Marc Chagall (* June 24 jul. / 6. July 1887 greg. In Peskowatik in Vitebsk , Russian Empire , now Belarus ; † 28. March 1985 in Saint-Paul-de-Vence , France ) was a French-Russian painter Jewish Belief. Its original Russian name was Мойше Хацкелевич Шагал / Moische Khazkelewitsch Schagal .
The family environment, his hometown Vitebsk , motifs from the Bible and from the circus are the main themes of his pictures. He also used the same, recurring symbols in his mosaics and in the windows and theater sets he designed . Chagall is considered one of the most important painters of the 20th century. He is often assigned to expressionism and referred to as a "painter-poet".
Beginnings - Vitebsk and Saint Petersburg
Chagall was born on June 24th . / July 6, 1887 greg. Born as the eldest of nine children of a poor Orthodox Jewish working class family in the suburb of Peskowatik near Vitebsk . Vitebsk had around 50,000 inhabitants at that time, half of whom were Jews. His father Sachar was a worker in a herring depot, his mother Feiga-Ita ran a small grocery store. After the cheder in Vitebsk, after his mother bribed the teacher, Chagall attended the city school, which normally did not accept Jews. Chagall spoke Russian instead of Yiddish , took regular singing and violin lessons and began to draw. In 1906 he graduated from the community school and became a student in the studio of the painter Jehuda Pen . Pen had studied at the Petersburg Art Academy and painted portraits and genre pictures in the style of the turn of the century. Chagall obtained the residence permit required for Jews in Saint Petersburg in order to obtain a thorough training as an artist after his apprenticeship with Jehuda Pen in the capital.
“With my 27 rubles in my pocket, the only ones I received from my father for the trip in my life, I am disappearing to Saint Petersburg, still pink and full of curls, accompanied by my comrade. It's crucial. "
In the winter of 1906/07 he moved to Saint Petersburg with his friend Viktor Mekler, where he failed the entrance exam for the art academy. Thereupon he began in the spring of 1907 together with Mekler an apprenticeship at the school of the Imperial Society for the Advancement of the Arts , directed by Nicholas Roerich . In July 1908 Chagall left school and went to Saidenberg private school for a short time . During this time he painted the famous black and white picture The Dead , which is often exhibited.
From 1908 to 1910 Chagall attended the school of Jelisaveta Swanzewa , through whose director Léon Bakst he became acquainted with modern painting. During his studies at Bakst, Chagall often went to Vitebsk and met his future wife Bella Rosenfeld there.
Stay in Paris
With the proceeds from the sale of two paintings and a small grant from his patron Maxim Winawer , Chagall traveled to Paris in September 1910, where he expected new ideas for his art, and moved into his first own studio in the Impasse du Maine (today Rue Antoine Bourdelle), near Gare Montparnasse .
"Paris! There was no better word for me. "
He hoped for support from the Russian artists living there. At that time, the Russian art scene in Paris - more than in its own country - received a great response. "Only the distance that lies between Paris and my hometown prevented me from returning immediately," complained Chagall about the new living conditions, which he could not cope with at first. However, he later called Paris his "second Vitebsk".
“It was then that I realized that I had to go to Paris. The earth that nurtured the roots of my art was Vitebsk; but my art needed Paris as much as a tree needed water. I had no other reason to leave my homeland and I believe that I have always remained true to it in my painting. "
Chagall began with nude studies such as reclining female nude (1910) and red nude (1911). Occasionally he attended the evening act in private academies, including with so-called modernists such as Henri Le Fauconnier .
In the winter of 1911/1912, Chagall moved into a new, larger studio called La Ruche (The Beehive), an artists' settlement founded in 1902 by the sculptor Alfred Boucher in the 15th arrondissement . There he found himself in the midst of the international bohemians of Paris. He met the avant-garde artists of Montparnasse such as the poets Guillaume Apollinaire , Max Jacob , Blaise Cendrars and the painters Robert Delaunay , Albert Gleizes , Fernand Léger and Amedeo Modigliani . He soon formed a special friendship with Apollinaire, Cendrars, Delaunay and Léger. In the new studio, Chagall could also turn to larger picture formats. The painters and poets there called Chagall le poète ("the poet").
Chagall loved the light in Paris, which gave the French capital the nickname la ville lumière ("the city of light"), he even called it la lumière-liberté ("the light of freedom"), because with Paris and the Eiffel Tower , its landmark , the artist , who came from tsarist Russia , connected the idea of freedom, which he later expressed through the Eiffel Tower, which is often used in his pictures.
Chagall lived alone and visited galleries and museums during the day, where he first saw the original paintings by Gauguin , Van Gogh and other famous artists. Matisse's work in the Louvre's Autumn Salon made a particular impression on him . When he returned to his studio late in the evening from his walks with impressions of Paris and the galleries and museums he had visited, he would paint the day's experiences, giving free rein to his imagination.
Shortly after moving into his studio at La Ruche , Chagall took part in the Salon des Indépendants and the Salon d'Automne , where he penetrated the center of French art from 1910. In the salon he saw for the first time the explosive colors of the Fauvists and the construction style of the Cubists, which to him seemed abstract . Chagall was almost overwhelmed by the liberating, revolutionary scope of Fauvism. Later he wrote in his autobiography Mein Leben : “This is where I stepped fully […] no academy could have given me all of this that I discovered when I bit my way into the exhibitions in Paris, into the shop windows of its galleries, into its museums . ”For the time being he saw unlimited freedom in the free colors, the deformations and the forms impaired by the inner image.
First attempts at Cubism can be seen in Chagall's painting Intérieur II (1911); However, he only developed his own, more contemporary form with Dedicated to My Bride (1911), whose sexual image motif, which was considered pornographic , meant that the artist was only able to exhibit it at the Paris Spring Salon in 1912 . For Chagall, Cubism was the "language in which the magic of the world could be expressed". Unlike his contemporary colleagues, Chagall found his access to Cubism not through Picasso , but through Robert Delaunay. It was also the paroxysm of the colors of the Cubists that encouraged Chagall to surrender to his explosive imagination.
As we know today, Chagall later dated many of the pictures taken during this period with an incorrect date. For example, I and the village were dated to 1911, although it had already been painted in La Ruche . The most important companion in the Parisian years was the poet Blaise Cendrars, from whose pen the titles I and the village , dedicated to my bride, and Russia, the donkeys and the others came. Chagall found recognition and approval for his work from writers like Cendrars, as he - apart from a few graphics - had not found any buyers for his pictures during this time. So it was Apollinaire who gave Chagall's imagery, which in spite of their closeness to Cubism was different , the name surnaturel (“supernatural”). Apollinaire later called them surreal .
“I remember Apollinaire's first visit to my studio in 1912. Before my pictures from 1908 to 1912 he used the word 'surnaturalisme'. Little did I know that 15 years later the surrealist movement would come. "
In Paris, Chagall saw and discovered gouache - the technique of using water-based opaque paint on paper - and now used it as his preferred means of expression. It made it easy for him to paint his spontaneous improvisations, as the material was inexpensive. During his four years in Paris, Chagall painted hundreds of gouaches. Only when he expected a tangible result in advance did he use canvases. He hardly painted more than forty canvases, which he prepared by painting with gouache. Chagall had appropriated the new French painting methods, but changed or adapted them for himself so that they helped his painterly imagination to implement his memories.
"Chagall is a very talented colorist and gives himself up to whatever his mystical and pagan imagination drives him to do: his art is very sensual."
In 1913, Chagall met the Berlin art dealer Herwarth Walden through Apollinaire , and in the same year took part in the first autumn salon in Berlin. He left France for the first time in three years. Walden was a mentor of Expressionism and editor of Sturm , a German magazine for avant-garde art. In the spring of 1914, Walden, at Apollinaire's intercession, organized Chagall's first solo exhibition in his Berlin gallery Der Sturm, which Chagall saw as an opportunity for an international breakthrough. He traveled to Berlin for the vernissage .
Russia - World War I and Russian Revolution
On the way to the vernissage in Berlin, Chagall had the intention of paying a visit to his family, his sister, who was about to celebrate her birthday, and his fiancé Bella Rosenfeld in Vitebsk. Chagall therefore traveled to Russia on June 13, 1914 after the exhibition was over. During his stay in Vitebsk, which was actually only planned for a few weeks, the First World War broke out at the end of July , which closed the border and made it impossible to return to Paris soon. On July 25, 1915, Chagall married Bella Rosenfeld in Vitebsk, against the concerns of his in-laws.
“In the mornings and evenings she brought me lovely home-baked cakes into the studio, baked fish, boiled milk, colorful fabrics and even boards that I used as an easel. I just opened my window and sky blue, love and flowers poured in with her. Dressed entirely in white or entirely in black, she has haunted my pictures for a long time as a model for my art. "
In autumn 1915, the Chagall couple had to move to Petersburg (which was now called Petrograd), where their daughter Ida was born in 1916. In order to avoid military service, Chagall worked in a department for war economics with his brother-in-law Jakov Rosenfeld. In Petrograd, Chagall got closer to the new tendencies in art in Russia. He took up the primitivism of Natalia Goncharova and Mikhail Larionov , which was not dissimilar to his conception of the picture. In November 1916 he traveled to Moscow to open another exhibition. During his time in Petrograd, Chagall traveled back to Vitebsk to visit his family whenever he could. At this time, Chagall mainly painted pictures of the reality around him, as the events of the World War shaped him and robbed him of his pictorial imagination, which he seemed to have left behind in Paris. The soldiers stationed in Vitebsk, his family, the street scenes and the landscape around Vitebsk provided him with the motifs.
According to his own statements, the February Revolution of 1917 , which he witnessed in Petrograd, the center of events, had a lasting impact on Chagall's life .
When the October Revolution broke out, the artist returned to Vitebsk with his wife and daughter. Since Chagall was enthusiastic about the revolution, he tried to participate in the revolutionary upheaval in Russia himself. He drafted the concept for an art school in Vitebsk, which was approved by Lunacharsky , who was appointed head of the Ministry of Culture by Lenin and whom Chagall had met in Paris. This appointed him on September 12, 1918 Commissioner for the fine arts in the Vitebsk governorate . Chagall then founded the Vitebsk art school in 1919 , immediately took over its management and gave art lessons. He succeeded in appointing Russian avant-garde artists such as Kasimir Malewitsch , El Lissitzky and Iwan Albertowitsch Puni . Since Vitebsk was largely spared from the famine in Russia, more and more artists came to the art academy and were hired by Chagall as teachers.
As part of his new post as Commissioner for the Fine Arts in Vitebsk Governorate, Chagall organized exhibitions and festivities and ensured that museums were reopened and reopened. From April to June 1919, Chagall took part in the “First State Exhibition of Revolutionary Art” in the former Winter Palace in Petrograd. The Soviet Russian government acquired twelve of his paintings.
After there had been repeated disputes between him and Malevich, Chagall resigned in 1920 from the direction of the art academy. At that time there was a directional struggle for future art, in which Malevich became one of the leading figures in this struggle through the image of the black square on a white background . Malevich propagated his art as “pure painting”, which was not compatible with Chagall's view. Chagall and his family left Vitebsk in May of the same year for Moscow , where the family had to live in poverty. During this time Chagall designed murals, decorations and costumes for the "Jewish Theater" in Moscow. The state demand for his work fell sharply during this period as it no longer fit into the official ideology of art and artists. At the time, artists were classified according to their political usefulness; Chagall ended up pretty low in this classification, since Malevich was responsible for it and he didn't think much of Chagall.
In 1921 Chagall worked as a drawing teacher in the war orphan colony in Malachowka near Moscow. In the same year he began to write his autobiography Mein Leben , in which, among other things, he criticized the state's disregard for his artistic individuality.
A year later, Chagall and his family left Russia for Berlin in order to build on his time of departure and to secure himself financially with the proceeds of the pictures he left there. Reasons for leaving were, in addition to his financial problems, the lack of future prospects. Like many intellectuals, he saw his work - since Lenin's order to cleanse the country of "anti-Soviet" spirit - endangered by official harassment. His friend Lunacharsky got the passports for him and his family. The First Russian Art Exhibition in Berlin in 1922 showed his paintings Street Sweeper , Surpriser , The Housewife , Watercolors Reclining Woman and House as well as a series of theater designs: Wounded Man , Man with Goat , Seated Man , Old Man and Two Heads .
Departure - Berlin, Paris and France
When Chagall arrived in Berlin in the summer of 1922, he visited Walden, who in the meantime had sold the pictures he had left behind and deposited the money into an account. However, the credit had become worthless due to inflation in Germany. Chagall sued in court for the return of 150 images. As compensation for the paintings he had left behind when the war broke out, the court bought some of them back for him. In Berlin, Chagall also met the locally known society photographer Frieda Riess . Their studio was known for exclusive meetings of Berlin high society .
In the same year Chagall began etching for a book edition of Mein Leben on behalf of the Berlin art dealer Paul Cassirer . On September 1, 1923, Chagall and his family moved to Paris , following the invitation of his friend Blaise Cendrars, who said to him: "Come back, you are famous and Vollard is waiting for you!" He was made by the Parisian publisher Ambroise Vollard , a mentor of the Cubists and a fatherly friend of Picasso's, whom Chagall had met through Cendrars, commissioned to illustrate The Dead Souls by Nikolai Gogol . Chagall created 96 etchings for this edition, which did not appear until 1948, by 1927.
A very productive period began, in which Chagall re-painted the pictures he had lost in the war from reproductions or from his memories. He did not only want to compensate for his financial losses, but also to live up to his idea that his pictures are “always a piece of his artistic self”. In the years that followed he painted most of his pictures a second time.
In the summer of 1924 Chagall traveled to Brittany , where he discovered the beauty of the local landscape. In the same year Chagall and his family moved into an apartment on Avenue d'Orléans, in which Lenin had lived years earlier . The artist held his first retrospective in Paris .
Vollard commissioned Chagall in 1925 to illustrate the fables of Jean de La Fontaine . He did not take part in his first exhibition in New York in 1926. In the same year he took up a circus motif for the first time with his painting Three Acrobats , beguiled by the interplay of dance, theater and music. A portfolio with a collection of gouaches that Chagall made for Vollard in 1927 was called Cirque Vollard . From 1928 to 1931 Chagall was busy with the etchings for the fables of La Fontaine .
A contract with the art dealer Bernheim freed Chagall and his family from all financial worries - the family moved into a villa and could afford trips to southern France; In addition, one traveled to the Auvergne and Savoy .
After Vollard Chagall suggested in 1930 that illustrations for the Bible should be made, he traveled to Palestine in 1931 to familiarize himself with the landscapes of the biblical world. Overall, Chagall worked on the Bible motifs from 1931 to 1939 and from 1952 to 1956.
“I came to Palestine to check certain ideas, without a camera, even without a brush. No documents, no tourist impressions, and yet I'm glad I was there. From far away they flocked to the Western Wall, bearded Jews in yellow, blue, and red robes and with fur hats. Nowhere do you see so much despair and so much joy; Nowhere is one so shaken and so happy at the same time at the sight of this thousand-year-old pile of stones and dust in Jerusalem, in Sefad, on the mountains, where prophets lie buried after prophets. "
After a trip to the Netherlands in 1932, Chagall had his first major retrospective in the Kunsthalle Basel the following year . Chagall traveled to Spain in 1934 ; In the same year the portrait of Bella in green was created . In the spring of 1935 he traveled to Poland , where he realized that political reality represented “an overwhelming power” to which his images could no longer ignore. For Chagall, the threat posed by the Third Reich to the Jewish world was felt for the first time in Poland . Chagall was deeply shocked when he saw the Jewish quarter and even more when he had to watch as an eyewitness how his friend Dubnow was insulted in the street as a "dirty Jew".
In 1937 Chagall lived in Villeneuve-lès-Avignon and traveled to Italy that same year . Meanwhile, 59 works by Chagall were confiscated at the “Degenerate Art” exhibition in Germany . In 1938 he renewed his preoccupation with the subject of the crucifixion, which he regarded as the highest symbol of suffering. In the picture The White Crucifixion he expressed his horror at the persecution of the Jews and the anti-Semitism inflamed in France . In 1939 Chagall stayed on the Loire and Provence and received the Carnegie Prize . During this period, the National Socialist persecution of Jews in Europe paralyzed his work. In several pictures - also in his work The Time Is A River Without Banks (1930–1939) - Chagall depicted the paralysis by a pendulum placed diagonally in the clock case. For him, dangerous time has literally stood still. When the Second World War broke out in September 1939 , Chagall and his family moved from the Loire to Gordes in southern France , as the greater distance to Germany and the war also gave him a certain security from possible arrest and deportation.
“If there ever was a moral crisis, it was that of color, matter, blood and its elements, words and sounds, all those things from which a work of art is created, as well as a life. Because even if you cover a canvas with beads of color, regardless of whether you can see outlines or not - and even if you use words and sounds to help - the result is not necessarily an authentic work of art. "
During Chagall's stay in Marseille , he was arrested in 1941 during a police raid. The threat of extradition to the Germans was barely prevented by US intervention. The Vichy regime no longer offered Chagall any protection. With the help of Varian Fry , the head of the Emergency Rescue Committee , he left France with his family, with an invitation from the Museum of Modern Art in his pocket, on May 7, 1941, and set off for America by ship.
“The essential thing is art, painting, a painting that is completely different from what everyone else in the world does. But which? Will God or someone else give me the strength that I can breathe my breath into the pictures, the breath of prayer and mourning, of prayer for redemption and rebirth? "
Emigration - USA
The Chagall family arrived in New York on June 23, 1941, the day after the German invasion of the Soviet Union . After a short stay in Preston , they moved to a small apartment in New York. There Chagall met Breton, Léger, Mondrian and Masson again, who had emigrated before him. In the summer of 1942, Chagall designed sets and costumes in Mexico for the ballet Aleko to the music of Tchaikovsky , which premiered on September 10 in Mexico City . In the summer of 1943, Chagall was back in the United States, at Cranberry Lake ( New York State ). The war in Europe moved him very much, despite the great distance. On the subject of horror and destruction caused by war, he painted a series of pictures, such as The War or The Crucifixion in yellow . His wife Bella, who had inspired him to take many pictures, died on September 2, 1944 of a virus infection . Bella and daughter Ida were the subject of many of his early famous paintings. With the sudden loss of his wife, Chagall fell into depression and was unable to paint for months.
“I lived and worked in America at a time of global tragedy that affected everyone. As the years went by, I didn't get any younger. But I was able to draw strength in the atmosphere of hospitality without having to deny the roots of my art. "
In 1945 he entered into an intimate relationship with his 28 years younger housekeeper Virginia Haggard McNeil (* 1915), who brought her daughter Jean (* 1940) with her. Virginia gave birth to Chagall's only son, David McNeil , in 1946 ; at that time she was still married to the English painter John McNeil, hence David got this name.
In the spring of 1945 Chagall gradually began to paint again. In it he often chose the motif of the bride. In the same year he furnished the Stravinsky ballet Der Feuervogel for the Metropolitan Opera in New York. In 1946 Chagall had a retrospective exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. In a lecture that same year at the University of Chicago , he said:
“I am a painter and, so to speak, an unconsciously conscious painter. There are so many things in the realm of art that keywords are difficult to find. But why do you really have to try to open these gates? Sometimes it seems that they open by themselves, without effort, without unnecessary words. "
These key words can be found as recurring symbols in Chagall's works.
His longing for a quiet place in the country where he could only work and paint pictures was fulfilled in High Falls, a small village in the Catskill Mountains north of New York that Virginia discovered for him. Despite the necessary remodeling and renovation work on the simple wooden house that he bought there, Chagall felt very comfortable here, came to life and was inspired by nature to create a series of pictures.
Urged by requests from his daughter Ida, who was already exploring the art market in Paris after the end of the war, Chagall traveled back to the European metropolis in May 1946, where the art scene was revitalized, gallery owners vied for exclusive rights and friends and acquaintances had been with him for a long time expected back from exile. Chagall describes his conflict between the host country America and his creative homeland France in a letter from Paris:
“France has changed a lot. I don't know it again. I know I have to live in France, but I don't want to part with America. France is a finished picture. America has yet to be painted. Maybe that's what makes me breathe more freely there. But when I work in America, it's like calling into a forest with no echo ...
I ... meet ... countless people. Impossible to be alone and work ... "
Nevertheless, in Paris he made sketches in gouache and pastel techniques , which he composed in the 1950s as oil paintings in the Paris series : Pont Neuf , Madonna of Notre Dame , the banks of the Seine , Quai with flowers . Despite many encounters in Paris, Chagall felt lonely and longed for Virginia, the simple life and High Falls . In August 1946 he returned to the place where a large number of pictures were taken in the newly furnished studio and under the impression of the blooming garden, including a. Green Dream, Arum Lilies, Bouquett with Flying Lovers, The Beautiful Redhead, Self-Portrait with Wall Clock and The Skinned Ox ; the following winter he painted The Resurrection on the Riverside and The Lovers on the Bridge .
In 1947 Chagall had another exhibition at the Musée d'art moderne de la Ville de Paris and others in Amsterdam and London . In the same year he completed his angel fall , which he had begun in 1923 , in which a red angel falls headlong into the depths. After careful consideration, Chagall and Virginia decided in the summer of 1948 to finally settle with the children in France.
Return - Europe
After this joint move to Paris in August 1948, they lived in Orgevall near Saint-Germain-en-Laye . Chagall had exhibitions at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam and in the Tate Gallery in London, and he received his first award for graphics at the 25th Biennale of Venice . In the same year, lithographs on which he had already worked in New York were published under the title Arabian Nights . In 1949 he moved to Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat near Nice on the Côte d'Azur and made murals for the Watergate Theater in London. For the first time he also dealt with ceramics . A retrospective exhibition took place in 1950 at the Kunsthaus in Zurich.
Creeping alienation, the age difference of 28 years, Virginia's need for self-development, own space and time in the relationship and, on the other hand, Chagall's idea that the relationship with her should also be subordinate to art, different circles of friends and acquaintances of the two partners and one himself Virginia's developing relationship with Belgian photographer and musicologist Charles Leirens led to the couple separating in 1952. A short time later, on July 12, 1952, Chagall married the Russian Valentina Brodsky (1905–1993, distantly related to Lasar Brodskyj ), whom he affectionately called "Wawa". It influenced his further creativity very positively. With her he traveled to Greece to prepare for the lithographs on Daphnis and Chloe , with which he had been commissioned by the art critic and publisher Tériade . In the same year he also published the Fables of La Fontaine with Chagall's illustrations. This was followed by an exhibition in the Palazzo Madama in Turin in 1953 and a series of pictures was created that Chagall dedicated to Paris, his “second Vitebsk”. Among them were pictures like Die Seinebrücken or Das Marsfeld .
“If you discover a symbol in a picture, I didn't mean it. It is a result that I was not looking for. It is something that can be found afterwards and what you can interpret according to your taste. "
In 1954, Chagall traveled to Greece for the second time and began work on Daphnis and Chloe , which appeared in 1961. In 1955, Chagall had an exhibition at the Kestner Society in Hanover , followed a year later in Basel and Bern . In Israel , he opened the Chagall House in Haifa in 1957 . The Bible illustrations were published by Tériade that same year. He also furnished the baptistery of the church of Plateau-d'Assy in Savoy. In 1958 he furnished the ballet production Daphnis and Chloe von Ravel for the Paris Opera and gave lectures in both Chicago and Brussels. He also designed stained glass windows for Metz Cathedral that same year . In 1959 Chagall became an honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters and received an honorary doctorate from the University of Glasgow . In the same year he also had retrospective exhibitions in Hamburg , Munich and Paris. Commissioned by the city of Frankfurt, he designed the painting Commedia dell'Arte in 1958 for the foyer of the new theater building of the Frankfurt Schauspielhaus .
"God, the perspective, the color, the Bible, shape and lines, traditions and what is called 'the human' - love, security, family, school, education, the word of the prophets and also life with Christ, all that has gone out of joint. Perhaps I too was obsessed with doubts at times, and then I painted an upside-down world, I cut off the heads of my figures, dismantled them into pieces and let them float somewhere in the space of my pictures. "
In 1960, Chagall was able to make the first windows for Metz Cathedral and in the same year received the Erasmus Prize in Copenhagen with Oskar Kokoschka . The following year he was commissioned by the synagogue at Hadassah University Hospital to redesign twelve windows. In 1962 he traveled to Jerusalem to inaugurate the stained glass windows. A year later he finished his work on the windows for Metz Cathedral. Chagall also became an honorary citizen of Vence. In 1963 he had his first retrospective exhibitions in Tokyo and Kyoto , traveled to Washington that same year and completed the stained glass windows for the north transept of Metz Cathedral. In 1964 he traveled to New York and painted there on glass windows in the UN headquarters and on the first windows for the church of Pocantica Hill , New York. He was also able to finish and inaugurate the ceiling paintings for the Paris Opera. Chagall brought stained glass to a new bloom with his painting style. Chagall preferred to work with Charles Marq from the Jacques Simon studio on his glass windows .
In 1965 he worked on wall decorations for Tokyo and Tel Aviv . In the same year, paintings for the new New York Metropolitan Opera in Lincoln Center followed . In the following year, Chagall was able to complete a series of eight windows for the church of Pocantino Hill and in the same year designed a mosaic wall and twelve wall panels for the Israeli parliament building in Jerusalem. Furthermore, the two murals could be installed in the New York Metropolitan Opera. In the same year, Chagall and his family moved from Vence to a newly built house in neighboring Saint-Paul-de-Vence . In addition, Chagall donated 17 images of his Biblical message to the French state . The French government then decided to build the Musée National Message Biblique Marc Chagall in Nice , which opened in 1973. In 1967 Chagall attended the premiere of Mozart's Magic Flute , for which he had designed decorations and costumes in 1965. On Chagall's 80th birthday, there were also two large retrospective exhibitions in Cologne and Zurich and at the Maeght Foundation in Saint-Paul-de-Vence. There were also the Message Biblique exhibitions in the Louvre and Théâtre Chagall in Toulouse . That same year, Chagall designed three tapestries over six meters wide for the Parliament in Jerusalem and began painting the stained glass windows for the Church of Tudeley , Kent . Religious affiliation played a role neither for Chagall nor for his client; Chagall equipped churches and synagogues alike.
“It is well known that a good person can be a bad artist. But someone who is not a great person and therefore not a 'good person' either becomes a real artist. "
In 1968, Chagall traveled back to Washington and began painting the stained glass windows for the north aisle of Metz Cathedral. On February 4, 1969, the foundation stone was laid for the Message Biblique Foundation in Nice. In June of the same year he traveled to Jerusalem to inaugurate the tapestries in the new parliament. In September 1970, the glass windows in the choir of the Fraumünster Church in Zurich were inaugurated. There was also the exhibition Hommage á Chagall in the Parisian Grand Palais . In 1972 the artist started the mosaic for the First National Bank in Chicago. The following year the Musée National Message Biblique Marc Chagall was opened in Nice. In the spring of 1974, after more than fifty years, he returned to Moscow and Leningrad (formerly and now Saint Petersburg). In June of the same year, the windows of Reims Cathedral were inaugurated. In late summer Chagall traveled to Chicago to inaugurate his mosaic The Four Seasons .
In 1975, works on paper by Chagall were exhibited in Chicago. In the same year he traveled to Japan , where a two-year traveling exhibition was held in five cities. In 1977 the artist received the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor from the President of France . In the same year he also traveled to Italy and Israel.
Chagall made designs for the windows of the parish church of St. Stephan in Mainz . This order came about through the mediation of the local pastor Klaus Mayer . The church windows in Mainz, where there were already violent persecutions of the Jews in the Middle Ages, are intended to represent a permanent symbol of Jewish-Christian solidarity and international understanding. Chagall was able to complete a total of nine church windows by his death.
This was followed by exhibitions in Florence (1979), New York and Geneva (1980). The Psalms of David were exhibited in the Musée National Message Biblique in Nice in 1980. The following year there were graphic exhibitions in Hanover, Paris and Zurich as well as 1982 retrospective exhibitions in the Moderna Museet in Stockholm and in the Louisiana Museum of Modern Art in Humlebæk , Denmark , which ran until March of the following year. In 1984 there were retrospective exhibitions in the Center Pompidou in Paris , in Nice, Saint-Paul-de-Vence, Rome and in Basel. The following year there were two major retrospective exhibitions at the Royal Academy of Arts in London and the Philadelphia Museum of Art . instead of.
Chagall was also active as a writer. In addition to his autobiography Ma Vie , he wrote related texts, poems and articles on art and literature in Yiddish . He illustrated Yiddish books, a. a. by Isaak Leib Perez , Abraham Sutzkever or David Hofstein .
Marc Chagall died on March 28, 1985 at the age of 97 in Saint-Paul-de-Vence. He was buried in a simple stone grave in the local cemetery.
Pictorial symbols in the works
According to Christoph Goldmann, the symbols in Chagall's works are interpreted as follows:
- The circus scenes represent the harmony of humans and animals and unfold the creativity of humans.
- With the floating couple or the floating woman Chagall symbolizes himself and his wife Bella or his longing for her.
- The bare breasts symbolize the outspoken admirer of women both eroticism and fertility and life.
- The rooster means fertility. Chagall mostly painted it in connection with lovers.
- The cow - milk, meat, leather, horn, power - is at Chagall for life itself. Another symbol of life is the tree .
- The horse (often depicted as a flying horse or flying horses) symbolizes freedom.
- The Eiffel Tower symbolizes the sky and freedom.
- Windows emphasize Chagall's love of freedom, while blue tones represent transcendence.
- The violinist played music in Chagall's hometown of Vitebsk at the nodes of life (birth, marriage, death).
- The houses in Vitebsk (also in the pictures from the Parisian period) symbolize the painter's sense of home.
- The herring (often depicted as a flying fish) is a reminder of Chagall's father's work in the fish factory.
- The pendulum clock goes back to the modest living room of the Chagalls and represents the time (in the time of the persecution on the Loire, the pendulum appears as if rammed into the clock case).
- The candlestick symbolizes the Shabbat (two candles), the menorah (seven-armed candlestick) or the Hanukkah candlestick and thus the life of pious Jews ( Hasidim ).
- As a Jew, the crucified Jesus mostly represents the persecution of the Jews in Europe by National Socialism .
- Young girl on a sofa (Mariaska) , 1907, 75 × 92.5 cm
- Church in Marijampolė , 1907, 65 × 87.5 cm
- The Dead , 1908, 69 × 87 cm
- The family or motherhood , 1909, 74 × 67 cm
- Russian wedding , 1909, 68 × 97 cm ( EG Bührle Collection , Zurich)
- Still life with lamp , 1910, 81 × 45 cm ( Rosengarten Gallery , Lucerne)
- The dining room , 1910, 17.3 × 10.5 cm
- The Sabbath , 1910, 90 × 90.5 cm ( Museum Ludwig , Cologne)
- The Birth , 1910, 65 × 89.5 cm ( Kunsthaus Zürich )
- The harvest , 1910, 60 × 81 cm
- Woman with a bouquet of flowers , 1910, 64 × 53.5 cm ( Helen Seger Collection , New York)
- The model , 1910, 62 × 51.5 cm ( Ida Meyer-Chagall Collection , Basel)
- The baker's wife , 1910–1911, 60 × 75 cm ( Rondinesco Collection , Paris)
- Bearded man , 1911, 45 × 20 cm
- Intérieur II (couple with goat) , 1911, 100 × 180 cm
- Man at the table with a cat , 1911, 20 × 28.3 cm ( Museum Ludwig , Cologne)
- Nude with a Comb , 1911, 33.5 × 13.5 cm
- Nude with a raised arm , 1911, 30 × 20 cm
- Dedicated to my bride , 1911, 61 × 44.5 cm
- The Baker , 1911–1912, 27.9 × 18 cm
- The Drinker , 1911–1912, 85 × 115 cm ( Hans Neumann Collection , Caracas, Venezuela)
- The poet Mazin , 1911–1912, 73 × 54 cm (Ida Meyer-Chagall Collection, Basel)
- Adam and Eve , 1911–1912, 27.5 × 24 cm
- Hommage à Apollinaire , 1911–1912, 209 × 198 cm ( Stedelijk van Abbe Museum , Eindhoven)
- Me and the Village , 1911–1912, 191.2 × 150.5 cm ( Museum of Modern Art , New York)
- The holy cab driver , 1911–1912, 148 × 118.5 cm
- Russia, the donkeys and the others , 1911–1912, 156 × 122 cm ( Musée National d'Art Moderne , Paris)
- The soldier drinks , 1912, 110.3 × 95 cm ( Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum , New York)
- Violinist in the Snow , 1912, 29 × 20 cm
- The Green Violinist , 1912, 195.6 × 108 cm (Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York)
- The violinist , 1911–1914 ( Art Collection North Rhine-Westphalia , Düsseldorf)
- Lisa with the mandolin , 1914, 38 × 50 cm (Ida Meyer-Chagall Collection, Basel)
- The newspaper seller , 1914, 98 × 78.5 cm (Ida Meyer-Chagall Collection, Basel)
- Feast day , 1914, 100 × 80.5 cm ( North Rhine-Westphalia Art Collection , Düsseldorf)
- The Reclining Poet , 1915, 77 × 71.5 cm ( Tate Gallery , London)
- The clock , 1915, 56 × 43 cm
- The Lovers in Gray , 1916, 69 × 49 cm
- Bella and Ida at the window , 1916, 56.5 × 45 cm (Ida Meyer-Chagall Collection, Basel)
- Self-portrait , 1917, 32 × 29.5 cm
- The cemetery gate , 1917, 87 × 68.5 cm
- The blue house , 1917, 66 × 97 cm ( Musée des Beaux Arts , Liège)
- The Walk , 1917–1918 ( Michailowski Palace , Saint Petersburg)
- Black Forest , 1922, 43 × 29 cm
- The Window , 1924, 98 × 72 cm ( Kunsthaus Zürich )
- Double portrait , 1924, 130 × 94 cm
- Rural life , 1925, 100 × 81 cm ( Albright-Knox Art Gallery , Buffalo, New York)
- Lovers under lilies , 1922–1925, 116.3 × 89.3 cm ( Evelyn Sharp Collection , New York)
- Sunday , 1925, 84 × 72 cm
- The father at the table , 1925, 64 × 48.5 cm
- The Walk , 1925, 55.4 × 38.7 cm ( Joachim Sedlmayr Family Foundation , Glarus, Switzerland)
- Childhood memories , 1925, 79 × 84 cm ( Collection of Dr. and Mrs. William Landmann , Toronto, Canada)
- Metzger , 1925–1926, 65 × 53 cm (Kunsthaus Zürich)
- The bear and the garden friend , 1926–1927, 49.5 × 40 cm
- Rabbi I. The prize. 2nd version 1923–1926 (Kunstmuseum Basel), 117 × 89.5 cm
- Nude , around 1927, 51 × 64 cm ( Louis Franck Collection , London)
- The horse rider , 1927, 51 × 62 cm
- The candlestick , 1929, 100 × 81 cm
- The acrobat , 1930 ( Musée National d'Art Moderne , Paris)
- The Lovers in Lilacs , 1930, 128 × 87 cm (Richard S. Zeisler Collection, New York)
- Mother and Daughter in Peyra Cava , 1931, 63 × 75.5 cm
- The art rider , 1931, 100 × 82 cm (Stadelijk Museum, Amsterdam)
- The Synagogue in Vilnius , 1935, 83 × 63.5 cm
- Portrait of Bella in Green , 1934–1935, 100 × 81 cm (Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam)
- The White Crucifixion , 1938, 155 × 140 cm ( Art Institute of Chicago )
- Time is a river without banks , 1930–1939, 100 × 81 cm (Museum of Modern Art, New York)
- Charlot's Companions , 1937–1939, 48 × 53 cm ( Franz Meyer Collection , Basel)
- At Dusk , 1938–1943, 100 × 79 cm
- The green eye , 1944, 58 × 51 cm (Ida Meyer-Chagall Collection, Basel)
- The Fall of Angels, 1923-33-47, 148 × 189 cm ( Kunstmuseum Basel )
- The Madonna with the Sleigh , 1947
- The red sun , 1949, 140 × 98 cm
- The Levkojen , 1949, 78.5 × 57.5 cm ( Von der Heydt Museum , Wuppertal)
- Still life with flowers (mimosa and sun) , 1949, 79 × 57 cm ( Von der Heydt Museum , Wuppertal)
- The beautiful redhead , 1949, 114 × 98 cm
- Moses with the tablets of the law , 1950, 75 × 63 cm
- King David , 1951, 197 × 133 cm
- The stable in the snow , 1948–1952, 50.5 × 40.5 cm
- Couple with Bird , 1952, 31 × 32 cm
- The night , 1953, 146 × 114 cm
- The Seine bridges , 1954 ( Kunsthalle Hamburg )
- The Field of Mars , 1954/55 ( Museum Folkwang , Essen)
- The white window , 1955, 150 × 119.5 cm
- Moses breaks the tablets of the law , 1955–1956, 228 × 156 cm
- The Lamentations of Jeremiah , 1956, 32.9 × 26 cm ( Musée National Message Biblique Marc Chagall , Nice)
- The Lovers of Vence , 1957, 71 × 99 cm
- The cyclists , 1957, 152 × 100 cm
- The concert , 1957, 56 × 38 cm
- Commedia dell'arte , 1959 ( Frankfurt City Theaters , Foyer )
- Ostrich and Red Circus , 1960, 197 × 130 cm
- Pan , 1964, 86 × 70 cm
- The War , 1964–1966, 163 × 231 cm (Kunsthaus Zürich)
- Portrait of Vava , 1966, 162 × 114 cm (Collection Walentina Chagall, Saint-Paul de Vence, France)
- Winter , 1966, 162 × 114 cm
- Sets for The Magic Flute , 1967 ( Metropolitan Opera , New York)
- The magician 1968, 140 × 148 cm
- Les fleurs rouges (The red flowers), color lithograph, 1973, 76 × 56 cm
- Biblical Message , 17 works (Musée National Message Biblique Marc Chagall, Nice)
- The Great Parade , 1979/80 ( Pierre Matisse Gallery, New York)
- Sun in the sky of Saint-Paul , 1983, 73 × 115.5 cm
- The lovers at the window , unknown, unknown
- Via Vitebsk , unknown, 51.5 x 64.3 cm ( Israel Museum , Jerusalem)
Church and synagogue windows
- 12 Sons of Jacob , 1962, (12 windows in the synagogue of Hadassah Hospital in Jerusalem)
- Biblical stained glass window , 1968 ( Metz Cathedral )
- Biblical church window , 1970 (in the choir of the Fraumünster, Zurich)
- Biblical stained glass window , 1974 ( Reims Cathedral )
- Biblical church windows , including the monumental, 12 m high and 7.5 m wide main window "La Paix" - "Peace", 1974–1976 (Franciscan chapel Chapelle des Cordeliers in Sarrebourg , France)
- Representation of the 150th Psalm , 1976 ( Chichester Cathedral )
- 9 biblical church windows , 1978–1985 ( St. Stephan , Mainz)
- Church Window , 1967–1985 (All Saints Church, Tudeley , Kent )
- Couple with Bird , 1952, 21 × 32 cm (private collection)
- The black vase , 1955, height 38 cm (private property)
- The Prophet Elias , 1970, 715 × 570 cm (Musée National Message Biblique Marc Chagall, Nice)
- Four Seasons , 1974, 21 × 4.3 × 3 m (Exelon Plaza, Chase Tower, Chicago)
- Four Tales from the Arabian Nights , 1948
On the occasion of the press conference on the Schwabing art discovery in November 2013, a previously unknown gouache by Chagall, Allegorical Scene , which is not listed in the artist's catalog raisonné, was shown. It was part of the bundle of art dealer Hildebrand Gurlitt that was confiscated by the Allies in 1945 and is listed there under inventory number 2004/4 . Gurlitt told the American authorities in June 1945 that the picture belonged to his sister, who was a student of Chagall. In 1950, however, he handed over a letter from the painter Karl Ballmer , in which he confirmed that he had given him this picture as well as Picasso's portrait of a lady with two noses in Switzerland in 1943. On January 25, 1951, both pictures were returned to Gurlitt. In December 2013 there was another report that the picture came from the collection of the German-Jewish Blumstein family from Riga, Latvia, and that the Gestapo had confiscated it in 1941 . Provenance researcher Meike Hoffmann estimates that the picture was made in the mid-1920s and attributes it to "a particularly high art-historical value". The Chagall Hall of the Israeli parliament Knesset , which opened in 1969, was named after him.
The asteroid of the main outer belt (2981) Chagall is named after him.
- 1939: Carnegie Prize for artists ( Carnegie Prize for painting) of the Carnegie Museum of Art in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
- 1959: Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters
- 1959: Honorary Doctorate from the University of Glasgow , Great Britain
- 1960: Erasmus Award (Erasmus Prize), Copenhagen, Denmark
- 1962: Honorary citizen of the French city of Vence
- 1975: Honorary doctorate from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
- 1977: Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor
- 1981: Wolf Prize for Painting
- 1981: Honorary citizen of the city of Mainz
- Marc Chagall: My life , translation by Lothar Klünner, Vlg.Hatje Cantz, 1959, ISBN 3-7757-0054-4 . These records end in 1922 when Chagall reached the age of 35. The German version was compared with the French text by Chagall and Klünner in 1957, and minor corrections and additions were made. It is not an autobiography in the classical sense, but an atmospheric and poetic condensation of different impressions of the artist in the first stages of life up to 1922.
Family and personal environment
- Bella Chagall: Brennende Lichter Rowohlt, Reinbek 1966, without ISBN, (with 39 drawings by MC); as paperback 1969, ISBN 3-499-11223-X
- Bella Chagall: First encounter Rowohlt, Reinbek 1971, ISBN 3-498-00833-1 , (with drawings by MC)
- Virginia Haggard: Seven Years of Abundance - Living with Chagall , Diana Verlag, Zurich 1987, ISBN 3-905414-51-1
- David McNeil: In the footsteps of an angel - childhood with my father Marc Chagall , List Taschenbuch Verlag, Berlin 2005, ISBN 978-3-548-60555-5
Introductions and general presentations
- Nikolaj Aaron: Marc Chagall Rowohlt, Reinbek 2003 ISBN 3-499-50656-4 Reading sample (series: rororo monograph; PDF; 227 kB)
- F. Erpel: Marc Chagall. Berlin 1981.
- Werner Haftmann: Marc Chagall DuMont, Cologne 1977 ISBN 3-7701-0453-6
- Franz Meyer: Marc Chagall. Leben und Werk , DuMont-Schauberg, Cologne 1961 (later, partly updated edition, also in English and French)
- Pierre Schneider: Marc Chagall - Almost a Century , Daco-Verlag Günther Bläse, Stuttgart 1995, ISBN 3-87135-022-2 . This basic work, which comprises a total of 191 pages and is extensively illustrated in the main part with b / w and color images, contains a separate 40-page compact biography by Meret Meyer with an addition of further 90 b / w photos from the artist's life. The compilation is completed by a copy of a conversation between Pierre Schneider and Marc Chagall as well as a bibliography and exhibition overview.
- Charles Sorlier: Marc Chagall, Dream, Vision and Reality . Heyne, Munich 1995. ISBN 3-453-05040-1 , 1991
- JP Hodin : Encounter with Marc Chagall In: Architektur und Kunst , Vol. 37, Issue 5, 1950, pp. 157–160.
Large picture books
- Izis Bidermanas (photos) / Roy McMullen (text): Marc Chagalls Welt , Christian Belser Vlg., Stuttgart 1968, 268 pages, without ISBN. Large-format illustrated book with exemplary color and b / w illustrations of the work and artist in private surroundings and at work, with special consideration of the design for the ceiling painting of the Paris Opera ( Opéra Garnier ) and the wall paintings in the Lincoln Center of the Metropolitan Opera in New York
- Sylvie Forestier: Marc Chagall - His pictures, His world , Belser Vlg., Stuttgart / Zurich 1988, 184 p .; ISBN 3-7630-2066-7 . This large-format illustrated book contains half b / w and color photos of Chagall's biography, in particular photos with Chagall in his "Les Collines" studio in Vence , e. Partly with his wife Vava, and on the other hand a selected compilation of the last paintings that were previously unpublished.
- Bella Chagall: Le Message Biblique . Paris 1972
- Bella Chagall: Arabian Nights . Munich 1987
- Bella Chagall: The Great Paintings of the Biblical Message . Belser, Stuttgart a. a. 1986, 3rd edition 1992, ISBN 3-7630-2082-9
- dsb. with Klaus Mayer: dream images . ISBN 3-429-01905-2
- Roland Doschka: MC for the 100th birthday. Gouaches and watercolors . Prestel, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-7913-1753-9
- Graphics Museum Pablo Picasso Münster (Ed.): Marc Chagall - The painter at the window , Hirmer, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-7774-6025-3 . Catalog for the exhibition of the same name in Münster from November 14, 2008 to March 4, 2009
- Museum Frieder Burda Baden-Baden (ed.): Chagall in a new light Hatje Cantz, Ostfildern 2006 ISBN 3-7757-1845-1 . Catalog for the exhibition of the same name
- Brigitta Höpler: Chagall. Life is a dream . Prestel, Munich 1998, ISBN 3-7913-1953-1
- Bill Wyman shoots Chagall Genesis Publications , 1998
- Elisabeth Lemke: What colors is paradise? Images of the Bible . Prestel, Munich 2000, ISBN 3-7913-2418-7
- Longus: Daphnis and Chloe . Prestel, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-7913-3245-7 . Various expenditure
- Shishanov VA Vitebsk Museum of Modern Art: a history of creation and a collection . 1918-1941. Medisont, Minsk 2007. 144 p. 
- Ortrud Westerheider, Michael Philipp: Marc Chagall: Lebenslinien . Hirmer, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-7774-2961-8 . Catalog for the exhibition of the same name in the Bucerius Kunst Forum , Hamburg, from October 8, 2010 to January 16, 2011.
- Mirella Carbone: Marc Chagall's window views from Sils-Maria In: Bündner Monatsblatt , Issue 1, 2011, pp. 35–54.
Stained glass window
- Bella Chagall, Klaus Mayer: I put my bow in the clouds. The Chagall window to St. Stephan in Mainz. Echter, Würzburg 1979, ISBN 3-429-00616-3
- Sylvie Forestier: Marc Chagall. His color windows from all over the world. Belser Verlag, Stuttgart / Zurich 1995, ISBN 3-7630-2323-2 In addition to the color tables and catalogs of the windows and their designs, this volume contains a list of the locations of the color windows.
- Miriam Freund: The sons of Jacob - depicted in glass windows by Marc Chagall , Herder Vlg., Freiburg 1964, o.ISBN; 64 p .; Illustrations: 13 Color, a b / w illustration. This volume presents the 12 stained glass windows that Chagall designed for the synagogue of Hadassah Hospital in Jerusalem , which were installed there in 1962.
- Irmgard Vogelsanger - de Roche: Marc Chagall's Fraumünster window in Zurich. Origin - description of images - interpretation. An art guide. Orell Füssli Verlag, Zurich 6th edition.
- Paul Foster (Editor): Chagall Glass at Chichester and Tudeley. University College Chichester, 2002 and 2004, ISBN 0-948765-78-X , Otter Memorial Paper Number 14
- Bella Chagall: The graphic work Stuttgart 1988
- House of Art Munich (Ed.): MC. Selected graphic. Munich 5. 8. to 15. 10. 1978 Munich, self-published by HdK 1978 (without ISBN). Catalog in b / w. Detailed bio and bibliography (about books in various languages)
- Wolfgang Maier-Preusker : The original graphic artist posters and their variants. Catalog for the exhibition in Luxembourg, Bonn, Lindau, Herford, Oldenburg, Budapest, Salzburg a. a. with a complete catalog of works. Editions 1995, 2002 and 2005.
- Phaidon Press, New York City: Marc Chagall: Four Arabian Nights . 1948
- German edition in the Piper library with an introduction by Kurt Moldovan : Marc Chagall. Arab nights. 26 lithographs for 1001 Nights , Piper, Munich 1956.
- Roland Doschka (Ed.): Marc Chagall - Masterpieces of His Ceramics , Prestel Vlg., Munich 2003, ISBN 3-7913-6007-8 (catalog edition), ISBN 3-7913-2940-5 (book trade edition ), ISBN 3- 7913-2941-3 (English edition). Catalog for the exhibition of the same name from June 21 to September 28, 2003 in Balingen
- Marc Chagall: On my ceramics In: Architektur und Kunst , Vol. 40, Issue 7, 1953, pp. 235–236.
- The Chagall Bible. Standard translation of the Holy Scriptures. Foreword and explanation of the pictures: Christoph Goldmann. Verlag Katholisches Bibelwerk, Stuttgart 1998. The normal edition and a large-format special edition with color illustrations from Chagall's complete works were published. In addition, other Bible editions were illustrated with pictures by Chagall, e. B. a Chagall Bible for children.
- Friedrich Gorenstein : Painting how the birds sing. A [biographical] Chagall novel From the Russian by Renate Horlemann, Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-351-02363-4 .
- 1963: Chagall (documentary short film, 26 minutes), awarded an Oscar .
- The Chagall window in Mainz . TV documentary by Marcel Schilling from the series Treasures of the country . Germany 2007, SWR television , 30 minutes
- Marc Chagall . Documentation by Kim Evans, 52 minutes, Arthaus Musik GmbH 2007 (1985), ISBN 978-3-939873-10-5 .
- Marc Chagall at Google Arts & Culture.
- Literature by and about Marc Chagall in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Marc Chagall in the German Digital Library
- Search for Marc Chagall in the SPK digital portal of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation
- Musée National Message Biblique Marc Chagall (French)
- The glass window project in the synagogue of the Hadassah University Hospital in Jerusalem (Engl.)
- Chagall in the Knesset (Engl.)
- Works and biography
- Marc Chagall: A Virtual Art Gallery
- Marc Chagall at artcyclopedia.com
- Interview with Chagall's son about his father and Chagall's ceiling painting in the Paris Opera Ganier, as well as aspects that he had previously concealed in the book about his father. In: Berliner Zeitung , May 15, 2004
- Materials by and about Marc Chagall in the documenta archive
- Literature by and about Marc Chagall in the library of the Jewish Museum Berlin
- Uladzimir Dzianisau, New documents on biography of family history of Marc Chagall, Marc-Chagall-Wohnmuseum, Vitebsk ( Memento from May 1, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- the 19th century, the Julian date June 24 corresponded to the Gregorian date July 6, but from 1900 it was July 7. This is why the last date is often wrongly given as Marc Chagall's date of birth.
- Werner Haftmann, Marc Chagall , (DuMont) Cologne 1977, ISBN 3-7701-0453-6
- Belinturist: Marc Chagall ( Memento of 14 September 2011 at the Internet Archive )
- Sylvie Forestier: Marc Chagall - His pictures, his world . Belser, Stuttgart / Zurich 1988, page 40, note 5: “In most of Chagall's biographies, Vitebsk is given as his place of birth. In fact, the painter was born 'in the vicinity of Vitebsk', as he himself said, in the suburb of Peskowatik (see also House in Peskowatik ). His maternal grandparents lived in Lyosno near Vitebsk, where Marc Chagall often came to visit in the summer. "
- Ingo F. Walther, Rainer Metzger: Marc Chagall 1887–1985. Painting as poetry . ISBN 3-8228-0047-3
- Ingo F. Walther, Rainer Metzger: Marc Chagall 1887–1985 . Painting as poetry; page 8
- Nikolaj Aaron: Marc Chagall. , (rororo monograph) Reinbek 2003, ISBN 3-499-50656-4
- Susan Tumarkin Goodman: Russian Jewish artists in a century of change, 1890–1990 Jewish Museum, Prestel, New York 1995, p. 71.
- Ingo F. Walther, Rainer Metzger: Marc Chagall 1887–1985. Painting as poetry ; Page 15 ( ISBN 3-8228-0047-3 )
- Ingo F. Walther, Rainer Metzger: Marc Chagall 1887–1985. Painting as poetry ; Page 16
- Marc Chagall: Ma vie. Paris 1931. Last French edition 1970, p. 144.
- Ingo F. Walther, Rainer Metzger: Marc Chagall 1887–1985. Painting as poetry ; Page 24
- Franz Meyer, Marc Chagall. Life and work , (DuMont-Schauberg) Cologne 1961.
- Ingo F. Walther, Rainer Metzger: Marc Chagall 1887–1985. Painting as poetry ; Page 42
- Felix Philipp Ingold : Action Philosophers Ship. How the Soviet power got rid of the “bourgeois” intelligentsia , in the FAZ of December 19, 2003 .
- Marc Chagall - the graphic work: etchings, woodcuts, lithogr. Stuttgart; Zurich: Belser, 1988 (p. 71).
- Ingo F. Walther, Rainer Metzger: Marc Chagall 1887–1985. Painting as poetry ; Page 61
- Ingo F. Walther, Rainer Metzger: Marc Chagall 1887–1985. Painting as poetry ; Page 65
- Ingo F. Walther, Rainer Metzger: Marc Chagall 1887–1985. Painting as poetry ; Page 62
- Ingo F. Walther, Rainer Metzger: Marc Chagall 1887–1985. Painting as poetry ; Page 68
- Christoph Goldmann: Pictorial signs with Marc Chagall. 2 volumes. Volume 1: Alphabetical Encyclopedia of Symbols. Vol. 2: Encyclopedia for the images of the “Biblical Message”. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1995.
- High Falls in the English language Wikipedia.
- Letter to his partner Virginia Haggard: Seven Years of Abundance - Life with Chagall , Diana Verlag, Zurich 1987, ISBN 3-905414-51-1 , p. 98
- source .
- Jackie Wullschlager: "Chagall, A Biography", Random House, New York 2008, p. 469, ISBN 978-0-375-41455-8
- Ingo F. Walther, Rainer Metzger: Marc Chagall 1887–1985. Painting as poetry ; Page 78
- Artworks | Municipal theaters Frankfurt am Main. Retrieved on February 11, 2020 (German).
- Ingo F. Walther, Rainer Metzger: Marc Chagall 1887–1985. Painting as poetry ; Page 82
- Chagall and the glass windows - church windows on art-perfect.de.
- See St. Stephan - Chagall's Mysticism of Blue Light on www.mainz.de and the documentary film A Palette of Glass. The America Windows of Marc Chagall by Chuck Olin from 1977, which documents the collaboration.
- Ingo F. Walther, Rainer Metzger: Marc Chagall 1887–1985. Painting as poetry ; Page 89
- An anthology: literary creations fun marc schagall. (M. Ch's literary works.). Zs. Di goldene kejt, 60. Tel Aviv 1967, p. 91ff. - Some poems from it in the bilingual anthology: Gehat hob ikh a heym - I had a home '. Contemporary Yiddish poetry. Ed. Armin Eidherr . Eye, Landeck (Tirol) ISBN 3901735054
- Print easily accessible in Berghof (Red.): Art in the persecution: Degenerate art (exhibition) 1937 in Munich. 18 examples. and supplement: life data and personal testimonials. Neckar, Villingen 1998, without ISBN, large format.- Gustav Friedrich Hartlaub had acquired the famous, suggestive portrait of a rabbi taking a pinch for the Mannheim Kunsthalle in 1928. Mannheim was a flourishing, left-liberal art city. The heads of the city, including the cultural aegis, were sacked in March 1933. In April, sixty works of modernism were denounced and mocked in a hate show that was to become the sad model for the Munich “Degenerate” exhibition. Not enough: Chagall's “Rabbi” is dragged with Hartlaub's photo on a cart amid the hooting of the mob through the city to the director's house, then exposed to mockery in shop windows. In the same year, Basel lent the picture for a rehabilitative Chagall retrospective and finally acquired it in 1937 at the infamous Lucerne Fischer auction.
- See photos of the individual windows by Marc Chagall in Fraumünster Zurich on Kurt Salzmann's website.
- Panorama of the Fraumünster on swisspanoramas.ch (requires Java).
- Le Parcours Chagall ( Memento of January 2, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), PDF brochure on the Chagall artworks in Sarrebourg (French).
- Arabian Nights , weinstein.com, accessed April 28, 2013.
- Fabienne Riklin and Julia Stephan: Schweizer gave Gurlitt pictures by Picasso and Chagall , schweizamsonntag.ch, November 9, 2013, accessed on November 11, 2013.
- Hildebrand Gurlitt: Allied Interrogation June 1945 , accessed on November 11, 2013.
- Chagall belonged to a Jewish family , stuttgarter-nachrichten.de, December 11, 2013, accessed on December 17, 2012.
- Spectacular art find: Previously unknown masterpieces by Dix and Chagall discovered , faz.net, November 5, 2013, accessed on November 14, 2013.
- Lutz D. Schmadel : Dictionary of Minor Planet Names . Fifth Revised and Enlarged Edition. Ed .: Lutz D. Schmadel. 5th edition. Springer Verlag , Berlin , Heidelberg 2003, ISBN 978-3-540-29925-7 , pp. 186 (English, 992 pp., Link.springer.com [ONLINE; accessed on September 28, 2019] Original title: Dictionary of Minor Planet Names . First edition: Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg 1992): “1981 EE 20 . Discovered 1981 Mar. 2 by SJ Bus at Siding Spring. "
- Honorary citizen of the city of Mainz
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Moischa Sacharawitsch Schahalau; Мойша Захаравіч Шагалаў (Belarusian)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Russian-French painter|
|DATE OF BIRTH||July 6, 1887|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Vitebsk , Russian Empire|
|DATE OF DEATH||March 28, 1985|
|Place of death||Saint-Paul-de-Vence , France|