|Area :||63.67 km²|
|Residents :||283,640 (as of 2018)|
|Population density :||4,455 inhabitants per km²|
|Community code :||4000|
|Time zone :||UTC + 2|
|Postal code :||31000-32000|
|Structure :||32 districts|
|Mayor :||Einat Kalisch-Rotem|
Haifa ( Hebrew חיפה, occasionally written based on the Hebrew pronunciation in Latin Che (i) fa or He (y) fa ; standard Hebrew pronunciation [ xɛ (j) 'fa ], colloquial Hebrew often [ ' xajfa ]; Arabic حيفا, DMG Ḥayfā ([ 'ħajfa ]), pronunciation in the local Arabic dialect [ ' ħeːfa ]) is the third largest city in Israel after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv with 281,087 (2017) inhabitants . Today's city on the Mediterranean coast has existed since the mid-18th century and was a predominantly Arab city until the mid-1940s; Settlements have existed here since ancient times . Around 600,000 people live in the greater Haifa area. It also includes the cities of Krajot , Tirat Carmel , Daliyat al-Karmil and Nescher . In November 2018, the social democrat Einat Kalisch-Rotem won the mayoral election against the previous incumbent Jona Jahaw . It is the first time since the founding of the state of Israel 70 years ago that a woman has become mayor of a large city.
Haifa is located in northern Israel on the Bay of Haifa and on the northern slopes of the Carmel Mountains on the Mediterranean Sea . Israel's largest seaport is located on the northern edge of the city .
Haifa has a Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers and cool, rainy winters. According to the effective climate classification by Wladimir Peter Köppen and Rudolf Geiger , this is classified as Csa (hot summer Mediterranean climate) . Spring begins in March when temperatures start to rise. By the end of May there is a significant warming, which heralds the hot summer days. The average temperature in summer is 26 ° C and in winter 12 ° C. Snow is rare in Haifa, but temperatures around 3 ° C may be possible, mostly in the early hours of the morning. The humidity is rather high all year round, rain usually occurs between September and May. The annual rainfall is around 538 l / m².
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Haifa
Expansion of the urban area
Due to its location on the mountainside, Haifa has a special urban structure. The different parts of the city rise from sea level to a height of just over. A distinction can be made between three development areas:
- By the sea in the lower town there are large industrial areas with refineries , large thoroughfares and railway facilities near the port . Most of Haifa's Arab population lives in this part of the city (called haIr ).
- Halfway up (80–120 meters above sea level) in the central city are the main business areas and administrative facilities . This district (Hadar haKarmel) was created in 1920.
- In the highest part of Haifa (Central Carmel, HarHacarmel) , exquisite hotels and restaurants as well as the most expensive residential areas are located. At the southern exit from the city and thus at the highest point, the University of Haifa is located at over 400 meters with a striking high-rise tower.
In the Kebara Cave on the western escarpment of the Carmel , south of Haifa, was founded in 1983 during archaeological excavations a 60,000-year-old burial site of a Neanderthal found . A hyoid bone could still be assigned to a skullless jaw , which allows the conclusion that this man was capable of spoken language . Durham anthropologists suggest that the ancestors of the Neanderthals were able to speak more than 300,000 years ago.
The Skhul Cave, about 100 meters from the Kebara Cave, is home to 80,000 to 120,000 year old fossil hominids , the Mount Carmel Neanderthals . Today it is more common to speak of burial places of early anatomically modern people who lived in the Carmel Mountains at the same time or in multiple temporal alternations with Neanderthals, "Neanderthaloids" (similar to the Neanderthals) or hominids close to Cro-Magnon people .
The early settlement history around the location of today's Haifa is considered to be similar to that of the entire coastal region. During the Mediterranean Bronze Age , from the 14th century BC. BC, a harbor settlement emerged at the mouth of the Kishon River. This existed until the 10th century BC. In addition, a second city was built south of the Carmel Cape, which existed throughout ancient times . In Helleno-Roman times, her name was Sycaminum. There was no port here, but agriculture and industry, including glass and purple color production .
In the area of today's Haifa there existed various smaller places for centuries. For the first time a settlement called Haifa is mentioned in the Talmud in the 2nd century AD . It was a Jewish coastal settlement on a 1500 meter long rock slab that extended the northern end of the Carmel Cape to the east. The Romans also called Haifa Caiphas Porphyria or Efa . Its location was the only one protected from the north-west wind in the natural bay, so that a small port was created here, which existed until the time of the Christian Crusades. Later a fishing village was founded here, named Haifa el Atikah (= ancient), and the new Haifa with a fortress by Dhaher al-Omar, see below.
Haifa is not mentioned in the Bible . For a long time the city was of little importance as its location had several disadvantages. The mountains made it difficult to travel south around the Carmel Cape. To the east of the city, at the mouth of the Kishon , there were extensive swamps . In addition, the location was unfavorable for the construction of a port, since the southern edge of the Bay of Haifa was exposed to the westerly winds unprotected. Therefore, Akko was the most important city in the area for a long time.
During the Christian crusader era , Haifa was conquered several times and was the center of a seigneury in the Kingdom of Jerusalem . In 1265 it was finally conquered and destroyed by the Mamluks , so that it remained an insignificant fishing village until well into the early Ottoman period .
The current name Haifa comes from the Arabic usage of the word الحيفة al-Ḥayfah , which means "near"; this was derived from the name Cayphas for Haifa, which the Crusaders had taken over from the Romans.
In 1758 (other sources speak of 1761) the Arab - Bedouin ruler in Galilee Dhaher al-Omar founded a new settlement with a closed city wall and fortress in the area of today's lower town, and the port was expanded. The city developed, in the 19th century Haifa gained in importance.
Haifa had around 1,000 inhabitants in 1815 and around 3,000 in 1830.
Another impulse was the founding of a village, the "German Colony", in 1869 by Christian settlers from the Temple Society from southern Germany - at that time a little outside the city, below today's Shrine of Bab . They triggered modernization impulses through modern handicrafts, agriculture, industry, health and transport, and initiated the construction of the first pier . Haifa became an important hub for Christian pilgrims. Some of the temple society settlers served as vice consuls for various European and North American governments. The effect of the Temple Society near Haifa led to the strengthening of ties between the German Empire and the Turkish government.
An important event was the visit of the German Emperor Wilhelm II and his entourage in Haifa in 1898. A second pier was built into the port for this purpose. A memorial was erected to him in memory of the emperor's visit. The construction of a jetty marked the beginning of the further expansion of the port. The emperor also suggested connecting Haifa to the Hejaz Railway . In 1905 the city got a connection to the railway line to Damascus , a railway to Egypt was built by the British in 1918 . The simultaneous expansion of the highways to Akko, Nazareth and Mount Carmel and the operation of the first hotels significantly shaped the economic development of Haifa. This made Haifa the most modern city in Palestine in the time before the First World War . The population increased from 2,500 in 1854 to 8,000 in 1891 and to 15,000 in 1913.
British mandate (1922-1947)
During the time of the British mandate, the city played an important role because there - sometimes even after the restriction of immigration by the British - many refugee ships with European Jews dropped anchor. The city became a railway junction. In addition to the existing narrow-gauge railway via Nablus to Darʿā and Damascus , standard- gauge railways to Egypt and Akko were built. The repair shops for the railways were built in Haifa Bay, which was the largest industrial enterprise in Palestine during this period, up to the Second World War, with 2000 workers. The modern port was also completed in time; it has existed since 1933 when the British government began developing Haifa as a major naval base. Like many Mediterranean ports, it was built, a port basin is protected and deepened by two breakwaters. The excavated earth was used to reclaim new land for new port and railway facilities and to build a wide thoroughfare. Furthermore, a crude oil pipeline from Iraq and an oil refinery with an oil shipping port were built in 1936-39. It was only through these major projects that thousands of Arab migrant workers from neighboring countries moved to Haifa. The influx of Jewish immigrants also increased, reaching massive proportions from 1933 onwards through refugees from National Socialist Germany. The main Jewish quarter became Hadar HaKarmel , near the fortress. At the same time, Jewish houses were also built on the Carmel steep slope and on the crest of the Carmel mountain. The purchase of land from Arab residents by Jews was limited to mostly non-agriculturally usable land, especially sand dunes and swamps, in valleys and plains. This led to the geographical separation of the Arab from the Jewish population. The Arabs stayed in the mountainous regions, the Jewish residents settled in plains, sand dunes and swampy areas. The swamps around the mouth of the Kishon River were drained and Shark Bay continued to be settled by Jews. The enormous Jewish immigration created its own infrastructure in the areas of school, health and university ( Technion 1924). The infrastructure provided by British rule, especially schools and health facilities, benefited almost exclusively the Arab population. As a result of the reduced child mortality , it led to a strong population growth on the Arab side.
During the Second World War , Italian planes stationed in Rhodes bombed Haifa on July 15, 24 and September 21, 1940. The destinations were the port and the large oil refineries to which the pipeline from northern Iraq was connected. The bombing caused losses among the population, 50 dead on July 24 and 39 dead on September 21.
|year||Total population||Jewish residents|
|1952||150,000 (metropolitan area 50,000)|
|1980||230,000 (metropolitan area 150,000)||214,000|
Since the time of British rule as a mandate on behalf of the League of Nations , the Jews in the city of Haifa, as well as in the cities of Jerusalem and Tel-Aviv-Jaffa, formed the majority of the population. Some Jewish settlements had already drained the swamps around the mouth of the Kishon River.
The UN took to share the decision to extend the mandate of Palestine into an Arab and a Jewish state on 29 November 1947th The Jewish leadership accepted the decision, the Arab side refused in principle. The next day the war between Arabs and Jews began. According to the partition plan of the UN, Haifa should be part of the Jewish state to be founded. There were clashes between Arab and Jewish settlers in the city. The Irgun terrorized the Arab civilian population. On the night of January 1, 1948, the Hagana murdered dozens of Arab workers and their families from Haifa in Balad al-Sheikh and Hawassa in a “reprisal”. They blew up houses, a garage, bombed Arab neighborhoods and shot civilians; Dozens of Arabs were killed.
This was preceded by instructions from the Arab leaders to the Arab population to leave the city. The New York Times reported that "the mass evacuation, partly out of fear and partly due to instructions from Arab leaders, left the Arab quarters of Haifa a ghost town ..."
In the State of Israel (since 1948)
On April 14, 1948, the British Army was withdrawn from Haifa and the city was ruled by Jewish forces. On May 14, 1948, David Ben-Gurion declared the establishment of the State of Israel with the Israeli declaration of independence . On the same day, the United States of America recognized the new state through US President Harry S. Truman , the Soviet Union followed on May 16. In response, Arab armies from the surrounding states of Egypt , Transjordan (later the Kingdom of Jordan ), Iraq and Syria attacked the newly established state in order to prevent a Jewish state in Palestine .
Before the state of Israel was founded in 1948, around 62,500 Arabs lived in Haifa. Most Palestinian Arabs were displaced by attacks on civilians , especially after the Zionist Hagana bombed a crowd in the market square , while others fled after news of the Deir Yasin massacre a few days earlier. After the Nakba, only about 15,000 Arabs remained in Haifa.
The international railway lines have been closed since the state was founded in 1948. A pipeline from Iraq was also blocked, so that oil exports from Haifa were no longer possible. The port had thus initially lost its central position, but in the next few years it was the destination of many ships carrying Jewish refugees who had survived the Holocaust . Their number reached 3000 per week between 1948 and 1951.
Haifa grew to become the largest Israeli city in terms of area. Due to the topography and the height differences, three centers have developed: The first center is the lower town directly at the port. Most of the homes of poorer Arab Israelis are located here at the foot of the mountain. The second center is Hadar Hakarmel's terrace, it is the main shopping and entertainment center with administrative buildings and offices of the city. The third center is on the crest of Mount Carmel with cultural institutions such as theaters and concert halls, as well as hotels, cafes and upscale shops. The universities, the Technion and the University of Haifa are also located here , in the midst of forested recreational areas.
In the 21st century
On December 2, 2001, 16 people were killed and more than 60 injured in a suicide attack in a fully occupied bus.
On March 31, 2002, another Palestinian suicide attack killed at least 15 people and around 45 were injured, some seriously. The suicide bomber blew himself up at around 2:45 pm local time in the “Matza” restaurant in the Neve Sha'anan district of Haifa. The restaurant is owned by an Israeli Arab and many Arabs frequent there. It was considered ruled out that Palestinian terrorists would target an Arab pub.
On March 5, 2003, a suicide bomber committed another attack on an Egged bus on line 37 on Moriah Avenue. 17 passengers were killed, including 14 passengers between the ages of 12 and 22. On October 4, 2003, a suicide attack completely destroyed the “Maxim” restaurant, a symbol of the togetherness of its Jewish and Christian-Arab owners. In the Israel-Lebanon conflict in 2006 , Haifa and the surrounding area came under fire from Hezbollah by Katyusha rockets and more recent rockets, which presumably came from Iran . There were several deaths. Among other things, railway systems, the industrial area and the port were hit.
- 1873-1877: Najib Effendi al-Yasin
- 1878–1881: Ahmad Effendi Jalabi
- 1881-1884: Mustafa Bey al-Salih
- 1885–1903: Mustafa Pasha al-Khalil
- 1904-1910: Jamil Sadiq
- 1910-1911: Rif'at al-Salah
- 1911-1913: Ibrahim al-Khalil
- 1914-1920: Hassan Shukri
- 1920-1927: Abd al-Rahman al-Haj
- 1927-1940: Hassan Shukri
- 1940–1951: Shabtai Levy
- 1951-1969: Abba Hushi
- 1969–1973: Moshe Flimann
- 1974-1975: Yosef Almogi
- 1975-1978: Yeruham Zeisel
- 1978-1993: Arie Gur'el
- 1993-2003: Amram Mitzna
- 2003 (interim): Giora Fisher
- 2003–2018: Jona Jahaw
- Since 2018: Einat Kalisch-Rotem
Religions and ethnicities
With the traditional character of Haifa as a working-class city, there is a certain pragmatism of its residents in dealing with one another. Ethnic or religious conflicts are rare. The influence of the religious is small; only around 3 percent of the Jewish population are Charedim (compared to around 8 percent in the national average). Around 67 percent of the Jewish population are considered secular (compared to around 44 percent in the national average). The comparatively low influence of religion can be seen from the fact that Haifa is the only city in Israel where public transport also runs on the Sabbath . The city is one of the few places in Israel where Jews and Arabs live together without major tensions.
Arabs make up approximately 10 percent of the city's population, 23 percent of the population of Haifa district (including the city) and 52 percent of the population of the northern district of Israel , which is part of the city's catchment area. (The national average is around 20 percent of Israelis Arabs.) While around 95 percent of the Arab population in the center of the country is Muslim , it is around 81 percent in the Haifa district and around 71 percent in the neighboring northern district. The rest are Christians and Druze .
In addition to Jews, Christians, Druze and Muslims, there is another religious community in Haifa: in the middle of the northern slope structure of Mount Carmel is the world center of the Baha'i , members of a modern world religion that originated in Persia .
On Mount Carmel there is also the Carmelite monastery of Stella Maris and a Christian pilgrimage site : the cave in which the prophet Elijah is said to have lived. The Stella Maris Church is considered the Marian Shrine of the Holy Land. The Ohel Aharon Synagogue is also located on Mount Carmel on the Technion Campus .
The Louis Promenade , a scenic road that runs along the slope in the upper part of Haifa, offers the best view of the entire city . From there you can overlook the bay of Haifa and, if the visibility is good, you can see as far as the Hermon Mountains . The Louis Promenade also leads to the upper entrance of the Hanging Gardens of the Baha'i (see Religions ), which have dominated the cityscape since their opening in 2001 and which Amram Mitzna called the eighth wonder of the world due to their impressive architecture. In 2008, the shrine of Bab , which is one of the city's landmarks, was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO .
The lower entrance to the Bahai Gardens is followed by Ben-Gurion-Straße with the German settlement (see history) , where the tourist information , restaurants and a city museum (in the former community center of the Temple Society) are also located.
In the area of the port, the Dagon silo for storing grain is the most striking building. With a height of 68 meters, the silo dominates the view of the bay even from higher up parts of the city. In the coastal area, industrial plants and traffic arteries determine the cityscape. There are hardly any beaches in the urban area, only in the last few years beaches have been specifically developed south of the city on the Carmel coast to make Haifa more interesting for tourism.
Halfway up the mountain are various public buildings, the pedestrian zone and the first building of the Technion , the technical college that opened in 1925.
Economy and Infrastructure
In addition to its geography, Haifa is primarily characterized by its quality as an industrial location. The port of Haifa has an annual turnover of around 20 million tons. One of the two Israeli refineries is located nearby .
Due to the location on the northern slope of the Carmel Mountains, the traffic routing in Haifa has to adapt relatively strongly to the geographic conditions. Most of the larger roads as well as the tracks of the Israeli railway therefore run in the flat lower part of the city at the foot of the Carmel Mountains.
The most important means of public transport for urban and regional traffic are the buses of the bus cooperative Egged . Until the end of 2001, the central point of contact for the bus lines was the central bus station in Haifa Bat Galim . This bus station was connected to the Israel Railways station of the same name via a tunnel. Since the opening of the new HaMifratz bus station on January 1, 2002, lines coming from the north have ended there. At the end of 2003, another new bus station, Chof haKarmel, was opened in the southwest of the city, the bus platforms at Bat Galim bus station were then closed and a shuttle service was set up between the two new bus stations. Due to the location of the new bus stations at the opposite ends of the city, the regional lines no longer have to cross the city center.
The railway plays a comparatively minor role as it only serves the urban areas by the sea. Haifa has several train stations on the line to Tel Aviv and Nahariya ; the railway crosses the city along the sea along its entire length. Within the city limits are the train stations Haifa Chof haKarmel , Haifa Bat Galim , Haifa Central Station (haSchmona), Lev haMifratz ; Chutzot haMifratz and Kirjat Chaim (from south to north; the city of Kirjat Chaim is now a district of Haifa). Haifa is currently (2008) served by two intercity lines that run to Naharija in the north; in the south, the lines run along the Mediterranean coast and through Tel Aviv to Be'er Scheva or from Tel Aviv via Ben Gurion Airport to Modi'in . A suburban line also operates between Haifa Chof haKarmel in the south and Kirjat Motzkin in the north. In 2016, a rail link from Haifa to Bet She'an was opened, replacing the long-abandoned and dismantled Hejaz Railway .
Since 1959 Haifa also boasts a as metro designated underground funicular , the Carmelite . After severe fire damage, traffic has been idle since February 4, 2017. The railway reopened on October 4, 2018 with new wagons. The Metronit track bus system is currently under construction, which, when completed, will open up northern Haifa and the Krajot .
Until a few years ago there were two ferry connections from Athens ( Piraeus ) via Cyprus to Haifa, with which Haifa could be reached from Europe by one's own motor vehicle . These connections are currently closed.
With Haifa Airport, Haifa has a small airport for domestic flights.
In Matam Park , located at the southern entrance to the city, many international and Israeli companies have established production and research facilities. These companies include Philips , Intel , IBM , Elbit , Zoran , Microsoft and Amdocs .
Haifa has had a university with around 18,000 students since 1963 and the Technion with around 13,000 students. Another important institution in the educational landscape is the Rutenberg Institute for Youth Education, founded by the Ashkenazi immigrant Pinchas Ruthenberg .
The work of the Leo Baeck Education Center is remarkable for its education in peace and coexistence between Jews and Arabs .
Results of the census → table of city administrations
Culture and sights
Gardens of the Baha'i
Since it was expanded in the late 1990s, the Persian Gardens have stretched almost the entire height of the slope. In the center of the artfully terraced gardens is the shrine of Bab , where the forerunner of the Baha'i religious founder found his final resting place. The gardens are one of the most visited tourist attractions in Israel, and the Shrine of Bab is a symbol of the city of Haifa.
On the west side of the Carmel is the Carmelite Monastery of Stella Maris with the Elijah Cave, which is considered the former residence and grave of the Prophet. The lookout point offers a view of the entire Haifa Bay. From there a path leads past the Stella Maris lighthouse and a chapel down to another Elijah cave, which also serves as a Jewish memorial. The valley station of the Haifa cable car , which was built in 1983–1986 and leads up to the viewpoint, is also located on the seashore .
German Colony (Ha-moschava ha-germanit)
The “German Colony” founded by the Temple Society lies below the Bahai Gardens. The central Ben Gurion Boulevard leads in the visual axis of the gardens to the sea. The Haifas Tourist Center and a large number of restaurants and bars are located on Ben-Gurion-Boulevard.
The Clandestine Immigration and Naval Museum is also famous in the port city .
The grain museum in the Dagon-Silo is only open by appointment.
There is also the archaeological Hecht Museum on the university grounds, the Haifa Art Museum and the Israeli National Museum of Science, Technology and Space with around 200,000 annual visitors.
The Zoo of Haifa is located in the district of Carmel. In addition to a large number of animals, it also houses a natural history museum.
In 2015, the al-Midan Theater was opened in the Wadi Salib district; it serves as the first permanent venue for the Arabic-speaking Khashabi Ensemble founded in 2011 and as a location for film screenings, concerts and stand-up comedy.
The city is home to the Maccabi Haifa football club , which was founded in 1913 and currently plays in the 1st Israeli league, the Ligat ha'Al . With eleven championship titles and five cup wins, the team is one of the most successful football teams in Israel. The team achieved great fame at European level when they qualified for the main round of the UEFA Champions League in 2002 , beating both Olympiacos and Manchester United 3-0. Maccabi Haifa retired with seven points just behind the German first division club Bayer 04 Leverkusen in third in the group stage. In the club crest is Star of David in the execution of the Maccabi movement prominent. The local rival of Maccabi Haifa is the first division club Hapoel Haifa , which was founded in 1924. Hapoel is Hebrew and stands for workers .
Both clubs played their games in the Kiryat Eliezer Stadium until 2014 . This venue was built in 1955 and has space for 14,000 spectators . The stadium was a gift from the Unione Italiana del Lavoro , one of Italy's largest trade union alliances , to the Israeli government. In 2009, the Sammy Ofer Stadium named after Sammy Ofer was built as the new home of the two competitors. It was completed in June 2014 and has a capacity of 30,820 spectators. The opening and the first game in the stadium took place on August 27, 2014 between Hapoel Haifa and Hapoel Akko .
- Marseille , France , since 1962
- Portsmouth , United Kingdom , since 1962
- Luton , United Kingdom since 1966
- Hackney , United Kingdom since 1968
- Manila , Philippines since 1971
- San Francisco , California , USA , since 1973
- Aalborg , Denmark since 1973
- Cape Town , South Africa since 1975
- Bremen , Bremen , Germany since 1978
- Antwerp , Belgium since 1986
- Mainz , Rhineland-Palatinate , Germany since 1987
- Düsseldorf , North Rhine-Westphalia , Germany since 1988
- Rosario , Argentina since 1988
- Odessa , Ukraine since 1992
- Shanghai , China since 1994
- Boston , Massachusetts , USA since 1999
- Limassol , Cyprus since 2000
- Fort Lauderdale , Florida , USA since 2002
- Kobe , Japan since 2004
- Erfurt , Thuringia , Germany since 2005
- Mannheim , Baden-Württemberg , Germany since 2009
- Guayaquil , Ecuador since 2006
- Saint Petersburg , Russia since 2008
- Newcastle upon Tyne , UK
sons and daughters of the town
The list contains an alphabetical overview of important personalities born in Haifa today. It is irrelevant whether or not the people later had their sphere of activity in Haifa. Many moved away after their birth and became known elsewhere. The list does not claim to be complete.
- Abed Abdi (* 1942), Arab-Israeli painter and draftsman, graphic artist, sculptor, blacksmith and lecturer
- Thal Abergel (* 1982), French chess master
- Efrat Alony (* 1975), singer
- Michaël Attias (* 1968), jazz saxophonist
- Zouheir Bahloul (* 1950), Israeli politician
- Ralph Bakshi (* 1938), American film director
- Pierre de Bané PC QC (1938–2019), Canadian lawyer and politician
- Arik Benado (* 1973), football player
- Dan Bar-On (1938–2008), psychologist, author, Holocaust and dialogue researcher
- Miron Bleiberg (* 1955), Israeli-Australian football coach
- Oscar Bronner (* 1943), newspaper editor and painter
- Leila Chaled (* 1944), member of the left-wing Palestinian organization PFLP, first female airplane hijacker in history
- Aaron Ciechanover (* 1947), biochemist
- Danny Cohen (1937–2019), computer scientist and Internet pioneer
- Anne Crawford (1920–1956), British film, television and theater actress
- David Deutsch (* 1953), physicist and scientist in the field of quantum computers
- David Esrig (* 1935), Romanian director
- Ari Folman (* 1962), film director, screenwriter and film producer
- Ja'el German (* 1947), politician
- Amos Gitai (* 1950), film director, actor and screenwriter
- Ivri Gitlis (* 1922), French-Israeli violinist
- Zebulon Hammer (1936–1998), politician, minister and deputy prime minister
- Haya Harareet (* 1931), film and theater actress and screenwriter
- Tomer Hemed (* 1987) football player
- Einat Kalisch-Rotem (* 1970), architect and since 2018 mayor of Haifa
- Zafra Lerman (* 1937), chemist
- Hod Lipson (* 1967), Israeli-American robotics researcher
- Michal Lipson (* 1970), physicist
- Uri Lubrani (1926-2018), diplomat
- Referee Maimon (* 1981), singer
- Jaron Mazuz (* 1962), politician
- Ariel Muzicant (* 1952), President of the Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Wien
- Ronnith Neumann (* 1948), writer and photographer
- Zachi Noy (born 1953), actor
- Ayman Odeh (* 1975), politician
- Avichai Rontzki (1951-2018), General
- Adi Rosenblum (* 1962), artist
- Ronny Rosenthal (* 1963), former soccer player
- Mosche Safdie (* 1938), architect and urban planner
- Gene Simmons (* 1949), bassist for the hard rock group Kiss
- Hillel Slovak (1962–1988), American musician
- Ron Sommer (* 1949), manager
- Barak Tal , Israeli conductor (Tel Aviv soloists)
- Amos Tversky (1937-1996), psychologist
- Gil Vermouth (born 1985), football player
- Yochanan Vollach (* 1945), Israeli soccer player
- Loudy Wiggins (* 1979), Australian water diver and Olympic medalist
- Gil Yaron (* 1973), doctor and journalist
- Yoni Zelnik (* 1975), jazz musician
- Noam Okun (* 1978), tennis player
- "Abdul-Baha" (1844–1921), also known as Abbas Effendi, namesake of Abbas Street
- Entry on the UNESCO World Heritage Center website ( English and French ).
- Tourist office. In: tour-haifa.co.il (hebr.)
- Information about Haifa. In: mainz.de
- Haifa is different. In: TAZ archive
- Photographs of the Bahá'í Gardens in Haifa. In: bahaipictures.com
- Ulrich Sahm: Haifa in a hail of rockets. In: n-tv.de , July 16, 2006
- אוכלוסייה ביישובים 2018 (population of the settlements 2018). (XLSX; 0.13 MB) Israel Central Bureau of Statistics , August 25, 2019, accessed May 11, 2020 .
- Archived copy ( memento of the original dated August 16, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved November 13, 2018
- Alexandra Föderl-Schmid: Surprises in Haifa and Jerusalem. In: sz.online, November 1 , 2018 (accessed November 5, 2018)
- Weather Service Israel
- Yehuda Karmon : Israel - A geographic study of the country. Wissenschaftliche Länderkunden Vol. 22, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt, 1983; Pp. 55, 79, 159, 160-165.
- Alex Carmel : History of Haifa in Turkish times. 1516-1918. ( Treatises of the German Palestine Association ), Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1975, pp. 7f.9ff.
- 25 Years of Haifa. Port of Haifa Authority, 1958.
- The American Jacob Schumacher, Gottlieb Schumacher's father , was chairman of the Templar community in Haifa and vice-consul of the USA from 1869-1908.
- Mordecai Naor : Eretz Israel. The 20th century. Könemann, Cologne 1998, ISBN 3-89508-594-4 , p. 217 f.
- Benny Morris : The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited . 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, 2004, p. 100 f.
- Ilan Pappe : A History of Modern Palestine . Cambridge University Press 2006, p. 129.
- Ilan Pappé: The Making of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. IB Tauris 1994, p. 80 f .; see. Benny Morris : The birth of the Palestinian refugee problem revisited . 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp. 101 f.
- Ian Black, Benny Morris : Israel's Secret Wars . Grove Press 1992, p. 42.
- Benny Morris : The birth of the Palestinian refugee problem revisited . 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, 2004, p. 102 f.
- The New York Times. May 3, 1948.
- Schai Fogelman: נמחקה מספרי ההיסטוריה הפגזה אחת של ההגנה ללב השוק הערבי בחיפה? ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: Haaretz , May 26, 2011.
- 16 dead in terrorist attack in Haifa - 60 people injured In: Israelnetz.de , December 2, 2001, accessed on July 31, 2018.
- Dead and injured in an attack on an Arab restaurant in Haifa. In: Israelnetz .de. March 31, 2002, accessed October 5, 2019 .
- Alexandra Föderl-Schmid: Surprises in Haifa and Jerusalem. In: sz.online, November 1 , 2018 (accessed November 5, 2018)
- See: Shmuel Burmil, Ruth Enis: Landmarks in the Urban Landscape of Haifa . In: Die Gartenkunst 16 (2/2004), pp. 328–338.
- Unesco recognizes 27 sites as world heritage . ( Memento of the original from December 9, 2012 in the web archive archive.today ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: sz-online.de
- Port website. Retrieved September 2, 2011
- Carmelite : Subway in Haifa
- Stella Maris. In: biblewalk.com , accessed February 10, 2014
- Internet travel guide to Israel
- Yair Ashkenazi: The Khashabi Theater, a new artistic concept of Palestinian self-assertion. In: Rosa Luxemburg Foundation Israel Office. September 28, 2016. Retrieved October 10, 2017 .
- Khashabi Ensemble - New Palestinian Theater in Haifa. In: Rosa Luxemburg Foundation Israel Office. October 2016, accessed October 10, 2017 .
- Kolja Brandtstedt: Haifa - the capital of the Palestinian culture in Israel. In: Alsharq . June 21, 2015, accessed June 20, 2017 .
- Diaa Hadid: In Israeli City of Haifa, a Liberal Arab Culture Blossoms. In: The New York Times . January 3, 2016, accessed June 22, 2017 .
- International Relations. In: rathaus.bremen.de. Senate Chancellery Bremen, accessed on December 27, 2016 .
- Andrea Frohmader, Martina Klüver: The town twinning of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen and other international connections . Bremen August 10, 2016 ( rathaus.bremen.de [PDF; 2.1 MB ; accessed on December 27, 2016]).
- Mainzcities. In: State capital Mainz. Retrieved December 28, 2016 .
- State capital Düsseldorf: Haifa - State capital Düsseldorf. In: duesseldorf.de. Retrieved December 27, 2016 .
- - Haifa (Israel). In: erfurt.de. March 30, 2013, accessed December 27, 2016 .
- Haifa / Israel. In: mannheim.de. Retrieved January 2, 2019 .
- Twin City activities . Haifa Municipality. Archived from the original on October 9, 2007. Retrieved February 14, 2008.