|Area :||125.2 km²|
|Residents :||919,438 (as of 2018)|
|Population density :||7,344 inhabitants per km²|
|- Metropolitan area :||1,700,000 (2018)|
|Community code :||3000|
|Time zone :||UTC + 2|
|Telephone code :||(+972) 02|
|Postal code :||91000-91999|
|Community type:||Big city|
|Mayor :||Mosque lion|
Jerusalem ( Hebrew Jeruschalajim[ jeʁuʃa'lajim ]; Arabic أورشليم القدس, DMG Ūršalīm al-Quds 'Jerusalem the sanctuary', better known under the short formالقدس, DMG al-Quds 'the sanctuary'; ancient Greek Ἱεροσόλυμα Hierosólyma [n. pl.], or Ἰερουσαλήμ Ierousalḗm [f., indecl.]; Latin Hierosolyma [n. pl. or f. sg.], Hierosolymae [f. pl.], Hierusalem or Jerusalem [n., indecl.]) is a city in the Judean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea with around 920,000 inhabitants.
Many cultures of antiquity and modernity meet in Jerusalem . The old town is divided into the Jewish , Christian , Armenian and Muslim quarters and is surrounded by a fortification wall from the Ottoman era.
The city's political status is internationally controversial and part of the Middle East conflict . Jerusalem was founded in 1980 by Israel , which controls the entire city by the Jerusalem Law to its united and indivisible capital explained, but as such only by the United States , Guatemala , Honduras and Nauru recognized. Jerusalem is home to the seat of the President , the Knesset and the Supreme Court as part of the Israeli political system , the Hebrew University founded in 1918, the Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial and the Israel National Cemetery on Mount Herzl. Until the Six Day War (1967), only West Jerusalem was under Israeli rule; East Jerusalem, which is home to important religious sites of Judaism , Christianity and Islam , is being claimed by moderate Palestinian organizations as the capital of a future Palestinian state , while radical Palestinian organizations are demanding the entire city as the capital.
Historically, the city has had different names. In Egyptian texts of condemnation from the 19th and 18th centuries BC The first letter sequence Chrw-šꜢ-mm appears as the name of this city. It was probably pronounced (j or u) ruschalimum . In the Amarna letters from the 14th century BC . Chr ú-ru-sa-lim has, in the Assyrian annals of Sennacherib , the v is the city in the 8th century. Besieged, ur-sa-li-im-mu . The most common in Hebrew and Aramaic and oldest form is yrwšlm, jeruschalem , next to it is a short form yršlm and even shorter SLM stale occupied.
The meaning of the name is probably "foundation (yru) of the [god] Shalim" or possibly "palace / city (ūru) of Shalim". Shalim was the Canaanite deity of dusk, possibly the patron of the city. The still popular interpretation of the name as "City of Peace (šalom)" given by the rabbis is a folk etymology . According to this, the short form of the city name Salem (שלם šhālêm ) ( Gen 14,18 EU ) is said to be related to the Hebrew word shalom (שלום = "peace, salvation"). The Hebrew name Yerushalayim, which is common today, is a solemn dual form and did not appear until the time of the second temple. This form was later defined as a biblical reading by the Masoretes .
The oldest known traces of human settlement in today's urban area are ceramic excavations from the Copper Age (around 4500–3150 BC) in rock pockets on the south-east hill. From the Early Bronze Age I-II (3150-2650 BC) a cave with burials above the Gihon spring is known, as well as two wide-space houses on the eastern slope of the southeast hill. Then apparently a settlement gap follows from the Early Bronze Age III to the Middle Bronze Age I. In the Middle Bronze Age IIA (2000–1750 BC) the fortified urban settlement Uruschalimum / Urusalim was built on the southeast hill . The Gihon spring was enclosed with a wall and received a basin; the Warren Tunnel System was also created during this period.
The Amarna letters from the time of Pharaoh Akhenaten (Amenophis IV.) Prove that the city governor Abdi-Hepa was involved in conflicts with Habiru and other city governors. This Abdi-Cheba can be assigned to the Hurrian- Mitanni upper class because of its name .
The Tanakh , the Hebrew Bible , contains information on the early days of the city of Jerusalem. For them there is often no extra-biblical confirmation, including archaeological ones, and they did not come into being in the form handed down today until centuries after the events described. According to Ri 1,21 EU and Jos 15,63 EU , the city belonged to the Jebusites at the time of the conquest (around 1200-1000 BC) , in whose neighborhood the Israelites from the tribe of Benjamin and Judah settled. The place was then also called Jebus ; the Israelites called him a Jebusite or "city of strangers" ( Ri 19,10ff. EU ). Their kings formed after Jos 10 EU and Jos 18,16 EU with other opponents of the Twelve Tribes of Israel war coalitions. After Ri 1,8 EU the tribe of Judah conquered and destroyed the city as a prelude to the conquest of Canaan. This statement contradicts Ri 1,21 EU , according to which the Benjaminites did not drive out the Jebusites, but stayed peacefully next to them, and 2 Sam 5,6ff. EU after which only King David conquered Jerusalem from the Jebusites. Ri 1,8 is therefore considered to be an ahistorical editorial note that was added later.
David conquered Jerusalem according to 1 Sam 16ff. EU only after he had ousted his predecessor King Saul, had defeated the neighboring peoples of the Amalekites and Philistines and was then recognized as their king by the tribes of Israel who were not involved in it ( 2 Sam 5: 1-5 EU ). Thereupon he is said to be his seat of government around 1000 BC. From Hebron to Jerusalem, which was roughly halfway between north and south of Israel and to which no tribe of the Israelites had previously made claims of ownership. From then on he called the city the "City of David ". So he made Jerusalem the capital of his great empire . When he is said to have transferred the Ark of the Covenant , which had accompanied the earlier campaigns of the Israelites as the movable YHWH throne, the city also became the religious center of his empire. At that time the city center was located south of today's old town in the Hinnom Valley , the place of the later temple on a hill north of the former city.
First Temple Period
David's son Solomon (around 969–930) built a palace and the first temple for YHWH , which David had planned , according to 1 Kings 8 EU . After Solomon's death (926 BC is assumed to be the year of his death) and the division of the kingdom into the states of Judah (south) and Israel (north), Jerusalem became the capital of the southern kingdom of Judah . In the northern Reich of Israel, the Jerusalem temple cult was rejected: Under the Omrids , Israel, with its center in Samaria, was economically and militarily superior to the southern Reich. It can be assumed that at this time Jerusalem's claim to unique position as the outstanding or even the only political and spiritual center of the Israelites, which was later claimed in the Bible, had not yet been implemented.
Queen Athaliah (845-840) to the Baal worship have introduced in the temple. Assyrian gods may also have been worshiped under King Ahaz (741–725) . Only Hezekiah (725-697) consecrated according to the biblical account the temple YHWH , secured the city by walls and their water supply through the Siloam tunnel . It is assumed that the influx of refugees from the northern Reich of Israel after its destruction by the New Assyrians (722/720) led to a flourishing of the city of Jerusalem and a city expansion to the west. Joschija (638–609) carried out a cult centralization in his kingdom: the temple of Jerusalem was henceforth the only legitimate place of worship of the god YHWH.
Nebuchadnezzar II conquered Jerusalem for the first time in 597 , again in 586 BC. Chr .; the first time he led the Jewish upper class into captivity ( Babylonian exile ) and installed Zedekiah as vassal king. After his break with the Babylonians, Nebuchadnezzar had in 586 BC Destroyed Jerusalem and its temple and led the remnants of the ruling class, including Zedekiah, into exile.
Second temple time
After the capture of Babylon, the Persian King Cyrus II with the Cyrus Edict allowed the Jews exiled there in 538 BC. The homecoming and the rebuilding of their temple, which took several decades. Jerusalem was the capital of the Persian province of Yehud . "In terms of architectural history, this era in Jerusalem can only be sparsely documented by the remains of walls, a gate system and small finds." ( Max Küchler )
Under the supremacy of the Ptolemies and later the Seleucids , Jerusalem and the surrounding area was a temple state ruled by the Jewish high priest. 169 BC BC Antiochus IV conquered Jerusalem and sacked the temple. In 168 General Apollonios again conquered the city, razed the walls and built a castle (Akra) to control the inhabitants. A ring school and an ephebeion, only documented in literature, stand as new buildings for the conflict-prone Hellenization of the upper class. A cult of Zeus Olympios (identified with YHWH) was instituted in the temple. The Roman pressure on the Seleucids made it possible for their subjects in Judea to successfully fight for freedom and to establish an independent state with the capital Jerusalem. Under Simon Maccabeus (143 / 2–135 / 4), "the yoke of the Gentiles was taken from Israel" ( 1 Makk 13.41 EU ). The Akra, a symbol of Seleucid control, fell in 141. After the invasion of Antiochus VII , Jerusalem had to surrender and the crowns of the walls were razed. Internal Syrian conflicts enabled the struggle for independence to continue, so the Baris fortress was built north of the temple. During the reign of Alexander Jannaios , king and high priest in one person (103-76), the Hasmonean state reached the height of its power. Simultaneously with the expansion of Rome in the Levant, the power of the Hasmoneans also waned. In 63 Pompey conquered Jerusalem and visited the temple without destroying it. Jerusalem then sank into a tributary district capital with an aristocratic government.
Hasmonean Jerusalem was marked by a number of building projects:
- Extension of the temple area in a southern direction and connection of the same by a bridge with the upper town. In this upper town the priestly aristocracy built luxurious houses;
- Expansion of the urban area to the west and development of the entire south-west hill ("upper market") as a result of the increase in population;
- Construction of the city wall (1st and 2nd walls, the latter on the line of the Suq Chan ez period );
- The first tombs of the aristocratic families of Jerusalem were built in the Kidron Valley.
Under the reign of Herod the Great , who ruled Judea as a Roman client king, Jerusalem was developed into a Jewish metropolis and at the same time into a Hellenistic-Roman royal city. The Herodian Temple was the most ambitious project of its major buildings . The large temple platform, which could also be used as a forum, dominated the cityscape and was connected to the residential areas in the south and west by monumental stairs and bridges. "The dominant religious center in the east of the city corresponded in the west to the royal palace with its three-tower fortress and the magnificent mausoleum on the west side of the Hinnom valley." This metropolis and its temple were destroyed by Titus in 70 AD at the end of the Jewish War who killed, enslaved, or displaced the Jewish population.
Under Rome and Byzantium
On the site of the city of Jerusalem, which was destroyed in the year 70, there was a military camp of the Legio X Fretensis and probably also a small civilian settlement (craftsmen, traders, innkeepers).
Hadrian visited the place in 130 as part of a trip through the eastern provinces of the empire and founded a Roman colony on the site of Jerusalem, which he (Colonia) named Aelia Capitolina , Aelius being Hadrian's middle name and Capitolina referring to the Roman Capitol Hill , the Center of worship of the main Roman god Jupiter . This naming shows the close connection between the ruler's cult and the cult of Jupiter or Zeus, as was typical for the reign of Hadrian. In fact, construction was already underway when Hadrian carried out this founding act. In itself, establishing the colony was a benevolent gesture (residents were given Roman citizenship and related benefits) and may have been welcomed by an assimilated segment of the population. For large parts of the Jewish population, however, the construction of a pagan city with associated temples and public buildings on the site of Jerusalem was completely unacceptable; this was the reason for the Bar Kochba uprising . The uprising escalated from the internal Jewish conflict between supporters and opponents of assimilation.
Although the rebels could not control Aelia Capitolina at any time, the area around the city was the core area of the uprising. The Roman warfare devastated this area so much that it did not recover until late antiquity, and this affected the development of the city, which in this respect fell short of Hadrian's expectations. Ancient Christian authors testify that Hadrian banned Jews from entering the city on pain of death. Although such a ban is not mentioned by Cassius Dio , the main source for the Bar Kochba insurrection, or by rabbinical literature, it is considered historically likely. Aelia Capitolina had no city walls; however, the entrances were architecturally highlighted by gates (the Ecce Homo arch is one of these gates). Aelia's economic center was in what is now the Christian Quarter, and this is where the main shrines, including the Temple of Jupiter, were located. The destroyed Herodian Temple, however, remained outside of the city as a ruined area. Possibly he should be included in a future city expansion, which then did not occur due to the aftermath of the Bar Kochba uprising. Actual government buildings were missing because the provincial capital was not here, but in Caesarea Maritima . The main axes of Aelia Capitolina can still be seen today in the road network of the Old City of Jerusalem.
Under Emperor Constantine and his successors, Jerusalem was converted into a Christian city. The change of the cityscape took place in several phases and in connection with dogmatic developments:
- After the First Council of Nicaea (325), the Anastasis (" Church of the Holy Sepulcher ") was built at the place of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ and the Eleona Church on the Mount of Olives at the place of his Ascension;
- After the First Council of Constantinople (381) the south-west hill was equipped with Christian memorial sites (including the Hagia Sion church as the “mother of all churches”);
- In connection with the Councils of Ephesus (431) and Chalcedony (451), holy places were created in the Kidron Valley and on the Mount of Olives, which were dedicated to the life of Mary or the Passion of Christ.
Jerusalem experienced an economic upswing from the pilgrimage. Since the Legio X Fretensis had meanwhile been relocated to Eilat / Aqaba, the southern part of the city was available for rebuilding. The Madaba map (6th century, photo) gives a detailed picture of Byzantine Jerusalem: On the left you can see the Stefanus Gate (today Damascus Gate ) and on the city side behind it a square with a column, from which two streets lined with colonnades lead off. The central street that divides the city in half is the Cardo maximus (today Suq Chan ez period , in the extension of Suq al-Aṭṭarin), in the middle the Anastasis (Church of the Holy Sepulcher). At the top runs the Cardo secundus (today Tariq Al Wad ), from which the Decumanus branches off and leads to the east gate (today the Lion Gate ).
Under the Sassanids
The Sassanid ruler Chosrau II invaded Palestine around 613 during the Roman-Persian War (602–628). The Palestinian Jews welcomed the Sassanids as liberators and rebelled against Byzantium. In July 614 the Sassanids conquered Jerusalem (destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, the Church of Hagia Sion, the Church of Nea Maria and the Ascension Rotunda on the Mount of Olives) and transferred the administration of Jerusalem to the Jewish population until 617, but then again to the Christian population. The exact processes cannot be reconstructed due to the difficult source situation, and there is a noticeable religious hatred between the two population groups, probably prepared by Christian anti-Jewish legislation. The only clue is a Christian mass grave at the Mamilla pond. According to Antiochus Strategios, the Christian population was selected as long as they had survived the capture of the city: the young people and craftsmen were deported to Persia, the rest were killed in the mummy ponds; a Byzantine chapel later commemorated these dead. Zechariah , the patriarch of Jerusalem, was among the deportees . Possibly the unrest was related to the murder of the Jewish militia leader and Messiah candidate Nehemia ben Huschiel , under which after the Persian conquest there were plans for a new temple, possibly even for the restoration of the sacrificial cult. In any case, the Sassanids initially allowed the Jews to resettle in Judea and Jerusalem. In 617/18 the Sassanids again forbade the Jews from entering Jerusalem, possibly because of persistent problems with rebellious groups or as a result of a strategic reorientation of the Sassanid policy of conquest, which again sought a stronger reference to Byzantium.
In 629 Jerusalem fell back to Byzantium after the victory of the Eastern Roman emperor Herakleios . Despite imperial promises, there were new massacres, this time by Greeks against Jews. As a result of renovations by Persian and Byzantine clients, the destruction of 614 was repaired when the army of Caliph Omar took Jerusalem.
Under the Umayyads
In the course of the Islamic conquest of the Levant , armies of Islam, which was founded a few years earlier, came to Palestine. In 637 an Arab army under the general Abū ʿUbaida ibn al-Jarrāh besieged the city on behalf of the caliph Umar and was able to take it after six months through the surrender of the Byzantine defenders. The Patriarch of Jerusalem Sophronius (560–638) had been assured that the Christian population of the city was allowed to leave it, even if only a few actually did so. Jerusalem was administered by Islamic governors and Christian patriarchs; the Jewish population was allowed to return to the city. They built their own quarter around the western wall of the Temple Mount, which existed until 1099. The turning point in the cityscape, however, is not the year of the Islamic conquest, but the severe earthquake of 748/749.
In the first century of Islamic rule, Jerusalem was controlled by the Umayyad dynasty , who had provided the Islamic governors of Syria since 639 and, in the turmoil after the death of the first Umayyad caliph Uthman , founded the hereditary caliphate with Caliph Muawiya, who was proclaimed in Damascus in 660 . Muawiya moved the caliph's residence to the Syrian capital Damascus. Under his successors from the Umayyad sideline of the Marwanids , the focus of the Umayyad Empire finally shifted to Syria and Palestine around 680.
Jerusalem was transformed into an Islamic city: for the first time after the destruction in the year 70, the walls of the temple area were repaired and the Herodian temple platform was claimed for Islam. In a first phase, the Islamic development took up the Judeo-Christian “traditions of the Temple of Solomon, of the foundation stone of the world ( ʾeven schetijah ), of the paradisiacal place of fertility and the divine presence ( schechinah )”, but these already existed in the first century after completion of the Dome of the Rock (around 692) was put in the background by a genuinely Islamic tradition: the brief allusion in sura 17.1 of a nocturnal journey of the prophet Mohammed from the “holy mosque” in Mecca to a “distant mosque” and that in sura 17.1 indicated heavenly view ( miʿradsch ) of the prophet determined the Muslim reception of the Temple Mount from then on. There is also evidence that Islamic rites were performed on the rock in the time of al-Malik, which otherwise only take place on the Kaaba in Mecca. Abd al-Malik thus created a religious counterbalance in Jerusalem to the Meccan caliphate under ʿAbdallāh ibn az-Zubair with whom he was in the civil war.
Under the Abbasids
In 750 the Umayyads were overthrown and ousted by the Abbasids , who were considered to be more religiously ascetic . The only Umayyad prince Abd ar-Rahman who survived the fall of his house fled to North Africa via Jerusalem and established the independent Emirate of Córdoba in Spain in 755 . For the next two centuries Jerusalem was ruled by Abbasid governors. During this time phases with explicitly anti-Christian or anti-Jewish politics alternated with phases of tolerance towards Jewish and Christian residents and pilgrims. In the context of the exchange of envoys between the Carolingians , the Abbasids and the Patriarchs of Jerusalem , mediated through Jewish long-distance traders , Charlemagne was recognized as the formal protector of Christian holy places by the Muslim ruler Harun ar-Raschid at the beginning of the 9th century, according to the testimony of Frankish chroniclers , which is to be seen as an affront to Byzantium.
Caliph al-Ma'mūn visited Syria in 831. He donated two new gates for the Temple Mount, but also had the gold removed from the dome of the Dome of the Rock, which then remained lead-gray until the 1960s. On a copper coin from the time of his caliphate (813-833) is the inscription al-fils bi'l-Quds (coin from the sanctuary), al-Quds (sanctuary) denoting the Dome of the Rock . The Arabic name al-Quds for Jerusalem is derived from this and is first attested here. Islamic minting of coins in Jerusalem then ceased, and coins were not minted again in Jerusalem until the time of the Crusaders.
The further course of the 9th century is marked by a decline in Abbasid control over Palestine and thus also Jerusalem. In the years 841–842 the peasants and Bedouins of Palestine rebelled against the government in Baghdad; this must also have affected Jerusalem, but due to a lack of sources, nothing more is known about it. In 848 Ahmad ibn Tulun annexed Palestine to his Egyptian rule. Beginning with the Battle of Yarkon in 885, Palestine became the battlefield between the Abbasid and Egyptian armies. The caliphs of that time, especially al-Muktafi and al-Muqtadir , showed particular interest in Jerusalem, which is documented by their building inscriptions. The Byzantine Empire tried in the middle of the 10th century to take advantage of the Abbassid's weaknesses and, with the support of the Christian population of Jerusalem and various Bedouin tribes, especially the Ṭayʾ, to bring Palestine back under its rule. On the eve of the Fatimid conquest, Jerusalem was ruled by the governors of the Egyptian Ichshidids; In 966 the governor supported persecution of Christians in the city (despite the central government's ban); among other things, the Church of the Holy Sepulcher and the Church on Zion were looted and burned down. Jewish residents are also said to have participated.
Under the Fatimids
In the following year 967, the Qarmatians brought Palestine under their rule and, allied with the Arabs, fought with the Fatimids. In the meantime, the Byzantine army had taken Aleppo under their control in 969 and advanced further south under the generals, later emperors Nikephoros Phokas and Johannes Tzimiskes , apparently with the aim of Jerusalem. The Byzantines allied themselves with the Qarmatians and local Arab and Bedouin actors; this alliance faced the Fatimids when they took control of Palestine from Egypt. The years from 973 to 978 were marked by heavy fighting, with the Byzantines organizing persecution of the Jews in Jerusalem by their allies, apparently in anticipation of transforming Jerusalem into a Christian-dominated city again. While the Fatimids were apparently vehemently rejected by the people in Palestine, it was different in Jerusalem; here they had the support of the Jewish, but also the Muslim inhabitants. Before the beginning of the Fatimid period, the southern city wall had been taken back to its current course, ie the southwest hill was now outside the city. On the one hand, the Fatimids supported the establishment of a Jewish college ( yeshiva ) in Jerusalem, which for the first time since the year 70 became the center of Jewish learning again. On the other hand, a discriminatory dress code was introduced in 973, according to which Jews had to wear a belt ( zunnār ) as a mark ( ġiyār ) ; after this condition was no longer observed, the caliph al-Hakim renewed it .
The Fatimids gradually consolidated their rule; it was not until 983 that they achieved the decisive victory over the Ṭayʾ Bedouins, and a Byzantine delegation in Egypt managed to repair the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, which had been damaged in 966. A ten-year peace between Byzantium and the Fatimid Empire was concluded and after its expiry in 998 it was extended for another decade. In 999 al-Hakim ascended the throne, and regardless of the treaty ( hudna ), tensions with the Byzantines increased. The reasons are unclear, possibly supported Byzantium insurgents in Egypt and Palestine. In addition, there was an unwillingness among Muslims in Egypt for Jews and Christians to hold administrative positions. All of this led to the persecution of Christians from 1003, which culminated in the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher on September 28, 1009 (or 1008). The Jerusalem patriarch at that time was Orestes, the uncle of al-Hakim (brother of his mother, who was a Christian). Orestes was able to give his office more and more political weight in the course of the treaties between Byzantium and Cairo. Christian crowds of pilgrims came to Jerusalem every year to witness the Easter celebrations. In response to the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, there were two uprisings against al-Hakim by the Bedouin tribes allied with the Christians of Jerusalem, 1011 to 1014 and 1024 to 1029. Mufarrij, Emir of the Ṭayʾ Bedouins and at times de facto ruler in Palestine, installed Theophilos as Patriarch of Jerusalem (1012) and promised him the reconstruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. It is obvious that Byzantine diplomacy was involved in the background. To avoid being murdered by the Ṭayʾ, some Jerusalem Jews were baptized by Theophilos. After the death of al-Hakim (1021) there was a second Bedouin uprising under Mufarrij's son and successor Ḥassān. He demanded from the caliph to be installed as ruler over Jerusalem and Nabulus , and had connections to the Fatimid court. The Fatimid army arrived in Palestine in 1025, but it did not achieve its decisive victory until 1029. The Jews in Jerusalem, clearly partisans of the Fatimids, were practically plundered and completely impoverished by the insurgents allied with the Christians during the years of the uprising.
After the defeat of the Bedouins, peace returned to Jerusalem. The sources don't report much other than a major earthquake in 1033 that caused structural damage. The Fatimid caliphs had the Dome of the Rock restored, while the Jewish community repaired damage to the temple wall (western wall) and their synagogue. In the 11th century the presence of the Latin Church in Palestine and Egypt increased. Thanks to their trade contacts and good relationships with the Fatimid court, the Amalfi succeeded in restoring or re-establishing Christian buildings in Jerusalem (in Muristan : Johanneshospital, Santa Maria Latina). According to the chronicler William of Tire , Caliph al-Mustanṣir decided to have the city walls and towers of Jerusalem repaired; the cost was placed on the impoverished population. Emperor Constantine IX Monomachus agreed to pay the costs of the Christian Jerusalemites on the condition that a walled Christian quarter be created in which only Christians lived. The caliph gave his approval. The work was completed in 1063.
Under the Seljuks
In 1073 the Fatimid governor surrendered Jerusalem to the Sunni Turkmen , led by Emir Atsiz ibn Uwak of Damascus, without a fight . These could only last three years, however, when Atsiz was engaged in fighting against Fatimid troops, the city's population rose up and took the Turkmen families hostage. Atsiz promised the Jerusalemites "peace and security" ( aman ) on his return , but did not keep: around 3,000 citizens were killed, including the Qadi and other members of the upper class. In August 1098 the Fatimids, under the command of the vizier al-Afdal , advanced again against Jerusalem and recaptured the city with the help of modern war machines after a siege of more than 40 days, whereby the city wall was damaged.
Crusades and the Mamluk period
Only a few months later, the Crusaders stood in front of Jerusalem and began their own siege of the city . Since they did not have heavy military equipment and siege towers, and not even enough horses, and the Fatimid commander Iftikhar ad-Daula had only just repaired and renewed the city wall after the damage of the previous year, their situation initially seemed unpromising. Fighting oriental Christians had also been expelled from the city by the Fatimid military leaders in advance because it was feared that they might sympathize with the Crusaders.
After the crusader army had succeeded in building three siege towers with freshly delivered wood, the crusaders conquered the "holy city" of Jerusalem on July 15, 1099 under Godfrey of Bouillon and Raymond of Toulouse . After the crusaders had overcome the outer walls and penetrated into the city, according to the latest information about 3,000 inhabitants of the city were killed. The sources used in the past on the consequences of the conquest for the inhabitants of Jerusalem, which assumed that the number of victims was significantly higher, are being questioned in recent research. On the one hand, most Christian sources are based on the Gesta Francorum , which is not to be seen as an eyewitness account, but as a medieval epic in the style of the Roland song . On the other hand, the first Muslim sources (the best known is Ibn al-Athīr's "Complete History") were written only from the 1150s and thus decades after the conquest of Jerusalem. Hence the historical credibility of the bloodthirsty brutality depictions of the capture of Jerusalem is doubtful. The exaggeration is often obvious, for example in the description of the eyewitness Raimund von Aguilers (who based his report on the Gesta Francorum):
“Mountains of severed heads, hands and legs could be seen in every street and in every square. People ran over the bodies and horse carcasses. But so far I have only described the minor horrors […] I am describing what I actually saw if you would not believe me […] So it suffices to report that in the temple of Solomon and the portico, crusaders are up to their knees and rode the bridles of their horses in the blood. "
From the exaggerations of both Christian and Muslim sources, it can be concluded that in the Middle Ages the idea of the brutality of the Crusaders on both sides of the conflict was an object of manipulation and exaggeration.
After the conquest of Jerusalem, the Crusaders founded the Christian Kingdom of Jerusalem and established an imperial administration. With the establishment of the Patriarchate of Jerusalem , the ecclesiastical hierarchy of the Holy Land was in the hands of Latin bishops and was reorganized; however, this structure remained a parallel organization in which only the Roman Catholic Christians participated, while the indigenous Christian population retained their oriental and orthodox church organizations. She was often at a disadvantage in day-to-day administration. At this time, the religious orders of knights also emerged in Jerusalem , in particular the Hospitallers (named after the pilgrim hospital in which the order had originally started as a nursing brotherhood) and the Templars (named after their headquarters in a wing of the Al-Aqsa Mosque First royal palace of the Crusaders housed on the Temple Mount). The Teutonic Order did not gain a foothold in the Holy Land until the end of the 12th century.
After the crushing defeat of the Christian knights in the Battle of Hattin in 1187, Saladin (Arabic Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayub ) succeeded in overthrowing the Fatimids and, as Sultan of Egypt, in ruling the Ayyubid dynasty in Egypt, Palestine and Syria had justified to conquer Jerusalem after a short siege . After taking the city, he had the golden cross erected by the Crusaders on the dome of the Dome of the Rock (which had served the Crusaders as the main church next to the Church of the Holy Sepulcher and was called Templum Domini by them ) and the marble cladding of the rock including the altar.
In the course of the third crusade , after his success in the siege of Acre (1189–1191) and the reoccupation of most of the coastal cities , the English King Richard the Lionheart planned to recapture Jerusalem, but did not carry out the campaign because of the lack of military prospects. Acre was from then on the capital of the Kingdom of Jerusalem .
During the crusade of Damiette in Egypt, the Ayyubid ruler of Syria al-Muʿazzam had the city fortifications of Jerusalem torn down except for the Tower of David and the surrounding castles razed, because they feared they would be handed over to the crusaders and did not want to leave a defensible city to them. From then until the modern city wall was built under the Ottomans (1537–40), Jerusalem remained unfortified for about 300 years.
For a short time Jerusalem came into the possession of the Crusaders again when Emperor Frederick II took over the city in 1229 against the resistance of Pope Gregory IX, who was an enemy of him . won through negotiations with the Ayyubid Sultan al-Kamil without military action and proclaimed himself King of Jerusalem, but only stayed a few months in the Holy Land. He based his rule primarily on the Teutonic Order devoted to him , while the other knightly orders and the local crusader nobility were split into a papal and an imperial party. After his return to Italy, Jerusalem was under the administration of various crusader baillis until the unexpected conquest by marauding Egyptian mercenaries in 1244 .
In August 1244, Khorezmian mercenaries conquered the poorly defended city and plundered it without the express order of the Egyptian sultan al-Salih . After the defeat of the Crusaders and their Syrian allies in the Battle of La Forbie two months later, a Christian reconquest was out of the question. In 1260 the Ayyubid dynasty in Egypt was overthrown by the Mamluk general and subsequent sultan Baibars , who defeated the Mongols for the first time in the battle of ʿAin Jālūt and repulsed their invasion of Syria and the Middle East and then all of Syria and Palestine under the Egyptians Domination brought. In 1291 the Mamluk Sultan Kalil drove the last crusaders out of Palestine after the conquest of Acre . Jerusalem, which then had less than 10,000 inhabitants and no political significance, remained under Egyptian-Mamluk administration until the Ottoman conquest at the beginning of the 16th century.
While under Ayyubid and Christian administration in the 13th century it made little difference for the residents and especially for the pilgrims who ruled the city, under Mamluk rule only Muslims were considered fully valid citizens. Christians and Jews had to make themselves recognizable through their clothing. They were allowed to practice their religion as followers of a book religion , but were legally discriminated in almost all areas of life and had to pay an additional tax. Nevertheless, a Christian and a Jewish quarter continued to exist in the city in the 14th and 15th centuries, and the flow of Christian pilgrims did not cease. A detailed description of a late medieval pilgrimage to Jerusalem is contained in the travel report of the Zurich Dominican Felix Faber , who made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1483 and visited the holy places.
Under the Ottomans (1516-1917)
In 1516 the Ottoman army, led by Sultan Selim I (1470–1520), defeated the Mamluks in Syria. Subsequently, Egypt and Arabia were conquered by the Ottomans . Jerusalem became the administrative seat of an Ottoman sanjak (administrative district). The first decades of Turkish rule brought Jerusalem a significant upswing.
After 1535, Sultan Suleyman I (1496–1566) had the fortifications of the city rebuilt in partially modified lines, as they can currently be seen. These walls gave the old town its current structure. The much too large new walls around the sacred symbolic place should make the new rule clear. Jerusalem gained in importance in the years that followed. The Ottoman administration was divided in its attitude towards the Jews and Christians and vacillated between tyranny and tolerance .
The impoverished Jews and Christians lived mainly from the pilgrimage trade . Owning the shrines of Jerusalem was a vital source of income because of the alms that came with them . For this reason there were sometimes bitter, sometimes violent conflicts among the churches over individual property rights. Already from the second half of the 19th century, even before the by Zionism dominated aliyoth (immigration wave) from 1882, came more and more Jews in the city, and there were established the first residential areas outside the city walls (starting with Moses Montefioris Mishkenot Sha'ananim / later Yemin Moshe (1857/1860), followed by Mahane Yisrael (1867), Nahalat Shiv'a (1869), Mea Shearim (1874), Even Yisrael (1875), Mishkenot Yisrael (1875), Shimon HaZadiq (1876), Beit David (1877) and Beit Ya'aqov (1877)). By 1880, around half of Jerusalem's 30,000 or so residents were Jewish.
In 1892 the Jaffa – Jerusalem railway reached the city, which provided the first modern transport connection. The first film recordings were made in Jerusalem in 1896.
On December 9, 1917, British troops under General Edmund Allenby marched into the city after the Ottoman governor had given them to the command of the Ottoman armed forces. The surrender without a fight was intended to prevent possible damage to the historical sites through any battles around the city or in it.
British mandate period
During this time, Jerusalem developed to an outstanding degree (establishment of the Hebrew University , construction of the King David Hotel , etc.), and the regulations on the cityscape of that time have remained in force to this day. Sir Ronald Storrs , the first British governor of Jerusalem, passed a law according to which the houses of the capital of the Mandate area could only be built from Jerusalem stone .
In April 1920 there was an Arab pogrom against the Jewish population of Jerusalem lasting several days. Six people were killed and over 200 were wounded in the Nabi Musa riots .
UN partition plan
Since the beginning of the Middle East conflict , Jerusalem has been one of the central points of contention. Representatives of Jewish and Arab population groups claimed the city or at least parts of it as the capital of Israel and Palestine. That is why the 1947 UN partition plan for Palestine provided for the creation of a Jewish and an Arab state and for Jerusalem to be placed under international administration. The city was to be governed as a corpus separatum from the UN by a board of trustees and a governor. Local lawmakers should be a council that city dwellers should vote for on the basis of proportional representation. The UN reserved the right of veto against his decisions - insofar as they affected the status of the city . The city was to be demilitarized, neutral and protected by a police force recruited from foreign troops. It should be part of a common trading area that citizens of both countries were allowed to enter and inhabit. In this way, equal access to the holy places of the three world religions should be ensured.
On November 29, 1947, more than two-thirds of the UN General Assembly adopted this plan with Resolution 181. Resolutions 194 of December 11, 1948 and 303 of December 9, 1949 followed. However, the partition plan was never implemented: the Arab states regarded it as an unreasonable renunciation of part of “Dar al Islam” . Until 1952, the United Nations tried several times without result to clarify the status of Jerusalem.
War of Independence
The Israeli Declaration of Independence of 1948 made no mention of Jerusalem, but promised that Israel would protect the holy places of all religions. The following day, the Arab states of Egypt , Syria , Transjordan , Lebanon , Iraq and Saudi Arabia attacked Israel with the aim of destroying the newly established Jewish state. In the Israeli War of Independence , the Israeli armed forces conquered large areas of the country, but lost the Jewish quarter of the old city and the east of Jerusalem to the Arab Legion of Transjordan. The city therefore remained divided into Israeli West Jerusalem and Transjordan East Jerusalem until 1967 , whose Jewish population was expelled, the Jewish quarter in the Old City was destroyed, and access to the Western Wall , the holiest place in Judaism, was blocked from then on.
In 1948 the Israeli Defense Minister issued an ordinance that Israeli law should apply in the west of the city, as in every part of Palestine that he declares to be held by Israeli troops. On December 13, 1949, Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion declared Jerusalem an inseparable part of Israel and its eternal capital before the Knesset. Parliament confirmed this position.
Declaration on the capital of Israel
On January 4, 1950, Israel declared the city its capital. The final status of Jerusalem is to be determined in final status negotiations. As a result, Jerusalem is still not recognized uniformly and internationally as the sole capital of Israel. King Abdallah ibn Husain I of Jordan then annexed the West Bank and East Jerusalem, which had been conquered by his troops . Only Pakistan recognized this, Great Britain only recognized the annexation of the West Bank.
Since 1952, the international community has de facto accepted the application of Israeli law in West Jerusalem. The demand to internationalize the city seemed less and less compatible with reality and was therefore no longer raised by the UN over time. The Israeli position states that the west of the city was without sovereignty after Great Britain withdrew from its former mandate area in 1948, and Israel thus acquired rightful sovereignty over the area in an act of self-defense against the attacking Arab armies . The position of the Israeli government that Jerusalem as a whole is a legitimate part of Israel and its capital is shared by only a few states to this day.
Six Day War and the Consequences
In the 1967 Six Day War , the Israeli army's strategy was originally purely defensive. Israel wanted to keep Jordan out of the war, even after the Jordanian military began artillery bombardment of West Jerusalem on the morning of June 5. It was only after Jordan captured the neutral headquarters of the United Nations that the decision was made to act. In the next three days, first the UN headquarters, then the Jordanian military base on Giv'at HaTahmoschet ("Munitions Hill") and finally the old town were conquered. In doing so, the Israeli armed forces refrained from using heavy weapons to protect mosques and churches and accepted considerable losses: Of a total of around 800 Israeli war dead, 183 fell in Jerusalem. For the first time since the founding of the state, Jews were able to pray at the Western Wall. Unlike the Arab side of the Jews in 1949, Israel did not deny Muslims access to their holy places, but placed the Temple Mount under an autonomous Muslim administration ( Waqf ).
After the end of the war, the Knesset passed the Law and Administration Ordinance Act, which allowed the government to extend Israeli law, jurisdiction and administration to all areas of the former mandate area. At the same time, the local government regulations were changed, making it possible to extend the administrative borders of Jerusalem to the east of the city. The urban area was expanded considerably in the south, east and north, in the north up to the border of Ramallah including the Qalandia airport (see map). However, certain legal arrangements were made in favor of the city's Arab residents, which are enshrined in the Legal and Administrative Matters (Regulation) Law of 1970. The Arab city citizens did not automatically become Israelis either, but it was made possible for them to acquire Israeli citizenship in a very straightforward manner, although only a few made use of this. Israel's Foreign Minister, Abba Eban , then stated in a letter to the UN Secretary General in July 1967 that Israel had not annexed East Jerusalem, but only integrated it administratively. Nevertheless, this step was criticized by UN agencies. In UN Security Council resolution 242 , Jerusalem is not explicitly mentioned.
The position of the Israeli government is that neither Jordan nor any state other than Israel has ever received sovereignty over the city. Jordan brought Jerusalem under its control in an act of aggression in 1948, whereas Israel acted in self-defense in 1967 and could therefore make better claims. The Israeli position states that the General Assembly's resolution 181, as a non-binding document under international law, has never been relevant, which is why Jerusalem has become obsolete as a separate entity under international trusteeship (Corpus Separatum). In addition, there is no international treaty to this effect, nor is the status of Jerusalem as a corpus separatum customary international law .
With regard to holy places, the Knesset passed the Preservation of the Holy Places Law in 1967, which guarantees free access to them and their protection from desecration. Referring to this law, in order to maintain public order and safety, the Israeli police prevent national religious Jews such as those organized in the Nationalist Groups Association from holding public services on the Temple Mount.
The largest Jewish settlement near Jerusalem is the satellite town Ma'ale Adumim, founded in 1975 with 37,670 inhabitants (as of the end of 2016)
To make way for the security fence east of Jerusalem, some previously inhabited houses were demolished.
In 2012, the Israeli government started new settlement projects in the Gilo residential area in the southwest of Jerusalem. The plan is to build 940 apartments in Gilo.
Camp David Agreement
In the Camp David Accords of 1978 Jerusalem was excluded. In the accompanying letters to the host of Camp David, the President of the United States , Jimmy Carter , Menachem Begin declared for Israel that Jerusalem was the indivisible capital of Israel. Sadat declared that "Arab Jerusalem is an integral part of the West Bank" and "should be under Arab sovereignty". At the same time, however, he was in favor of handing over certain functions of the city to a joint council. In this sense, the city should be undivided, wrote Sadat.
The Jerusalem Law of July 30, 1980 combined both districts and some surrounding communities and declared the city the inseparable capital of Israel. The Palestinian side sees this as a major obstacle on the way to peace. The United Nations Security Council declared the Jerusalem Law null and void ( UN Resolution 478 of August 20, 1980). The resolution calls on all states whose embassies were based in Jerusalem to withdraw them from Jerusalem.
At that time, 13 of 45 countries had their embassies in Jerusalem: Bolivia , Chile , Colombia , Costa Rica , the Dominican Republic , Ecuador , El Salvador , Guatemala , Haiti , the Netherlands , Panama , Uruguay and Venezuela . All other embassies were based in Tel Aviv . All 13 affected states followed the resolution. In 1982 two states, Costa Rica and El Salvador, moved their embassies back to Jerusalem, but in late summer 2006 they reversed this decision and moved their embassies back to Tel Aviv. There are consulates general of Greece , Great Britain, France and the USA in Jerusalem.
Declaration on the capital of Palestine
In 1988 Jordan gave up its claim to sovereignty over the West Bank and thus also over East Jerusalem. In the same year the PLO proclaimed the State of Palestine and declared Jerusalem its capital, which at the time - although this declaration of independence was recognized by many Arab states - was pure fiction. Under international law, in addition to the proclamation of a state, four prerequisites must be met in order to create a state: There must be a state territory and a state people over which there is effective government and control. In addition, the new state must have the ability to enter into international relations. The PLO at that point was far from having effective control over any part of the disputed areas.
In the Declaration of Principles on Temporary Self-Government , signed by Israel and the PLO on September 13, 1993, Palestinian self-government, as enshrined in two forms for the West Bank (Area A and Area B), is not determined for any part of Jerusalem. The final status of the city is to be determined in a final treaty in the course of the Oslo peace process. The Declaration of Principles allows the Palestinian citizens of Jerusalem to participate in the elections for the Palestinian Authority following an agreement between the two sides .
On August 9, 2001, 16 people, including seven children and a pregnant woman, died in a suicide attack in the Pizzeria Sbarro, and 130 others were injured. On December 1, 2001, in three attacks, two of which were in Ben-Jehuda-Strasse, ten people died and more than 180 were injured, some of them life-threatening.
On January 27, 2002, an Israeli was killed and more than 150 people were injured or shocked in a suicide attack at the junction of Jaffa and King George Street, which was carried out by a woman for the first time by the 28-year-old Palestinian woman, Wafa Idris. In another terrorist attack on March 2, 2002, a Palestinian suicide bomber murdered at least nine people and injured at least 40, some seriously, in the district of Beit Israel. The explosive device on the body of the terrorist disguised as an Orthodox Jew exploded around 7.15 p.m. local time in the neighborhood inhabited by ultra-Orthodox Jews when they were returning from the synagogues on Shabbat. The crime occurred at the intersection of Beit Israel and Haim Ozer Street. As the Israeli radio reported in the evening, the Palestinian residents of the autonomous city of Ramallah cheered on the streets after the attack. In another suicide attack by a Palestinian in a café on March 9, 2002 at 10:30 p.m., 11 Israelis were killed and 54 injured, 10 of them seriously. The assassin entered the cafe in the Rehavia district of Jerusalem, which was built by German-Jewish immigrants in the 1930s, and detonated a charge of explosives that totally destroyed the restaurant. The victims are: Limor Ben-Shoham 27, Nir Borochov 22, Danit Dagan 25, Livnat Dvash 28, Tali Eliyahu 26, Dan Emunei 23, Uri Felix 25, Natanel Kochavi 31, Baruch Lerner 29, Orit Ozerov 28 and Avraham Haim Rahamim 29 Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack.
On March 21, 2002, a Palestinian suicide bomber blew himself up in downtown Jerusalem, killing three people and injuring more than 60 people, some seriously. The victims were Yitzhak Cohen and the Shemesh couple from Pisgat Ze'ev. Tzipi, who was five months pregnant, and Gad Shemesh leave behind two children (7 and 3 years old).
On April 12, 2002, another suicide attack on a Palestinian woman by the Al-Aqsa Brigades in Jerusalem left six dead and around 60 injured, including seven seriously injured. The assassin blew herself up at a bus stop near the Mahane Yehuda market where a bus was parked.
On October 21, 2014, at a quarter to six local time, a member of Hamas drove his car into a group of people who had just got off at the ammunition hill stop. Eight people were injured. The three-month-old baby Haya later died from her injuries.
On the evening of October 29, 2014, a Palestinian attacker fired four shots from a motorcycle at Jehuda Glick in the street , who was critically injured as a result.
On November 18, 2014, between seven and half past seven local time, two Arab residents of Jerusalem broke into a synagogue in the Har Nof district in western Jerusalem. They were armed with an ax, a knife and a firearm. They killed four praying Jews, Mosche Twersky (59), Calman Levine (55) and Arje Kopinsky (43) and Avraham Schmuel Goldberg (68) including the head of the synagogue, and injured seven, three of them seriously. A police officer who happened to notice the commotion in the synagogue on his way to work, intervened with a colleague. In an exchange of fire, they killed the attackers and also suffered injuries. The Druze police officer Sidan Saif later succumbed to his injuries. The 15 members of the United Nations Security Council condemned the attack on November 20, 2014.
In two terrorist attacks on October 13, 2015, three Israelis were murdered and a further 20 people were injured, six of them seriously. In one case, two assassins attacked passengers in a bus with firearms and knives. In the other case, an assassin raced his car into a group of people waiting at a bus stop and then attacked passers-by with a knife. On December 9, 2016, a 39-year-old from the predominantly Arab district of Silwan killed two people in a train station with gunshots from a moving car. At least six other people were injured. The radical Islamic Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack.
In an attack on January 8, 2017 in the Armon Hanaziv district, three women and one man, all of them officer or cadet, were killed. Seventeen other officers and cadets were injured when a Palestinian driver targeted a group of soldiers with a truck.
Recognition as capital by individual states and relocation of the embassy
In April 2017, Russia announced that it would consider West Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. With this perspective, Russia is the first state in the world to confirm West Jerusalem as the capital of the Jewish state.
On June 16, 2017 , 23-year-old border police officer Hadas Malka was so badly injured by a Palestinian terrorist on duty that she died shortly afterwards in hospital.
In 1995 the US Congress decided to move the US embassy to Jerusalem because Israel - like all states - has the right to determine its own capital. On December 6, 2017, President Trump announced the relocation of the US embassy to Jerusalem. This was completed on May 14, 2018; Guatemala followed two days later and, on May 21, 2018, Paraguay followed with the relocation of the embassy. Under the new President Mario Abdo Benítez , Paraguay moved its embassy back to Tel Aviv in September 2018.
In December 2018, the Australian government formally recognized West Jerusalem as the capital of Israel.
The position of the Israeli government that Jerusalem as a whole is a legitimate part of Israel and its capital is shared internationally by only very few states. On December 6, 2017, US President Donald Trump announced the official recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel by the USA . He subsequently announced the move of the US Embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. The radical left-wing Meretz party , the United List and even some Israeli diplomats refused to move the embassy to Jerusalem.
The French diplomat Marc Pierini declared on December 10, 2017 that the EU was no longer united on the Jerusalem issue. Some Eastern European states have shown "sympathy for Israel's position" on the question of recognizing Jerusalem as the capital of Israel.
On Jerusalem Day 2017, the Parliament of the Czech Republic recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. The Czech President Miloš Zeman has criticized the European Union's position on the Jerusalem question as “cowardly”.
On Wednesday, December 6, 2017, Hungary stopped an intended joint EU condemnation ( joint declaration ) of Trump's plans to recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel by veto. Hungary does not consider a conviction necessary. "Eastern European countries are falling out" on the Jerusalem question. They are also considering moving their embassies to Jerusalem.
With the help of the Lithuanian Foreign Minister Linas Antanas Linkevičius , who was “friends” with Benjamin Netanyahu , the meeting of EU foreign ministers came about, in which Netanyahu took part. It was the first time in 22 years that an Israeli prime minister again visited the EU. Linkevičius acted as a "door opener" and stated that the EU should play a more active role in the Middle East conflict. Linkevičius explained: "But that is impossible without direct contact."
In response to this declaration, heads of state and government from over 20 Islamic countries (including Afghanistan , Iran , Indonesia , Somalia and Jordan's King Abdullah II and the emirs of Qatar and Kuwait ) met on December 13, 2017 at a special summit in Istanbul . At the meeting of the Organization for Islamic Cooperation , which was initiated by Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan , they announced that they would recognize East Jerusalem as the capital of Palestine. Palestinian President Mahmud Abbas stated that he would no longer recognize the USA as a mediator in the Middle East conflict and would strive for full UN membership in Palestine.
After a resolution in the Security Council that was binding under international law failed due to the USA's veto against the votes of all 14 other council members, Turkey, as the incumbent chair of the Organization for Islamic Cooperation (OIC), submitted a draft resolution to the General Assembly of the United Nations . A large majority of 128 states approved resolution A / ES-10 / L.22 on December 21, 2017; 35 states abstained, 21 were absent and nine voted against, including Israel and the United States. It states that the final status of the city must be negotiated through negotiations in accordance with relevant UN resolutions. A few days later, Guatemalan President Jimmy Morales announced that he would also move his country's embassy to Jerusalem. Guatemala was one of the nine states that had voted against the resolution and thus sided with the United States. Trump had threatened to cut financial contributions if other countries vote against the United States. In March 2019, Prime Minister Viorica Dăncilă announced the intention to move the Romanian embassy to Jerusalem.
On the 70th anniversary of the founding of the state of Israel, on May 14, 2018, the embassy of the United States of America was relocated to Jerusalem . Two days later, Guatemala also moved its embassy to Jerusalem . Paraguay followed as the third country on May 21, 2018.
The Temple Mount is now subject to the Islamic Waqf , excavations are not possible there. In recent years the Waqf has built a new mosque in the so-called stables of Solomon , which met with Israeli rejection because of the possible unnoticed destruction of the remains of the two Jewish temples. However, the construction of the Herodian temple should have already led to an extensive removal of earlier traces. Likewise, its repeated destruction, the construction of a Roman sanctuary and finally the Islamic construction work should have left little remnants of earlier times.
Jerusalem lies on the southern foothills of a plateau in the Judean Mountains, which include the Mount of Olives in the east and Mount Scopus in the northeast. The old town is about 760 m . Jerusalem is surrounded by numerous dry valleys . The Kidron Valley , in the east of the old town, lies between the actual city and the Mount of Olives. Along the south side of the old town is the steeply sloping Gehinnom gorge , which has been equated with hell in eschatological concepts since biblical times .
As everywhere in the Middle East, the water supply in Jerusalem has always been guaranteed at great expense, which is achieved through a complicated network of aqueducts (e.g. Qanat as-Sabil ), tunnels, ponds (e.g. the ponds of Solomon and the Pond of Siloam ) and cisterns that were found here. Over the course of several millennia, the Gihon Spring in the Kidron Valley at the foot of the Temple Mount remained the main source of fresh water in Jerusalem.
Jerusalem is 60 km east of Tel Aviv and the Mediterranean Sea . To the east of the city, about 35 km away, is the Dead Sea . Other cities and settlements in the vicinity are Bethlehem and Bait Jala in the south, Abu Dis and Maʿale Adummim in the east, and Ramallah and Givʿat Seev in the north.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Jerusalem
Source: Israel Meteorological Service
The Mount of Olives not only protects Jerusalem from the desert wind from the east - the moist air from the Mediterranean Sea to the west also rains down over the city. In Palestine, the westerly winds prevail, with the mountains lying in the windward direction, as a result of which the amount of rain increases inland towards the mountains and decreases again over the Jordan Valley. This rain shadow effect reduces the annual precipitation from Jerusalem from 600 mm to around 100 mm in the Jordan Valley. In winter, the mountains cool down and eastern winds towards the warmer Mediterranean become frequent as a result. In summer the westerly winds also get drier and hardly carry any clouds, but they are cool and refreshing. The sea breeze usually reaches Jerusalem after 2 p.m., after it has asserted itself against the dry land and usually refreshes the city pleasantly cool throughout the night (except for a decrease around sunset). If the sea breeze does not reach Jerusalem or if it does not reach Jerusalem, the nights get hot and there is a lack of dew and freshness - and when the east wind from the desert also reaches the city, this brings dust and a burnt smell with it and scorches everything every fifth day of summer). In winter this easterly wind is then cold and cutting. In Jerusalem there is a clearly demarcated rainy season in the winter half-year from around October 14th to May 6th, outside of which there is hardly any precipitation - and around 60 cloudless days in summer, which, however, often start foggy because the strong early dew condenses. In the mountains the spring rains predominate, on the coast the autumn rains, which is why there is a relatively cool spring in Jerusalem and a rather warm autumn.
In 1979 there were already 50,000 Jews living in East Jerusalem, in 1993 there were already 160,000. Today 497,000 Jewish Israelis live in Jerusalem, more than 200,000 of them in occupied Palestinian territory. The proportion of Jewish residents in the entire Jerusalem was 63% in 2015, the Muslim proportion 35% and the Christian proportion 2%.
The following overview shows the number of inhabitants according to the respective territorial status.
Holy city for Jews, Christians and Muslims
Jerusalem is viewed as a holy city by Christians, Jews and Muslims. For all three Abrahamic religions , Jerusalem is important as the place of activity of various patriarchs , prophets , priests , kings and saints such as Abraham , Melchizedek , David , Solomon , Zacharias , Jesus of Nazareth and others. The statistical yearbook of Jerusalem lists 1204 synagogues, 158 churches and 73 mosques in the city area. Places like the Temple Mount have always been controversial and a cause of conflict.
Since the 10th century BC, Jerusalem has been sacred to the Jews as the site of the Jewish temple first built under King Solomon . The city is mentioned 632 times in the Tanach . Time and again, Jerusalem is at the center of the biblical God’s announcements of salvation and judgment, especially with the prophets Daniel, Jeremiah, Isaiah, Ezekiel, Zechariah and the Psalms.
- “Thus says the Lord God: This is Jerusalem, which I have placed among the Gentiles and among the countries round about! Ez 5.5 EU "
- “And you shall know that I, the Lord your God, dwell in Zion on my holy mountain. Joel 4.17 EU "
- “If I forget you, Jerusalem, my rights wither. Ps 137,5 EU "
The Bible depicts both the city of Jerusalem and the land and people of Israel as God's special property. Significant here is the literary representation of Jerusalem as a foundling raised by God (Ezekiel 16), as well as God's promises to the city in the Psalms worded like marriage vows. Today the Western Wall, the western enclosure wall of the temple precinct, is a holy place for Jews, only the Temple Mount itself surpasses it in importance. Worldwide, the Torah shrine of synagogues is traditionally located on the wall that faces Jerusalem. The location of the Torah shrine of the synagogues in Jerusalem is based on the holy of holies in the Temple of Solomon. As described in the Mishnah and codified in the Shulchan Aruch , the daily prayers in Judaism are performed towards Jerusalem and the Temple Mount. Jerusalem is the most important of the four holy cities in Judaism, along with Hebron , Tiberias and Safed .
Jerusalem is holy to Christians because it is the place of the passion , crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus Christ . Jerusalem is mentioned over 100 times in the New Testament, according to the Bible, Jesus was brought to the city shortly after his birth, here he drove sacrificial animal dealers and money changers from the temple, and this is where the Lord's Supper took place. Just outside the city, Jesus is said to have been crucified and buried. The likely location today is within the city walls.
In contrast to the Jewish and Christian Bibles, the Koran does not once mention Jerusalem by name, but the city is still traditionally considered the third holiest of Islam (after Mecca and Medina ). Before praying towards the Kaaba in Mecca, Jerusalem was the place of prayer for a short time during the lifetime of the Prophet Mohammed . The question of the direction of prayer was raised in connection with the construction of the al-Aqsa mosque , as its location on the Temple Mount depends on the direction in which Mohammed turned during prayer. Muslims believe that the Prophet made a nocturnal journey on the Ross Buraq from Mecca to a distant "place of worship" ( al-aqsa ) where he ascended to heaven to meet other prophets of Islam. The location of this shrine is not explicitly mentioned, but traditionally identified in Sunni Islam with the Dome of the Rock . At the time of the Syrian Umayyad caliphs, who particularly promoted the rock sanctuary on the Jerusalem Temple Mount, an Islamic literature on the "virtues of Jerusalem" was created, which spread in the 10th and 11th centuries and underlined the city's significance for Islam, which was initially only recognized locally .
Animation about Jerusalem
A large number of religions and religious movements can be found in Jerusalem.
There is also a Druze community . Sunni , Shiite and Alawites are represented by Islam . Christianity in Jerusalem includes Greek Orthodox , Russian Orthodox , Georgian Orthodox , Syrian Orthodox , Greek Catholics , Old Catholics , Roman Catholics , Lutherans , Anglicans , Armenians, and Ethiopians .
Culture and sights
The Yad Vashem Holocaust Memorial is located in Jerusalem .
Historical museums include the Israel Museum with the " Shrine of the Book " and the model of Jerusalem in the time of Jesus, the Bible Lands Museum , the Tower of David Museum of the History of Jerusalem, the Ariel Center for Jerusalem in the First Temple Period, Through the Ages Archaeological Park under Church of the Redeemer, and the Rockefeller Museum of Archeology.
Museums that show excavations from ancient biblical times are the Burnt House, the City of David, (oldest part of Jerusalem, also pre-Israelite) the Jerusalem Archaeological Park, (south of the old city wall at the Dung Gate ) The Israelite Tower, and the Wohl Museum.
There is also the Natural History Museum and the Bazabel Museum for Folk Art and Folklore. Museums on the history and prehistory of the modern State of Israel include the Ammunition Hill Museum, Herzl Museum, Old City Museum, Menachem Begin Heritage Center, and the Mount Zion Cable Car.
The old city of Jerusalem was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1981 . Since the Middle Ages, it has been divided into the Armenian quarter in the southwest, the Christian quarter in the northwest, the Jewish quarter in the southeast and the Muslim quarter in the northeast and is surrounded by an almost completely preserved city wall from the 16th century. The wall of the old city of David includes several towers and originally seven gates, three of which are large and four of which are small, and an eighth one was added in 1889.
In the Christian part of the old town is the New Gate , on the border to the Armenian part the Jaffa Gate and to the Muslim part the Damascus Gate . The Herod's Gate , the Golden Gate (sealed by the Turks) and the St. Stephen's Gate lead into the Muslim part . The Zion Gate and the Dung Gate are in the Jewish part . To the southwest of it rises Mount Zion with the presumed tomb of King David. To the east of the old town is the Mount of Olives with the Garden of Gethsemane . Important Christian sites are the Holy Sepulcher , built on the foundation walls of a 4th century basilica, and the Via Dolorosa .
The approx. 400 meter long wailing wall , called the "Western Wall" by the Jews, is part of the supporting wall of the plateau on which the great temple of Herod the Great stood. Important Muslim buildings on the Temple Mount today are the Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa Mosque .
Near the southwest corner of the old town wall is a famous peace monument on the pedestrian bridge, on which the well-known biblical sentence from Isaiah 2,4 ("Swords to plowshares") is presented in a modern way.
In the north, west and south of the old city, the new city of Jerusalem spreads out, which has developed since the middle of the 19th century. It extends over the surrounding hills and further into the desert surrounding area of the city. The modern residential and commercial buildings and the wide streets of the new town form a stark contrast to the poor houses and narrow streets of the old town. The New Town is home to the Knesset (the Israeli Parliament), the synagogue of the Hadassa Clinic with its Chagall windows and numerous important state institutions. These include the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of the Interior and the seat of the Prime Minister.
In the limestone rock under the city's largest cemetery, Har ha-Menuchot, Israel has been building an underground burial site since 2016, the first part of which, with 8,000 of a total of 22,000 grave sites planned, is due to open in October 2019. The model is the necropolis of Bet Shearim near Haifa. Jewish burial customs prohibit cremation and require the dead to be buried in the ground or in underground tunnels. The grave sites consist of coffin-sized horizontal bores in the tunnel walls.
Jerusalem is, among other things, the seat of the Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra .
- Abu gate
- Old town
- Bab a-Zahara
- Bayit VeGan
- Beit HaKerem
- En Kerem
- French Hill (also Giv'at Shapira)
- Giva Ram
- Givʿat HaMatos
- Har Choma
- Har Nof
- Mea Shearim
- Mishkenot Sha'ananim
- Nof Zion
- Pisgat Ze`ev
- Ramat Eshkol
- Ramat Rachel
- Sheikh Jarrah
- East Talpiot
- Umm tuba
- Yemin Moshe
Economy and Infrastructure
The economic life of the city of Jerusalem is largely based on its religious and cultural importance as well as on its function as an administrative center . The service sector is accordingly well developed. Many of Jerusalem's residents are employed in government, city administration and education .
In contrast, the manufacturing industry plays a rather subordinate role. The city 's industrial companies manufacture glass , metal and leather goods , printed matter, shoes and cigarettes , among other things . The production plants are mainly located in the outer districts of Jerusalem. However, tourism is by far the most important economic factor, as the old town is an important destination for tourists.
The development of the Jewish-Israeli and the Arab-Palestinian parts of the city is very different: although the Palestinians make up a third of the city's population, they only benefit from a tenth of the spending on public services, which has a significant impact on the urban infrastructure.
The city is home to around 180 high-tech companies with around 12,000 employees.
Because of its mountain location, Jerusalem is away from Israel's most important traffic flows, which mainly flow in the coastal plain and the strip of land behind it. Within the city, the road layout has to adapt to the hilly landscape.
Public transport by buses and trains is suspended from Friday noon to Saturday evening due to Shabbat .
The main road connection to Jerusalem is the motorway , which takes around an hour to get to Tel Aviv . There are country roads in other directions. Particularly noteworthy is the road to the Dead Sea , which drops 1200 meters on its way through the West Bank.
The connection with public transport is primarily provided by the cooperative bus company Egged .
The Israel Railways long had only a secondary importance. The historic, mountainous railway line to Tel Aviv via Bet Shemesh was renovated in July 1998, and after a seven-year interruption, trains to Jerusalem have been running again since April 2005. The travel times over this route are not attractive compared to the road, the two still operating Jerusalem train stations ( Biblical Zoo and Malcha ) are several kilometers from the city center in the south of the city. The historic, former terminus of the route, which is closer to the city, is no longer served. The station Jerusalem Malcha is the terminus of the line and was given a new, very modern facility.
In 2001, construction began on a new line between Jerusalem and Tel Aviv, with a maximum speed of 160 km / h. This shortens the travel time to 30 minutes. The route, the construction of which has come under fire because it runs through the West Bank in two places, was initially opened in sections between Jerusalem and Ben Gurion Airport near Tel Aviv in September 2018. The new terminus in Jerusalem is located underground near the central bus station.
Since December 22, 2019, the high-speed train has been running between Tel Aviv ( HaHagana station ) and Jerusalem ( Jitzchak Nawon station ) with a stop at Ben Gurion Airport. The train currently runs every 30 minutes, and every 20 minutes in future. Further stations in Tel Aviv are to be added in 2020.
The Jerusalem light rail was built by Alstom and Connex and opened on August 19, 2011. It consists of a single line (L1) between Pisgat Ze'ev and Herzlberg , with a length of 13.8 kilometers and 23 stops. The landmark of the route is the 118 meter high Calatrava bridge built by the Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava. This suspension bridge, known as the White Harp, was inaugurated three years earlier, on June 25, 2008, and is reserved for trams and pedestrians.
To the north of the city is Atarot Airport , which was only intended for domestic flights and has been closed since 2001. Israel's international airport is Ben Gurion Airport, around 60 kilometers to the northwest.
The most important inner city street is Jaffa Street . It leads from the Jaffa Gate to the central bus station and is an important shopping street. A few pedestrian zones branch off from it, including Ben-Jehuda-Straße.
The Jerusalem light rail was the first tram line in Jerusalem to go into operation on August 19, 2011 with 14 trains and every 12 minutes. The first test runs for this line took place on February 24, 2010. The line was supposed to go into operation in 2010, but the date was postponed several times due to the slow construction progress, most recently to August 19, 2011. Although technical problems within the control and control systems still existed at this point in time, the limited start of operations could be released to the public, although this took place without an official opening ceremony.
To what extent planned extensions of the network, e.g. B. take place between the two university campuses on Mount Scopus and Givat Ram, is not yet foreseeable.
Well-known educational institutions in the city include the Hebrew University of Jerusalem , which opened in 1918 , the later Jerusalem Academy of Music and Dance founded by Emil Hauser as a conservatory in 1933 , the Israeli Academy founded in 1959, the Planetarium , the Zionist Central Archives , the Gulbenkian Library and the Jewish National and University Library . There are numerous religious teaching and research institutes in the city. These include the École Biblique et École Archéologique Française, which opened in 1890, the Pontifical Biblical Institute founded in 1927 and the Institute of Jewish Religion, which opened in 1963.
Mandate period (1920-1948)
- 1920-1934 Raghib al-Nashashibi
- 1934-1937 Husayn al-Khalidi
- 1937 - 1938 Daniel Auster
- 1938-1944 Mustafa al-Khalidi
- 1944 - 1945 Daniel Auster
- 1945 - 1948 Municipal Committee
East Jerusalem (1948-1967)
- 1948 - 1950 Anwar Khatib
- 1950 - 1951 Aref al-Aref
- 1951-1952 Hannah Atallah
- 1952-1955 Omar Wa'ari
- 1955-1957 Municipal Committee
- 1957-1967 Rouhi Al-Khatib
West Jerusalem (1948-1967)
- 1948 - 1950 Daniel Auster
- 1950 - 1952 Zalman Schragai
- 1952-1955 Yitzhak Kariv
- 1955 - 1959 Gerschon Agron
- 1959 - 1965 Mordechai Ish Shalom
- 1965 - 1967 Teddy Kollek
Jerusalem under Israeli control (since 1967)
- 1967 - 1993 Teddy Kollek
- 1993 - 2003 Ehud Olmert
- 2004 - 2008 Uri Lupolianski
- 2008 - 2018 Nir Barkat
- since 2018 Moshe Lion
sons and daughters of the town
Jerusalem maintains the following cities partnerships :
- Fès , Morocco , since 1982
- New York , USA , since 1992
- Buenos Aires , Argentina
- Prague , Czech Republic
- Cusco , Peru , since 1996
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