Study "Effects of the Prostitution Act" on behalf of the BMFSFJ ( Memento from July 15, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
  114. Survey: Majority of Germans against Prostitution Prohibition In: , January 2014, accessed on December 19, 2018.
  115. EMMA Appeal Against Prostitution In: , accessed on December 19, 2018.
  116. a b Prostitution - between rejection, marginalization and acceptance - Interview with Eva van Rahden from SILA ( Memento from October 9, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
  117. ^ In the Weimar Republic a cocotte tax was considered. In the cabinet meeting on June 5, 1930 it was said: “Reich Chancellor against salt tax, asks for other proposals.” The then Reich Finance Minister Moldenhauer suggested: “a) Kokotten tax, b) Kurzerock tax, [...]." Reich chancellery files Retrieved September 9, 2018.
  118. Christian F. Majer: The prostitution contract and good morals. In: JSE. 3/2012, p. 5 ff. ( PDF ).
  119. Obligation to register prostitutes: The grand coalition has agreed on a long-planned prostitution law. In:, February 2, 2016.
  120. Emma Brockes : Gloria Steinem: 'If men could get pregnant, abortion would be a sacrament'. The Guardian, October 17, 2015, accessed October 21, 2016 .
  121. ^ Julia Ortner: Unsettled voyeurs. ( Memento from February 12, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) In: Falter . 23/04 of June 2, 2004.
  122. Judicial Criminal Statistics 2009 Statistics Austria , ISBN 978-3-902703-54-5 , S 22: The Federal Law, Federal Law Gazette No. 243/1989, made § 210 StGB, which has hitherto made commercial same-sex fornication with a male person under punishment posed, canceled. This legal measure is the result of a detailed discussion, in which the proponents mainly argued that the countermeasures taken in connection with the spread of AIDS, in particular the implementation of regular examinations and the official registration of all prostitutes, were made by the general criminality of male homosexual prostitution would be severely impaired in their efficiency.
  123. ^ Prostitution Act - "Age limit very problematic". Sönke Rix in conversation with Thielko Grieß In:
  124. Miriam Hollstein: Sex for sale: New minimum age for prostitutes divides coalition In:, June 13, 2014.
  125. SISTERS declare war on politics! In: emma (magazine) . emma (magazine) - EMMA Frauenverlags GmbH, accessed on September 28, 2015 .
  126. SISTERS declare war on politics! In: Süddeutsche Zeitung . Süddeutsche Zeitung - Süddeutsche Zeitung GmbH (Germany), accessed on June 20, 2016 .
  127. Sabine Constabel helps women get out of prostitution. In: Diakonie Deutschland . Diakonie Deutschland - Evangelischer Bundesverband - Evangelical Work for Diakonie and Development, accessed on June 6, 2018 .
  128. Voluntary prostitution is a fairy tale. In: Südwestrundfunk . Südwestrundfunk SWR Aktuell, accessed on February 27, 2019 .
  129. Buying sex is violence. In: Saarländischer Rundfunk . Saarländischer Rundfunk SR2, accessed on April 2, 2019 .
  130. Entrepreneur Association Erotik Gewerbe Deutschland
  131. Members - ( Memento from January 26, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
  133. Michael Miersch: Between animals: Prostitution is also common in the animal world In:, September 21, 2009.
  134. ^ Prostitution in the animal kingdom in:, 2011. MP3 audio