Gospel according to Luke
The Gospel according to Luke ( ancient Greek εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Λουκᾶν ), mostly as Luke or short as Luke referred, the third book of the New Testament in the Christian Bible . It deals with the life of Jesus from his birth to his ascension . Luke has been divided into 24 chapters since the Middle Ages.
While the other canonical Gospels are self-contained writings, Luke is the first "volume" of the so-called "Lukan double work": the Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles form a unity in terms of form and content.
Everyday ancient Greek ( Koine ) or ancient Greek characterizes the author of the Gospel according to Luke as an author with a Hellenistic education, which is also documented in the sophisticated language and the conscious inclusion of traditions from ancient historiography. He had a strong knowledge of the Jewish traditions, possibly the author belonged to the circle of godly people who gathered as sympathizers around the diaspora synagogue without converting to the Mosaic faith or he was a Jewish Christian .
|Acts of the Apostles|
According to tradition, was Lukas Greek, was in Syrian Antioch (today's Turkey ) born and was there for the first Gentile Christians that Paul in 40 evangelized . It is said that he accompanied Paul on his second missionary trip in 51 to Macedonia and Greece and lived for some time with the Christian community in Philippi .
A little later he followed Paul to Jerusalem and Rome (in the year 62), but lived again in Greece after Paul's death. There he wrote his gospel and his second work, the book of Acts . At the age of 84 he died in Achaia / Boeotia.
In the second half of the second century, Irenaeus of Lyon was probably the first to research the author of what is now known as the Gospel of Luke and also thought of Luke, the friend and travel companion of the Apostle Paul. Luke is mentioned as such in three Pauline letters:
- Phlm 1,23–24 EU : "Epaphras sends hisregards to you, who is sitting here with me in jail for Jesus Christ, also greet my colleagues Markus, Aristarchus, Demas and Lukas ."
- Col 4,14 EU : “Our dear Lukas , the doctor, and Demasgreet you”.
- 2 Tim 4,11 EU : “Only Luke is still with me. Bring Markus with you, because he will be a good helper for me. "
Some also suspect that there is a fourth Pauline passage, 2 Cor 8,18 EU "With him I am sending my brother, who is highly regarded by all churches because of his work for the good news" the evangelist Luke.
In the Acts of the Apostles , a passage from Paul's journey from Troas to Philippi refers to Luke as a travel companion for Irenaeus, Acts 16: 10-11 EU : “We drove from Troas on the shortest route to the island of Samothrace, and on the second day we reached Neapolis ". The author changes here to the we-form, so he refers to the society of Paul.
In Col 4.14, Luke is called a doctor. Since the author of Luke's Gospel primarily describes the healing stories of Jesus Christ, one can read the Gospel in such a way that the author is not concerned with teachings, but with the art of healthy living. The art of healthy living was probably one of the most important tasks for ancient doctors. Jesus is portrayed in the gospel as the leader of the art of healthy living. Conclusion: A healthy life is attained by believing in Jesus Christ.
A later depiction shows Lukas as a painter. The painterly language of the author should support this claim. As evidence, for example, John's hopping in the womb was cited. Likewise, the first image of Mary is said to come from the artistic hand of St. Luke the Evangelist. This attribution probably stems from the writer's special relationship with Mary, which is also clear in the Gospel.
A name in the headings of the Gospel can only be found in the 2nd century. However, the oldest manuscripts are not found until the 2nd century. The oldest extensive manuscript for the Gospel of Luke, Papyrus 75 , already brings the subscription “according to Luke”. That indicates that the heading was probably placed in front of the canonization to distinguish the Gospels. From this it follows that the gospel was initially delivered anonymously. Although the author addresses the reader personally in the preface, the author does not undertake an introduction. The salutation "illustrious Theophilus" cannot be equated with salutation "dear reader". Theophilus means something like "who loves God". Other research see in Theophilus also a Roman official, which is mainly justified by the formal address.
If there was a close relationship between Paul and the author of the gospel, it had little theological impact on the gospel of Luke. In addition, the portrayal of the work of Paul and the personality image of the letters of Paul on the one hand and the Acts of the Apostles on the other hand are often assessed as very different. This is an argument against the authorship of an "apostle student Luke" and the name Luke is assessed as the oldest religiously determined cognom (= epithet / similar religious name).
Several theologians, especially in the Anglo-Saxon language area, take a different view. They assume that Luke was the apostle's friend and the author of the third gospel. The argument for this is that the title "Gospel According to Luke" was present from the beginning.
In science, both theses (Luke as a student of the apostle and Luke as a cognom) are represented by various researchers as possible. Nobody can be agreed with absolute certainty.
Among historically critical (or “liberal”) New Testament scholars, a late dating of the origin of the Gospel of Luke between around 70 and 90 AD dominates, while “conservatives” tend towards an early dating around 60 AD. An extreme early dating to the decades immediately after the ministry of Jesus is hardly represented.
|Hypothetical origins of the Gospel according to Luke||Adolf von Harnack (1851–1930)||John AT Robinson (1919-1983)||Werner G. Kümmel (1905–1995)||Klaus Berger (1940-2020)||Majority opinion|
|Author or editor of the Gospel of Luke||AD 79-93||57-60 +||70-90||65-71||80-90|
Late dating around 80 AD
In his widespread NT introduction, Kümmel considers a date “between 70 and 90” to be probable. The destruction of Jerusalem in the year 70 is assumed to be the earliest possible point in time because - according to the opinion - the author is already looking back on it. The determination of the latest possible time is less clear. The relationship between church and state appears unproblematic to the evangelist. Accordingly, the persecution of Christians under Domitian (r. 81–96 AD) should not have been known to him. Luke is probably already looking back on Paul's death and apparently does not know the collection of Paul’s letters, which was distributed around 100 AD. A safe upper limit is the Didache , which in 1.4 refers to the Lukan field speech (Luke 6.27-30). But dating the Didache is difficult.
Peter Pilhofer believes that at the end of his double work ( Acts 28,30–31 EU ) , Lukas assumed that a peaceful life for Christians was possible with the tolerance of the Roman authorities. This is also indicated by the Lucanian version of the pericope of the captain of Capernaum ( Lk 7.1–10 EU ) and the story of the Centurion Cornelius in the Acts of the Apostles ( Acts 10.2–22 EU ). According to Pilhofer, however, such peaceful coexistence was only finally ruled out after the reign of Trajan (r. 98–117 AD). "In his day the relationship between Christian communities and Roman authorities was irreparable, because being Christian as such was a crime punishable by the death penalty." Accordingly, the time of activity of Luke should be at the end of the 1st century. For this reason, as well as observations of the content, Pilhofer dates the writing time of the Lukan double work to around 90.
Early dating around AD 60
Several New Testament scholars date the gospel to about AD 60; as explained in NT introductions and similar overview works by Carson and Moo, Klaus Berger , John AT Robinson , Gerhard Hörster, Erich Mauerhofer or Karl Jaroš . Even Adolf von Harnack had hold this view. The historian Alexander Mittelstädt, who explicitly explores the question of dating again in his dissertation, also advocates the thesis of an earlier origin.
The central arguments for this position are as follows: In Jesus' end-time speech ( Lk 21.5–36 EU ) only a siege and capture of a city that was customary at the time is described. Even more: if one compares the end-time speech with the reports of Josephus Flavius , it becomes clear that central details of the historical course of the war are not described.
Above all, there is no reference in the Acts of the Apostles to the murder of James in the year 62 and of Peter and Paul in the course of the Neronian persecution of Christians around AD 64–67; the death of these three most important personalities of the early church would actually be important for the theme of the Acts of the Apostles. In contrast, the martyrdom of the less well-known Stephen is described in detail. Could Luke have written such an open ending later, also with clear sympathy for the Roman authorities? If Luke is seen primarily as the first Christian historiographer, this is hardly imaginable. For such reasons, some theologians advocate dating the Acts of the Apostles around AD 62 and the Gospel of Luke as the first part of the Lukan double work around AD 60. On the other hand, it is emphasized that his double work only follows a theological structure (Jesus' path after Jerusalem - the way of the Gospel into the whole world), the description of the death of Paul and others does not seem essential.
Otto Konrad Roller gave a completely different reason in 1929: Pliny the Elder reported in his Natural History ( Naturalis historia ) around the year 50 of a fall in the price of sparrows; this explains the lower price for Luke (five sparrows for two aces) compared to Matthew (two sparrows for an ace ). The Gospel of Luke should therefore have been written soon afterwards.
Like all writings of the New Testament, the Gospel of Luke is written in the common Greek language of the time, the Koine . It is noticeable that the author sometimes uses a very sophisticated style of language that comes close to classical Greek (e.g. Lk 1,1-4 EU ) and is based on the Septuagint .
The oldest handwritten testimonies are Papyri 75 and 4 . Manuscript 75 contains Lk 3-18; 22-24 and thus about 80 percent of the total text; its origin is estimated to be between 175 and 225. Also from the end of the 2nd century to the beginning of the 3rd century 4 , which only contains chapters 1–6. The oldest manuscripts with the entire text are the two large codices Sinaiticus and Vaticanus from the first half of the 4th century.
Special features of the Gospel of Luke
Martin Dibelius has called the Evangelist Luke the "first Christian historian". The proximity of the Gospel of Luke, which has long been recognized, to the customs of Hellenistic historiography is already reflected in the foreword:
“Many have already undertaken to write a report on everything that happened and fulfilled among us. 2 In doing so, they followed the tradition of those who were eyewitnesses and servants of the word from the beginning. 3 Now I, too, have made up my mind to go through everything carefully, in order to write it down for you, dear Theophilus, one after the other. 4 In this way you can convince yourself of the reliability of the teaching in which you have been instructed. "
The Gospel of Luke is in particular the first Gospel to take into account the delayed return of Christ, the so-called Parousia delay . Mk 1.15 EU - “The time is fulfilled, the kingdom of God is at hand” - has been deleted, Lk 21.8 EU warns against those who say the end is near (cf. Lk 17.20f EU ). The central content of the message of Jesus, the coming of the kingdom of God , is retained, but the special Lukan exposition removes the expectation of the kingdom of God from the question of the date; because it is about the essence of the kingdom of God rather than its imminent coming ( Lk 4.43 EU ; 8.1 EU ; 9.2 EU ; 16.16 EU ; Acts 1.3 EU ; 8.12 EU ; 20.25 EU ; 28.31 EU ).
This corresponds to the attempt, recognizable in the Lukan double work, to structure the course of salvation history in three ways:
- The time of Israel, the law and the prophets, up to John the Baptist ( Lk 16:16 EU )
- The time of Jesus as the "middle of time" (Hans Conzelmann)
- The time between Ascension and Parousia ( Acts of the Apostles )
Sources of the Gospel of Luke
Initially, the third Gospel appeared anonymously, without any indication or reference to an author . The later author's indication “Gospel according to Luke” in the form of a subscriptio was added later, it was first detectable in Papyrus 75 around the year 200 AD. “Lukas” was a common, albeit not an everyday name at this time, an exact assignment to a specific historical person remains open at first.
There are a large number of New Testament papyri finds from the time before the first Council of Nicaea in 325. Some give the content of the third Gospel, such as the 4th . It is an early New Testament manuscript in Greek . As a papyrus manuscript it contains parts of the Gospel of Luke and is dated to the late 2nd to early 3rd centuries. Together with 75 it is one of the oldest manuscripts of the Gospel of Luke and contains large parts of the first six chapters. Another papyrus, the 3 is a small fragment with fifteen verses of the Gospel according to Luke. Also 7 is an early copy of the New Testament, it is chapter 4, verses 1 and 2 of the Gospel of Luke.
The Gospel of Luke is not an eyewitness account, it has been undisputed since the time of the early Church . That Luke uses sources and can fall back on previous reports, he makes more explicit than any other evangelist: "After many have tried to write a story about everything that has come to fulfillment among us ..." (cf. Lk 1.1 EU ).
The hypotheses on Luke's sources result from the theories on the synoptic question . This consists in clarifying the relationship between the Synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke). These three Gospels share a considerable amount of their material; 45% in Mt, 76% in Mark and 41% in Luke belong to this threefold tradition. In addition, Matthew and Luke also share material that cannot be found in Mark. All evangelists each have special goods. The theories for solving the problem are only recapitulated here with a view to Luke's possible sources, see the respective articles.
The two-source theory is the most common theory, at least in the German-speaking world. According to her, Mark is the oldest gospel that Matthew and Luke each knew and used. The latter two also use a common source, the logia source , which, however, has not been handed down. Lukas also uses unknown traditional material from which he draws his special goods. The biggest problem with this theory are the so-called minor agreements , i.e. very small agreements between Matthew and Luke in the adoption and modification of the Markus material.
The dependence of the synoptics on the Marcion Gospel or Bible is another hypothetical theory that is supposed to solve the synoptic problem. The question is controversially discussed whether the text version of the Gospel according to Luke in Markion's reconstructed Marcion Gospel , which can only be derived from Church Fathers' quotations , is an abbreviation or the original version of the canonical text that was later attested to. In 2015 Dieter T. Roth and Matthias Klinghardt both presented a reconstruction of the Marcionite Gospel.
Content and theology
- Proem: 1, 1-4
- The history: 1.5-4.13
- 1st part: Jesus' ministry in Galilee: 4.14–9.50 a. a.
- Part 2: On the Way to Jerusalem (“Travel Report”): 9.51–19.27
- Emission of the Seventy: 10.1-16
- Parables of the lost: 15
- On the subject of wealth: 16
- Disciple instruction: 17
- Part 3: In Jerusalem: 19.28-24.53
- Jesus' messianic action: 19.28–21.4
- The eschatological speech: 21.5–36
- The Passion: 22; 23
- Annunciation of the resurrection: 24: 1-12
- Apparitions: 24.13-35.36-49
- Ascension Day: 24.50–53
The childhood story
Luke offers narrative theology, that is, he practices theology by telling instead of speculating. He translates the Christian creed into a narrative and begins his story of the mystery of the Son of God with a description of the birth of Jesus . The narrative quality of Luke is particularly evident in the childhood story. His sources are artfully arranged, so Luke interlocked the birth story of John with that of Jesus and arranged it in such a way that John is completely focused on Jesus and points to him. From this it is narrative that Jesus surpassed John.
John preaches judgment and calls for repentance while Jesus preaches the good news of God's grace. Here Lukas "painted" two double pictures. One shows the birth announcements, the second shows the births. After both pictures you can find meditations about what happened. The announcement of the births is followed by Mary's visit to Elisabeth, the interlocking of the two stories. The birth of Jesus is followed by the testimony of Simeon and Hanna about Jesus and the story of the twelve year old in the temple. These pictures show the child's secret, which in Christianity is interpreted as the divinity of this child.
Illness and healing in Luke
In the church tradition, Luke was also seen as a doctor because he had mastered the medical language. In no other Gospel do the words “heal” and “make healthy” appear as frequently as in Luke. For him, Jesus is the person who brings salvation and healing. For Luke, healing means restoring the whole person in his dignity and harmony. This becomes particularly clear in the healing stories that only Luke has passed on: that of the dropsy and that of the crooked woman. Both healings take place on the Sabbath, the day God actually rests from creation. So here Jesus figuratively restores creation through healing and completes the work of the Father.
Parables of Jesus
Luke not only passes on the therapeutic work of Jesus; he also describes the parables of Jesus. We owe to him various traditions that cannot be found in the other Gospels, including the parables of the good Samaritan , the prodigal son , the wise steward, the Pharisee and tax collector. What is particularly striking here is how Luke describes Jesus while telling the parables and how Jesus portrays himself in the parables. In the Lucanian special parables the author uses a typical Greek style, the inner monologue is particularly striking here, a stylistic device that can also be found in ancient fiction and in Greek comedies. The Gospel of Luke also emphasizes the equality of the world of women, so there is, in addition to the parable of the lost sheep, the parable of the lost drachm.
Jesus - model of the prayer
Luke also described Jesus as praying. He prays over and over again before important decisions and always withdraws to quiet places to pray to the Father. It is believed that Luke wants to teach the believers the way and the importance of prayer. Luke shows different variants of the prayer, for example in Jesus 'prayer before baptism ( Lk 3.21 EU ), Jesus' prayer after the healing of the leper ( Lk 5.16 EU ) and in prayer before the election of his disciples ( Lk 6.12 EU ).
In addition to Mark ( Mk 16.19 EU ), Luke also tells not only about the resurrection, but also about the ascension of Jesus ( Lk 24.50–53 EU ). After he came down from heaven to share the ways of men, Jesus now return to heaven in death and ascension, where he sits at the right hand of the Father and intercedes for the believers. Luke thus conveys two messages: Jesus could not remain in death because he was filled with God and was his Son. On the other hand, through the Ascension and its double description here and in the Acts of the Apostles, the continuity of the work of Jesus is expressed: In the Acts of the Apostles, Christ sends his Spirit from heaven, which drives the disciples to preach the message of salvation and to the people Way to show life.
- Christmas ( Christmas story )
- Canticle of Mary ( Magnificat )
- Song of Praise of Simeon ( Nunc dimittis )
- Song of Praise of Zacharias ( Benedictus )
Gospel of Luke and Marcion
In a not yet finalized New Testament, scientific discussion, Marcion , ( ancient Greek Μαρκίων Markíōn) is said to have compiled the inventory of circulating Christian texts and brought them together into a Marcionite 'Bible', which as a first biblical canon ten Pauls letters and a purified Gospel according to Luke, in the so-called 'Marcionite Gospel'. In terms of content, it is very close to the later Gospel according to Luke, (εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Λουκᾶν) , but does not contain any references to the Old Testament . In Luke's part of the Gospel of Marcion nothing has been added. At Marcion his Gospel began with Lk 4,31 EU . The main omissions found are as follows:
- The entire first chapter of the well-known Gospel of Luke is missing: both the preface, in which it is expressly said that it is a revision, as well as the narrative of the birth of the Baptist, the Annunciation and the Magnificat (hymn of praise of Mary ( Lk 1.46 –55 EU )) and the Benedictus (hymn of praise of Zacharias ( Lk 1.68–79 EU )).
- The entire second chapter is missing with the narration of the birth and childhood of Jesus ( Lk 1.26 EU , Lk 2.1 EU ).
- The third chapter lacks the invitation to the Baptist's revolt and the genealogy of Jesus ( Lk 3.1 EU , Lk 4.13 EU , Lk 3.23 EU ).
- Various sentences in the intermediate chapters, all relating to Israel and the Old Testament, are missing.
- Almost the entire last chapter 24 ( Lk 24 EU ) and especially the account of the apparitions is missing.
There are suspicions in New Testament research that Marcion was the first to compile or receive a 'gospel'. Scientists like Matthias Klinghardt or Markus Vinzent continue to postulate that the canonical Gospels were based on the Gospel received by Marcion (Klinghardt) or were developed from Marcion's Gospel (Vinzent).
The 'Gospel of Marcion' thus comprised some writings according to Paul and the Gospel according to Luke: Galatians , 1st Corinthians , 2nd Corinthians , Romans , 1st Thessalonians , 2nd Thessalonians , Colossians , Philippians , Philemon and a pre-canonical Gospel of Luke.
- Kurt Aland et al. a. (Ed.): Text and textual value of the Greek manuscripts of the New Testament. Vol. 4/3. The Gospel of Luke . 2 volumes. de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1999, 2003 (Part 1: List of manuscripts and comparative description . Work on New Testament text research. Volume 30. Part 2: Results of the collation and main list as well as additions. Work on New Testament text research. Volume 31) ISBN 3-11-016420-5 .
- Georg Braumann (Ed.): The Gospel of Luke. Editorial and composition history research. Ways of research. Vol. 280. Wiss. Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1974. ISBN 3-534-04944-6 (collection of essays from the middle of the 20th century)
- Watson E. Mills: The Gospel of Luke. Bibliographies for Biblical Research, New Testament Series 3. Mellen Biblical Press, Lewiston et al. a. 1994. ISBN 0-7734-2385-0 .
- Walter Radl : The Gospel of Luke. Research yields. Vol. 261. Wiss. Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1988 (research overview).
- Martin Rese: The Gospel of Luke. A research report. In: ANRW . II.25.3. Berlin 1985, pp. 2258-2328.
- Darrell L. Bock : Luke (= Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament 3A-B). Baker, Grand Rapids 1994–1996 (important comment; 2148 pages)
- François Bovon : The Gospel according to Luke (= EKK ). Zurich / Neukirchen-Vluyn 1989ff
- Wilfried Eckey : The Gospel of Luke taking into account its parallels. 2 volumes. Neukirchen-Vluyn 2006 2 ; Vol. 1: ISBN 3-7887-2041-7 , Vol. 2: ISBN 3-7887-2043-3 .
- Emil Fuchs : The good news according to Lukas. An interpretation of the gospel in the context of persecution and resistance (1939–41) (= Theological Study Series Theological Research Results, 129). Edited by Claus Bernet, Klaus Fuchs-Kittowski, Hamburg 2016, ISBN 978-3-8300-9278-0 .
- Joel B. Green: The Gospel of Luke . (= The New International Commentary on the New Testament). Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, et al. a. 1997, ISBN 0-8028-2315-7 .
- Arthur A. Just (Ed.): Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture. New Testament 3rd hatch . InterVarsity Press, Chicago et al. a. 2003, ISBN 0-8308-1488-4 .
- Hans Klein : The Gospel of Luke (= KEK 1,3). 10th edition Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2006, ISBN 3-525-51500-6 .
- Jacob Kremer : Gospel of Luke (= The New Real Bible. Vol. 3). 3rd edition. Echter-Verl., Würzburg 1992, ISBN 3-429-01178-7 .
- Amy-Jill Levine, Marianne Blickenstaff (eds.): A Feminist Companion to Luke (= Feminist Companion to the New Testament and Early Christian Writings. Vol. 3). Sheffield Academic Press, London a. a. 2002, ISBN 1-84127-174-8 .
- Ian Howard Marshall : The Gospel of Luke. A Commentary on the Greek Text . The New International Greek Testament Commentary 3. Paternoster Press et al. a., Exeter Reprint 1998, ISBN 0-8028-3512-0 .
- Paul-Gerhard Müller : Luke Gospel (= Stuttgart small commentary. NT NF 3). 5th edition Kath. Bibelwerk, Stuttgart 1995, ISBN 3-460-15331-8 , (scarce)
- John Nolland: Luke , 3 volumes (= Word Biblical Commentary 35A-C). Word Books, Waco et al. a. 1989-1993
- Walter Schmithals : The Gospel according to Luke (= Zurich Bible Commentaries. New Testament 3.1). TVZ, Zurich 1980.
- Gerhard Schneider: The Gospel according to Luke. Chapters 1–10 (= Ecumenical Pocket Book Comment 3/1). Gütersloh publishing house, Gütersloh 1984 2 .
- Heinz Schürmann : The Gospel of Luke (= Herder's theological commentary on the New Testament. Vol. 3). Herder, Freiburg i. Br. U. a.
- Eduard Schweizer : The Gospel according to Luke (= The New Testament German 3). Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, Göttingen 20th ed. (3rd ed. Of the new work) 1993, ISBN 3-525-51362-3 .
- Michael Wolter : The Gospel of Luke (= manual for the New Testament vol. 5). Tübingen 2008, ISBN 3-16-149525-X .
- Andrew Gregory: The Reception of Luke and Acts in the Period before Irenaeus. Looking for Luke in the Second Century (= WUNT II / 169). Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2003, ISBN 3-16-148086-4 .
- Christoph Heil: Luke and Q . Studies on the Lukan editorship of the Gospel Q (= BZNW 111). de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2003
- Erika Heusler: Capital processes in the Lukan double work. The proceedings against Jesus and Paul in exegetical and legal historical analysis (= New Testament treatises 38). Aschendorff, Münster 2000
- Martin Meiser: Luke and the Roman state power . In: Michael Labahn, Jürgen Zangenberg (Hrsg.): Between the realms: New Testament and Roman rule. Lectures at the First Conference of the European Association for Biblical Studies (= texts and works on the New Testament Age 36). Francke, Tübingen / Basel 2002, pp. 175–193.
- Alexander Mittelstaedt: Lukas as a historian. To date the Lukan double work (= texts and works on the New Testament age 43). Francke, Tübingen 2006
- Jerome H. Neyrey (Ed.): The Social World of Luke-Acts. Models for interpretation . Hendrickson, Peabody MA 2nd ed. 1993 ISBN 0-943575-48-6 (social history)
- Clare K. Rothschild: Luke Acts and the Rhetoric of History. An Investigation of Early Christian Historiography (= WUNT II / 175). Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2004
- Barbara Shellard: New Light on Luke. Its Purpose, Sources and Literary Context (= JSNTSup 215). Sheffield Acad. Press, London a. a. 2002, ISBN 1-84127-236-1 .
- Wolfgang Stegemann : Between synagogue and government. On the historical situation of the Lukan Christians (= FRLANT 152). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1991, ISBN 3-525-53816-2 , (social history)
- Charles H. Talbert: Reading Luke Acts in Its Mediterranean Milieu (= Supplements to Novum Testamentum 107). Brill, Leiden u. a. 2003, ISBN 90-04-12964-2 .
- Maria Ytterbrink: The Third Gospel for the First Time. Luke within the Context of Ancient Biography . Lund Univ., Lund 2004, ISBN 91-628-6066-6 .
Theology of the Gospel of Luke
- Reinhard von Bendemann : Between Doxa and Stauros: An exegetical examination of the texts of the so-called travelogue in the Gospel of Luke. BZNW 101. de Gruyter, Berlin a. a. 2001, ISBN 3-11-016732-8 .
- Peter Böhlemann : Jesus and the Baptist : Key to the theology and ethics of Luke. MSSNTS 99. Univ. Press, Cambridge et al. a. 1997, ISBN 0-521-59421-9 .
- Georg Braumann: The Means of Time. Considerations on the theology of the Gospel of Luke. In: ZNW 54 (1963), pp. 117-145
- Hans Conzelmann : The Middle of Time. Studies on the theology of Luke (1954). Contributions to historical theology 17. Mohr, Tübingen 7th edition 1993, ISBN 3-16-145946-6 , (basic study on the theology of LkEv)
- Peter Doble: The Paradox of Salvation. Luke's Theology of the Cross. MSSNTS 87. University Press, Cambridge et al. a. 1996, ISBN 0-521-55212-5 .
- Josef Ernst : Lukas - a theological portrait. Patmos Verl., Düsseldorf 1985, ISBN 3-491-77627-9 .
- Joel B. Green : The Theology of the Gospel of Luke. New Testament Theology. Repr. Univ. Press, Cambridge et al. a. 1997, ISBN 0-521-46529-X .
- Sylvia Hagene: Times of Restoration. Studies of the Lucanian theology of history as soteriology . New Testament treatises 42. Aschendorff, Münster 2003
- Friedrich Wilhelm Horn : Faith and action in the theology of Luke . Göttingen theological works 26. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1983, 2nd edition 1986, ISBN 3-525-87377-8 .
- Helga Melzer-Keller: Mary in the Gospel of Luke: model of faith, ideal-typical disciple and sign of hope. Pp. 416-430 
- Charles A. Kimball: Jesus' Exposition of the Old Testament in Luke's Gospel. JSNTSup 94. JSOT Press, Sheffield 1994, ISBN 1-85075-464-0 .
- Hans Klein: Lukasstudien . FRLANT 209. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-525-53073-0 .
- Matthias Klinghardt : Law and People of God. The Lukan understanding of the law according to its origin, function and its place in the history of early Christianity. WUNT II / 32. Mohr, Tübingen 1988, ISBN 3-16-145298-4 .
- Christina Kurth: "The voice of the prophets is fulfilled". Jesus' fate and "the" Jews as portrayed by Luke. BWANT 148. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2000
- Thomas J. Lane: Luke and the Gentile Mission . Gospel Anticipates Acts . European University Studies 23/571. Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 1996, ISBN 3-631-49999-X .
- Robert F. O'Toole: Luke's Presentation of Jesus. A Christology . Subsidia biblica 25th Ed. Pontificio Istituto Biblico, Roma 2004, ISBN 88-7653-625-6 .
- Alexander Prieur: The proclamation of the rule of God . Exegetical studies on the Lukan understanding of basileia tu theu. WUNT II / 89. Mohr, Tübingen 1996, ISBN 3-16-146574-1 .
- Walter Radl: The Origin of Jesus. Traditional historical studies on Luke 1-2. Herder's Biblical Studies 7. Herder, Freiburg i. Br. U. a. 1996, ISBN 3-451-23940-X .
- Dietrich Rusam: The Old Testament with Lukas. BZNW 112. de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2003, ISBN 3-11-017524-X .
- Gerhard Schneider : Lukas, theologian of salvation history. Essays on the Lukan double work. Bonn Biblical Contributions 59. Hanstein, Königstein i. Ts. 1985, ISBN 3-7756-1073-1 .
- Juan Sebastián Valencia Hernández: "El Trasfondo del Concepto" Doble Obra Lucana ": aproximación histórica a los problemas teológicos en los estudios lucanos». In: Cuestiones Teológicas Vol. 45, No. 104 (2018), pp. 431-461.
The role of Jesus
- Ursula Rapp: Jesus as the new Moses. Lk 5.1-11. In: Entschluss , year 63, 1998, issue 1, pp. 19-20.
The Holy Spirit as the main theme of the LkEv
- Ju Hur: Dynamic Reading of the Holy Spirit in Luke Acts . JSNTSup 211. Academic Press, Sheffield 2001
- Robert P. Menzies: Empowered for Witness. The Spirit in Luke acts . Journal of Pentecostal Theology. Supplement Series 6. Academic Press, Sheffield Rev. ed. 1994, ISBN 1-85075-721-6 .
- Matthias Wenk: Community Forming Power. The Socio-Ethical Role of the Spirit in Luke Acts. Journal of Pentecostal Theology. Supplement Series 19. Academic Press, Sheffield 2000
Poverty and wealth as a focus of the LkEv
- Hans-Georg Gradl: Between rich and poor. The Lukan double work in a reader-oriented and text-pragmatic perspective. Research on the Bible 107. Echter, Würzburg 2005
- Heinz Joachim Held: The gospel is preached to the rich. The social demands of faith in the Gospel of Luke and in the Acts of the Apostles. Neukirchener, Neukirchen-Vluyn 1997, ISBN 3-7887-1641-X .
- René Krüger: God or Mammon . The Gospel of Luke and the Economy. Ed. Exodus, Luzern 1997, ISBN 3-905577-19-4 .
- Kiyoshi Mineshige: Renunciation of Possession and Alms to Luke. Nature and requirement of the Lucanian property ethos. WUNT II / 163. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2003, ISBN 3-16-148078-3 .
- Vincenzov Petracca: God or Money. Luke's ethics of property. Texts and works on the New Testament age 39. Francke, Tübingen u. a. 2003, ISBN 3-7720-2831-4 .
Generally understandable and application-oriented
- Rainer Dillmann: The Gospel of Luke. A comment for practice. Catholic Biblical Works, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-460-33126-7 .
- Gerhard Maier : Gospel of Luke. 2 Vols. Edition C Bible Commentaries 4/5. 1991–1992, Vol. 1, 1991, ISBN 3-7751-1614-1 , Vol. 2, 1992, ISBN 3-7751-1785-7 , (generally understandable, application-oriented)
- Fritz Rienecker : The Gospel of Luke. Wuppertal Study Bible. NT 3. Brockhaus, Wuppertal 1994 (generally understandable, application-oriented)
- Franz-Josef Bode : Today the word comes true. The message of the Gospel of Luke. Verlag Katholisches Bibelwerk, Stuttgart 2015, ISBN 978-3-460-23208-2 .
Read or listen to the Gospel of Luke on the Internet
- Luther 1984 (This and over 40 other current and historical translations at Bibleserver.com .)
- Standard translation .
- The 24 chapters of the Gospel of Luke to read and to listen to on the computer. In: Textbibel.de
- Gospel of Luke and John - BSB Clm 11019
Overviews and further explanations
- The Gospel of Luke. In: bibelwissenschaft.de
- A textual commentary on the Gospel of Luke - detailed text-critical commentary on the approx. 300 most important variants of the original Greek text (PDF; 467 pages; 2.57 MB)
- Bible overview: Gospel of Luke - information from the Gospel Center e. V. Vienna
- Josef Ernst: Lukas. A theological portrait . Patmos, Düsseldorf, 1991 2 , ISBN 3-491-77627-9 .
- Rudolf Bultmann : Theology of the New Testament. Tübingen 1980, 8th edition, § 56, p. 494: "Of course, Paul's theology had no influence on the editing of the Gospels."
- So at least Martin Hengel in his study The Gospel Headings .
- Werner Georg Kümmel : Introduction to the New Testament . 20th edition, Heidelberg 1980, pp. 119f.
- Paul-Gerhard Müller: Luke Gospel (= Stuttgart small commentary. New Testament NF, 3). Katholisches Bibelwerk, Stuttgart, 1995 5 , ISBN 3-460-15331-8 ; P. 20.
- Ingo Broer: Introduction to the New Testament . Würzburg 2006, p. 137
- Peter Pilhofer: Acts of the Apostles: The situation. (PDF; 114 kB) 2005, p. 1 , accessed on June 25, 2012 .
- Donald A. Carson, Douglas J. Moo: Introduction to the New Testament. Brunnen, Gießen 2010 (English 2nd edition 2005), p. 247: “the early 60s”.
- Klaus Berger: Commentary on the New Testament . Gütersloh 2011, p. 210: “the year 66 AD. as terminus ad quem of the origin of both writings ”.
- John AT Robinson: When did the New Testament come about? Bonifatius, Paderborn and R. Brockhaus, Wuppertal 1986 (English 4th edition 1981), p. 363: approx. "57-60".
- Gerhard Hörster: Biblical Studies and Introduction to the New Testament. R. Brockhaus, Wuppertal 1998, p. 94: "Mid-1960s".
- Erich Mauerhofer: Introduction to the Writings of the New Testament. Vol. 1, Hänssler, Neuhausen-Stuttgart, 2nd edition 1997, p. 169: "57–59 ... or very shortly thereafter".
- Karl Jaroš: The New Testament and its authors. An introduction. Böhlau, Cologne a. a. 2008, p. 99: "End of the 50s".
- Adolf von Harnack: The mission and expansion of Christianity in the first three centuries. Leipzig, 4th edition 1924, pp. 89, 554.
- Alexander Mittelstädt: Lukas as a historian. To date the Lukan double work. Tübingen, 2006.
- Otto Konrad Roller: Coins, money and financial circumstances in the Gospels . Fidelitas, Karlsruhe 1929, DNB 361639090 , p. 6-8 .
- Ferdinand Hahn : Theology of the New Testament , Volume 1. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, 2nd Edition, 2005, p. 554.
- Lukasevangelium / Christfried Böttrich: Gospel according to Lukas. Created: Jan. 2014, on www.bibelwissenschaft.de  here section 2. Author and addressees
- Andrew Gregory: The Reception of Luke and Acts in the Period Before Irenaeus. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2003, ISBN 3-16-148086-4 , p. 28
- Wieland Willker. A Textual Commentary on the Greek Gospels ( Memento from June 9, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF file; 85 kB) , (undated + unfinished)
- Kurt and Barbara Aland , The Text of the New Testament. Introduction to the scientific editions as well as the theory and practice of modern textual criticism . German Bible Society , Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-438-06011-6 , p. 106.
- Christfried Böttrich: Lukasevangelium / Gospel according to Lukas. Created: January 2014, on www.bibelwissenschaft.de, keyword 47924 
- Dieter T. Roth: The Text of Marcion's Gospel. New Testament Tools, Studies and Documents, Vol. 49, Brill, Leiden / Boston 2015, ISBN 978-90-04-28237-7 .
- Matthias Klinghardt: The oldest gospel and the origin of the canonical gospels. Investigation - reconstruction - translation - variants. 2 volumes. Francke, Tübingen 2015, ISBN 978-3-7720-8549-9 .
- Bernd Kollmann : New Testament compact . 1st edition. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2014, ISBN 3-17-021235-4 , pp. 16 .
- see on this Paul-Gerhard Klumbies : Marcion as Paulus and Lukasinterpret. In: Markus Lang (Ed.): A new gender? Development of early Christian self-confidence. Volume 105 Novum Testamentum et Orbis Antiquus / Studies on the Environment of the New Testament, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2013, ISBN 978-3-647-59364-7 , pp. 101–121.
- Tertullian : Adversus Marcionem. IV 5.4
- In his Adversus Marcionem , Tertullian spoke of the fact that Marcion had compiled the Gospel and saw it as something new and unique to him.
- Markus Vinzent: The resurrection of Christ in early Christianity. Herder, Freiburg 2014, p. 137
- Matthias Klinghardt : The oldest gospel and the origin of the canonical gospels. Investigation - reconstruction - translation - variants. 2 volumes. Francke, Tübingen 2015, ISBN 978-3-7720-8549-9 , pp. 24-25, 29 f., 351 f.
- Matthias Klinghardt: The oldest gospel and the origin of the canonical gospels. Investigation - reconstruction - translation - variants. 2 volumes. Francke, Tübingen 2015, ISBN 978-3-7720-8549-9 , pp. 24-25, 29 f., 351 f.
- Markus Vinzent : The resurrection of Christ in early Christianity. Herder, Freiburg 2014, p. 137
- Ulrich Schmid : Marcion and his Apostolos: Reconstruction and historical classification of the Marcionite edition of St. Paul. Work on New Testament Text Research, Volume 25, De Gruyter, Berlin 1995; ISBN 978-3-11-014695-0 , pp. 243-245.
- Matthias Klinghardt: The oldest gospel and the origin of the canonical gospels. Investigation - reconstruction - translation - variants. 2 volumes. Francke, Tübingen 2015, p. 22.