|Surname||Manchester United Football Club|
|Seat||Old Trafford , England|
|founding||1878 as Newton Heath LYR FC|
|Colours||Red, white, black|
|First soccer team|
|Head coach||Ole Gunnar Solskjaer|
Manchester United (officially: Manchester United Football Club ) - also known as United, Red Devils, Man United, Man Utd, MUFC, ManU (the latter abbreviation is viewed as derogatory in England) - is an English football club from Old Trafford in the Metropolitan, founded in 1878 County Greater Manchester , known as Newton Heath until 1902. With 20 championship titles, Manchester United are the English record champions.
As one of the largest and most supported clubs in England, United managed to achieve national dominance under coach Alex Ferguson in the 1990s and largely between 2006 and 2013 , as last Liverpool FC in the mid-1970s and early 1980s had achieved and which heightened the traditionally strong rivalry between the two clubs . Winning the Triple in 1999 marked the peak of this era.
With an annual turnover of around 676.3 million euros, Manchester United is the club with the highest turnover in the world according to Deloitte (as of the 2016/17 season). With 659 million followers (as of 2012) it is also the most popular football club worldwide.
Manchester United is one of five clubs - alongside Juventus Turin , FC Bayern Munich , Ajax Amsterdam and FC Chelsea - which have won the Champions League , the UEFA Cup / Europa League and the European Cup Winners' Cup .
The beginnings (1878–1945)
Manchester United was founded in 1878 as Newton Heath L&Y Railway Football Club by a group of workers who worked at the Newton Heath train station . Initially games were held against other departments of the LYR ( Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway ) or other railway companies. When the Football League was founded in 1888, Newton Heath held back with an entry into the league because it was not considered good enough. This step was finally made up for four years later. In the years to come, the club suffered from financial problems, which escalated at the beginning of the new century and bankruptcy seemed inevitable. However, John Henry Davies, a local brewery owner, saved the club from collapse. Legend has it that Davies found out about the club's financial troubles when he found the dog of then team captain Harry Stafford . The support of Davies not only led to a name change, which took place on April 28, 1902 at the request of Davies in Manchester United, but also to the change of the club colors from gold / green to today's red / white. The names Manchester Central and Manchester Celtic were still being discussed as alternatives to Manchester United. After narrowly failed promotion to the top division in 1903/04 and 1904/05, in 1905/06, after 12 years of abstinence, promotion to the First Division succeeded. Just two years later, the first championship could be celebrated, in 1911 the second championship title followed. The respective Charity Shield could also be won. With the victory in the FA Cup in 1909 against Bristol City by a goal from Sandy Turnbull , the first cup victory could be marked.
In the following decades there were no further successes. In the meantime, the club rose to the Second Division , a relegation to the Third Division was barely avoided. It was not until 1938 that he returned to the First Division.
The Busby Era (1945-1969)
With the appointment of Matt Busby as coach in 1945, a new era began for the club. In the first three post-war seasons, Manchester United finished second. In 1948 the club won the FA Cup, their first title after a long break. The third English championship followed in 1952. Busby relied on consistent youth work, which earned the team the nickname "Busby Babes". After mediocre placements succeeded in 1956 again winning the championship, in which the average age of the team was 22 years. 1957 Manchester United became the first English representative in the European Cup and reached the semi-finals.
The biggest tragedy in the club's history so far occurred in 1958: On February 6, the team flew home from a European Cup match against Red Star Belgrade (3: 3 after 3: 0 lead) on British-European Airways flight 609 as the aircraft crashed during take-off after a stopover at Munich-Riem Airport during a snow storm. Eight players died and two suffered injuries that marked the end of their careers. The dead included Roger Byrne , Tommy Taylor and Duncan Edwards , who died of serious injuries two weeks after the crash. The 21-year-old Edwards was then considered one of the greatest English talents, who many experts saw as one of the greatest players in England. Among the injured were Bobby Charlton , Bill Foulkes and goalkeeper Harry Gregg , who was particularly good at rescuing the injured after the accident.
After his recovery, Busby took over as coach again. He had to completely rebuild the team and therefore bought some well-known players. The FA Cup was won in 1963, and Manchester United became English champions in 1965 and 1967. In 1968, after victories over Hibernian Edinburgh , FK Sarajevo , Górnik Zabrze and Real Madrid, the final of the European Cup was reached. On May 29, Benfica was beaten 4-1 after extra time at Wembley Stadium . A year later, Busby resigned as a coach.
Crisis and Return to Success (1969–1986)
In the following years, the club got into a serious crisis. Various coaches could not bring him back on the road to success. 1974 Manchester United rose from the Second Division, but whereupon the direct rise succeeded. In 1976 the final of the FA Cup was reached, which the club was able to win the following year. After no title could be won by 1981, Ron Atkinson was the new coach. A record British transfer was made with the purchase of Bryan Robson for 1.5 million pounds. More transfers followed and with them success came back. After two triumphs in the FA Cup in 1983 and 1985, Manchester United was the favorite for the championship title in the 85/86 season after 10 winning games at the start of the season. However, the team collapsed and was only fourth. After relegation threatened in the following season, Atkinson was released early.
The Ferguson Era (1986-2013)
He was succeeded by Alex Ferguson . The season ended in midfield. In 1988 the club was runner-up. In 1990 Ferguson was on the verge of being fired, but an FA Cup success that was later won but kept him in office. In 1991 Manchester United won the final of the European Cup Winners' Cup against FC Barcelona and went public that same year. The IPO generated revenues of £ 18 million. In 1992 the league cup and the runner-up were won. With the newcomer Éric Cantona 1993 won the English championship for the first time in 26 years. In 1994, the year Matt Busby died, Manchester achieved the first double in club history. In the 94/95 season, Cantona was suspended for eight months after attacking an opposing fan with a kick. This year both titles were narrowly missed. After the season, some top performers were sold. Despite the financial resources available, Ferguson did not buy star players, but relied on young players like David Beckham (then 20) or Gary Neville (also 20). After the return of Cantona, Manchester started a race to catch up, at the end of which they won the double again. In 1997, the fourth championship in five years was celebrated.
The "triple" 1999
|1998/99||1/20 (1)||79 / + 43|
After a season without a title, 1999 was followed by the most successful year in the club's history. Manchester United was the first English club to win the triple . In the final of the Champions League was defeated here in Barcelona to Bayern Munich . After a 0-1 deficit after 90 minutes, the team turned a game believed lost with goals from Teddy Sheringham and Ole Gunnar Solskjær in stoppage time within two minutes. Ferguson was then knighted in recognition of his services. In the league, the club only secured the championship on the last day of the match with a 2-1 win over Tottenham Hotspur , the fiercest competitor, Arsenal FC , won 1-0 against Aston Villa , but would also have a slip by the Red Devils needed. The FA Cup final was followed by a 2-0 win through goals from Teddy Sheringham and Paul Scholes against Newcastle United . The successful year was rounded off by a 1-0 triumph in the World Cup against Palmeiras São Paulo .
After the "triple" (1999-2006)
|2003/04||3/20 (1)||75 / + 29|
|2004/05||3/20 (1)||77 / + 32|
|2005/06||2/20 (1)||83 / + 38|
Manchester United has owned mostly local businesses or business people since the club was founded. After the IPO in 1991 there were several takeover attempts, in particular by a company owned by Rupert Murdoch . In March 2003, Malcolm Glazer (a US billionaire born in 1928) finally began buying up Manchester United shares. He increased his stake to 28 percent by 2005, and after a long tug-of-war, the billionaire secured another 29 percent on May 12, 2005, which he bought from Irish entrepreneurs John Magnier and John Paul MacManus . He thus held the majority and bid for the remaining shares. The total value of his offer: £ 790m.
On May 16, 2005, Glazer was able to increase its stake to 75%, which allowed him to take the club off the stock exchange. On June 28, he already owned 98% of the shares, which enabled a compulsory settlement for the remaining small shareholders. The association has been owned by the Glazer family since then, and Joel , Avram and Bryan Glazer were members of the board.
Many fans tried to prevent the takeover by Glazer, which also owns the American football club of the Tampa Bay Buccaneers , with protest actions . Behind this was the fear that the Glazers wanted to recoup the debt rescheduling of the loans they were using for the purchase on the club itself, which was previously debt-free, through higher entry prices and lower expenses for players. The costs incurred by the association as a result of the debt rescheduling are estimated at just under £ 700 million, i.e. almost 1 billion euros. Some fans of the club then founded the new club FC United of Manchester as an amateur club and pure membership club. The games of Manchester United (Premier League) drew an average of 68,800 spectators per home game in the 2005/06 season.
At the beginning of the 2005/06 season, midfield strategist Roy Keane left Manchester for Celtic Glasgow after being criticized several times in public. With Nemanja Vidić and Patrice Evra , the defense was reinforced by the new goalkeeper Edwin van der Sar , who came from Fulham for 4 million. In the Champions League, they were eliminated in the group stage for the first time in years. In general, the season was marked by many injuries to key players such as Gabriel Heinze , Alan Smith , Ryan Giggs and Paul Scholes . Nevertheless, they did not remain without a title in the season and won the League Cup against Wigan Athletic for the first time since 1992 . In the league they ended the season in second place, which ensured direct participation in the Champions League. At the end of the season, Manchester had to compensate for a serious departure as Ruud van Nistelrooy left the club for Real Madrid after there had been differences between him and Ferguson for some time. With Michael Carrick , Tottenham Hotspur signed a new midfielder.
National dominance and international successes (2006–2013)
|2006/07||1/20 (1)||89 / + 56|
|2007/08||1/20 (1)||87 / + 58|
|2008/09||1/20 (1)||90 / + 44|
|2009/10||2/20 (1)||86 / + 58|
|2010/11||1/20 (1)||80 / + 41|
|2011/12||2/20 (1)||89 / + 56|
|2012/13||1/20 (1)||89 / + 43|
After three years without a championship, United secured the title by six points in the 2006/07 season. In the semi-finals of the Champions League , despite a 3-2 win in the first leg, they were eliminated by a 3-0 defeat in the second leg against AC Milan . FA Cup Manchester United reached the final, was defeated there but in the first final at the newly built Wembley Stadium the Chelsea 0: 1st At the end of the season, Gabriel Heinze , Giuseppe Rossi and Alan Smith , among others, left the club. But you could strengthen yourself with Anderson , Nani , Owen Hargreaves , Carlos Tévez , Tomasz Kuszczak and Rodrigo Possebon .
The 2007/08 season was a successful one for Manchester United, winning the Champions League again after 1999 with a 6-5 win on penalties against Chelsea FC. With his 759th appearance for Manchester, Ryan Giggs set Bobby Charlton's record as the club's record player. Finally, the team was able to celebrate their 17th championship title. In the FA Cup , Manchester United were eliminated 1-0 in the quarter-finals against eventual cup winners Portsmouth FC .
For the 2008/09 season striker Dimitar Berbatow was committed by league rivals Tottenham Hotspur . With Fábio, Federico Macheda , Rafael , James Chester and Danny Welbeck , five young players were raised to the professional squad. Players like Gerard Piqué , Chris Eagles and Louis Saha left the club. Right at the start of the season, the FA Community Shield beat last year's FA Cup winners Portsmouth FC 3-1 on penalties . On December 21, 2008, Manchester United won the Club World Cup 1-0 against LDU Quito with a goal from Wayne Rooney . With a 4-1 win over Tottenham Hotspur in the League Cup , the quindruple seemed feasible. However, they were eliminated on April 19, 2009 in the semi-finals of the FA Cup on penalties against FC Everton , which put the dream of quindruple aside. Finally, on May 16, 2009, they secured the championship for the 18th time and for the third time in a row. With this championship title, Alex Ferguson's team drew level with the previous record holder Liverpool . On May 27, 2009 the Champions League final took place in Rome against FC Barcelona. In the event of a victory, Manchester would have been the first club ever to successfully defend their title in the Champions League. However, despite a strong start, the team lost the final 2-0 through goals from Samuel Eto'o and Lionel Messi . On June 11th, Manchester United gave Cristiano Ronaldo permission to negotiate a move with Real Madrid , accepting the £ 80m offer, making Ronaldo the most expensive player in history. In addition to Ronaldo, Carlos Tévez also left the club after an agreement on a contract extension could not be reached. The third exit was Fraizer Campbell , who moved to Hull City . To compensate for Ronaldo's departure, Antonio Valencia and Michael Owen were signed . Owen received the legendary shirt number 7 at Manchester United, which Cristiano Ronaldo last wore. Nemanja Vidić was named Player of the Year after the last two consecutive awards went to Cristiano Ronaldo. The first competitive game of the 2009/10 season for the Community Shield was lost 4-1 on penalties after it was 2-2 after regular time against Chelsea. In the final, Petr Čech became the match winner when he parried Patrice Evra and Ryan Giggs' penalties.
After only winning the league cup in the 2009/10 season, Manchester United signed for the 2010/11 season a. a. the Mexican Chicharito and the English Chris Smalling . In addition to the field of play, Wayne Rooney's alternating poker dominated the game in the early stages of the season. After Rooney announced his departure, he signed a new five-year contract until 2015 with United on October 22, 2010. In February 2011, Gary Neville retired due to ongoing injuries. In the 2010/11 Premier League season , United won the championship again with a nine-point lead over defending champion Chelsea and was the sole record champion with 19 national championships ahead of Liverpool with 18 titles. In the FA Cup , they failed in the semi-finals against local rivals Manchester City with 0: 1. By contrast, United was in the Champions League final for the third time in four years . There, however, they had to admit defeat to the clearly superior FC Barcelona 1: 3 (1: 1) in the final at Wembley Stadium .
For the 2011/12 season Manchester United signed the two Englishmen Phil Jones (from Blackburn Rovers ) and Ashley Young (from Aston Villa ) as well as the Spanish U21 national goalkeeper David de Gea from Atlético Madrid . In return, Edwin Van der Sar and Paul Scholes ended their careers, while John O'Shea and Wes Brown both moved to Sunderland AFC for undisclosed transfer fees . On December 7, 2011, Manchester United lost to FC Basel in the last decisive group match of the 2011/12 Champions League group stage and was eliminated - for the first time since 2005 - from the CL in the group stage; was able to qualify - for the first time in the club's history - thanks to the 3rd place in the group for the Europa League . In the sixteenth finals of the Europa League they met Ajax Amsterdam . They lost the second leg 2-1, but thanks to the 2-0 first leg success they qualified for the round of 16. There they were eliminated after 2: 3 in the first leg and 1: 2 in the second leg against Athletic Bilbao . At the end of the season United reached second place in the table after Manchester City and was able to qualify again for the group stage of the Champions League.
For the 2012/13 season, Shinji Kagawa from Borussia Dortmund and Robin van Persie from Arsenal FC were signed up . In the UEFA Champions League , the team was eliminated in the round of 16 against Real Madrid and in the FA Cup in the quarter-finals against Chelsea. In the Premier League she won the championship. On May 8, 2013, Sir Alex Ferguson announced his resignation and the end of his coaching career after the 2012/13 season with the words "it was the right time" after 27 years at Manchester United.
The time after Ferguson (since 2013)
|2013/14||7/20 (1)||64 / + 21|
|2014/15||4/20 (1)||70 / + 25|
|2015/16||5/20 (1)||66 / + 14|
|2016/17||6/20 (1)||69 / + 25|
|2017/18||2/20 (1)||81 / + 40|
|2018/19||6/20 (1)||66 / + 12|
|2019/20||3/20 (1)||66 / + 30|
Alex Ferguson's successor was David Moyes for the 2013/14 season , who was signed by Everton FC and received a contract until 2019. Under Moyes, the season was disappointing by United's standards, although the championship team from last year was largely intact. In the FA Cup, the team was eliminated in the third main round, i.e. on the first match day for Premier League clubs, with a 1: 2 home defeat against Swansea City, in the League Cup the semi-finals against AFC Sunderland ended after penalties, and in of the Champions League, Manchester United lost in the quarter-finals to Bayern Munich. On April 22, Moyes was released after a 2-0 defeat, the eleventh league defeat at that time, at his former club Everton on the 34th matchday. It was United's first coach release after the release of Ron Atkinson on November 5, 1986. Moye's successor was assistant coach and player Ryan Giggs initially until the end of the season. The team finished the season in seventh place, which means that for the first time in 19 years they could not qualify for the Champions League or for a European competition as a whole.
For the 2014/15 season , the Dutchman Louis van Gaal took over the post of head coach; Giggs moved back to the position of assistant coach. The newcomers were Ander Herrera (Athletic Bilbao), Luke Shaw (Southampton FC), Marcos Rojo (Sporting Lisbon), Daley Blind (Ajax Amsterdam) and Ángel Di María , who was signed by Real Madrid for around 75 million euros and thus until then most expensive transfer in the league was to Old Trafford . In addition, shortly before the end of the transfer deadline, Falcao was loaned from AS Monaco until the end of the season. After just one point from two games in the Premier League, they were eliminated in the League Cup with a 4-0 draw in the second round against third division club MK Dons . In the cup they were eliminated in the quarter-finals against the eventual winners Arsenal. Manchester United finished the season in fourth place. At the end of the season, Ángel Di María and other players left the club, which, however, was able to strengthen itself in particular through the additions of Bastian Schweinsteiger , Anthony Martial , Memphis Depay , Morgan Schneiderlin and Matteo Darmian . After the successful play-off against Club Bruges , Manchester United returned to the Champions League after a year break, although they only achieved third place in the group stage. Van Gaal won the 2015/16 FA Cup , but after missing qualification for the 2016/17 UEFA Champions League, Manchester United split from him.
For the 2016/17 season , José Mourinho took over Louis van Gaal's team. Zlatan Ibrahimović and Paul Pogba , who returned to Manchester for the record transfer fee of EUR 105 million , were signed as newcomers . In the first competitive game of the season, the team won the FA Community Shield 2-1 against champions Leicester City . This was followed by winning the league cup against FC Southampton and, for the first time in the club's history, winning the UEFA Europa League against Ajax Amsterdam , which means that despite a relatively poor performance in the league (6th place), qualification for the Champions League was achieved again.
In the 2017/18 season , the team was able to achieve the runner-up title in both the FA Cup and the league (the latter, however, 19 points behind champions Manchester City ), while the UEFA Champions League finished in the round of 16 against Sevilla FC .
In the season 2018/19 badly launched Manchester United. José Mourinho was sacked on December 18, 2018 when the team were sixth with 26 points after 17 match days, the worst start to the season in 28 years. As an interim coach, the ex-player Ole Gunnar Solskjær initially took over the team until the end of the season , who should then return to his previous club Molde FK . After winning 14 of 19 competitive games under Solskjær, being back in reach of the Champions League places in the league and reaching the quarter-finals in the Champions League for the first time since 2014 after beating Paris Saint-Germain , Solskjær received a long-term contract as head coach at the end of March 2019.
Colloquially, the club in Great Britain is also known as Man United ; as a nickname The Red Devils ("The Red Devils") is common. On the other hand, the short form ManU , which is mainly used abroad , is rejected as insulting by the supporters of the club. It was originally used by opposing fans who took advantage of the aural proximity to the English word manure ("fertilizer" or "dung") to mock the players who died in a plane crash in 1958 . Common abbreviations are ManUtd , regionally also simply United or Utd.
Over the years, the United coat of arms has changed again and again, but the basic shape has always been retained. It resembles the coat of arms of the city of Manchester. The nickname "The Red Devils," heard in the 1960s by Matt Busby in connection with the Salford rugby team playing in red, was later officially recognized for Manchester United as well. Towards the end of the decade, the devil was already integrated into some fan items, such as scarves. It was not until 1970 that the devil with the distinctive trident was integrated into the coat of arms. The last change to the coat of arms so far was made in 1998 when the words "Football Club" were removed from the coat of arms and the words "Manchester United" were re-proportioned on the coat of arms.
Different jersey colors and patterns
The club played with a variety of different jerseys between 1878 and 1892, the most noticeable one being green on one side and yellow on the other. After two years of abstinence, in which one wore a jersey quartered with white and red, this celebrated its comeback in 1896, but this did not last long. Because a completely white shirt and blue soccer shoes were used the following season. It was not until the early 1990s that these stripes were used again in the away kit. In 1902, when the club was renamed and the club colors changed to red, there was also a change of shirt. As a result, they now played with a red top, white shorts and black socks. This combination eventually became typical of the United kits over the next few years. In the FA Cup final in 1909, however, an exception was made. In this game, Manchester wore white tops with a red V on the chest. However, this shirt celebrated a resurrection in the 1920s before United returned to the red shirts. On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of Old Trafford, the home and away jerseys for the 2009/10 season were again provided with a “V”, which was colored black on a red shirt and blue on a black top. The black jerseys, however, had already established themselves in previous years. A complete exception is the top from 1934, which was striped red and white, but was only used briefly, from March to April.
The first and so far longest shirt sponsor was electronics company Sharp from 1982 to 2000 , followed by Vodafone , which ended its contract with Manchester United in May 2006 in order to concentrate on its activities as the main sponsor of the UEFA Champions League. In 2006, Manchester United signed a £ 56.5 million four-year jersey sponsorship contract with American International Group (AIG).
From the 2010/11 season, the British insurance company Aon was AIG's successor as a shirt sponsor. On July 30, 2012, the car manufacturer Chevrolet and the English record champions agreed on a sponsorship contract for seven years. For the 2014/15 season, Chevrolet replaced the insurance company Aon as a shirt sponsor.
The club, which had been organized as a British limited liability company since 1892 , was originally owned by the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Company, as their operations facility was located in Newton Heath, the club's original name. The ownership changed from 1902 to local businessmen. A hostile takeover attempt by Rupert Murdoch was successfully repelled in 1999. Since 2003 the Glazer family has owned the Manchester United Public Limited Company through its Red Football Limited Partnership and Red Football General Partner Inc. Manchester United pays all UK taxes. The corporation was registered in the Cayman Islands by the Glazers . The company is still based in England and pays taxes there. It is speculated that the overseas registration, which costs the owner more money, is intended to limit the influence of shareholders.
In the 2009/10 season a turnover of 285 million pounds was achieved (compared to the previous year an increase of 8 million pounds):
- Ticket sales and match day revenues: £ 100 million
- TV broadcast rights: £ 104 million
- Marketing & Sponsorship: £ 81 million
Salary payments were £ 131 million (an increase of £ 8 million from last year), accounting for 46 percent of sales. The pre-tax loss was £ 79m, bringing total debt to £ 590m with interest at £ 107m a year (related to a £ 500m bond issued in mid-January 2010). The debts were caused by the fact that the new owner, the Glazer family, had taken out loans to buy shares and had rescheduled them to the association.
At the end of the 2012 season, United were once again at the top of the clubs in England by sales, generating sales of £ 320 million. However, this was 11 million pounds less than in 2011. The matchday revenues remained almost constant at 99 million pounds, as did the revenues from TV broadcasting rights. The remaining commercial activities could however be increased to 118 million pounds. The debt was £ 366 million. After generating a profit of £ 12 million in 2011, the club posted an operating loss of £ 5 million in 2012. Player salary spending rose to £ 162 million (51% of total revenue) in 2012, up £ 9 million from the previous year. This placed Manchester United in third place in England behind Manchester City and Chelsea FC.
In the 2012/13 season, Manchester United had a turnover of 363 million pounds, 43 million more than in the previous year. Match day income including ticket revenues was £ 109 million, television and broadcast rights £ 102 million and other activities £ 153 million. This was offset by spending £ 181m on player salaries, up £ 19m from last year, interest payments and other financing costs still £ 72m and other costs that left Manchester United a £ 9m loss before taxes . The club's net debt was only £ 295 million and its total debt was £ 389 million.
In the 2013/14 season, United was able to increase its turnover by 70 million pounds to 433 million pounds. Match day income fell slightly to £ 108 million, television and broadcast rights increased to £ 136 million and other activities to £ 189 million. The spending on player salaries rose at the same time to 215 million pounds, overall Manchester United could make a profit before taxes of 41 million pounds. Interest payments and other borrowing costs were down to £ 29 million and net debt was £ 275 million.
In the 2016/17 season, sales rose to £ 581 million, one reason being the new Premier League contract with television rights, which brought significantly higher revenues to all clubs. TV and broadcast rights accounted for £ 194 million and £ 112 million from match day income. Sponsorship and other activities fetched £ 276 million, a significant increase over previous years. Player salaries rose to £ 263 million through a number of significant commitments, and United was able to generate a pre-tax profit of £ 57 million. Net debt was £ 213 million and total debt was still £ 482 million, of which £ 25 million in interest payments and borrowing costs. A dividend of £ 23 million was paid to the Glazer family.
As of early 2017, Manchester United is the top-selling club in the world in the Deloitte Football Money League .
When Manchester United acted under the name Newton Heath in 1878, the home games were hosted on a small soccer field called North Road. United played there home games for fifteen years before moving to Bank Street, a stadium near Clayton, in 1893. The North Road had 15,000 seats when United moved out, but Manchester decided to move to a larger stadium, despite the recent increase in seats, as more spectators were expected due to the promotion to the Football League. Today North Road no longer exists, it was renamed Northampton Road again after the stadium was demolished. Eventually Moston Brook High School was built on the former stadium grounds, but closed its gates in August 2000. So the Northwest Regional Development Agency settled on the spot. The red memorial plaque, which was integrated into the school wall and served as a reminder of the history of the city, was stolen and has been missing since then.
Bank Street was a big leap for Manchester as the new stadium could accommodate up to 50,000 spectators. However, club owner John Henry Davies decided to move to Old Trafford in 1910, as there was not enough room for expansion. Before that, the first championship title was won in 1908 and a year later the triumph in the FA Cup was added. The last game on Bank Street on January 22, 1910 against Tottenham Hotspur came 5,000 spectators and saw a 5-0 win for the Red Devils. A few days after the game, the stadium was badly damaged by a storm when large parts of the roof were blown away. Despite these structural defects, the stadium was still used by the reserve team until 1912. Eventually the stadium area was sold and some companies set up shop. Today the site is home to the Velodrome Car Park. Nevertheless, a red plaque is attached to the site, which marks the place as part of the history of the association.
In 1910 the era of the Old Trafford Stadium began. By 1939 the stadium had a good 80,000 seats, due to the increased comfort provided by seats, the capacity of the stadium decreased to 43,000 in the following years by 1996, which was mainly due to the standing room ban. With several increases in the north, west and east grandstands, the number of spectators increased to over 76,000.
Until 1951, the teams trained at Old Trafford, as there was no training ground. As a result, however, the lawn in the stadium was often very heavily used, which is why they finally bought The Cliff , a training ground in Broughton in the Greater Manchester region. The training ground was previously used by the Broughton Rangers, a rugby club, until 1933. The fact that no floodlights were installed in Old Trafford until 1957 ensured that some evening games were played on the training ground. The youth team with the later stars like Duncan Edwards or John Doherty provided with a 23-0 win over Nantwich Town for the highest victory in the Youth FA Cup to date.
Towards the end of the 20th century it was decided to use a new training center in Carrington. The reason for this was Ferguson's opinion that The Cliff was too public and there was a risk that the tactic would be made public. So it came about that the professional team, the reserve and the academy moved to the Trafford Training Center. However, The Cliff is still used today by various youth teams of the club for both training and games. The English national team also occasionally used the training ground for training before international matches at Old Trafford. The new training center has been in operation since July 26, 2000. With the completion of the academy in 2002, all youth teams, from U-9 to U-16, are now on the training grounds. In addition to various training options such as basketball and the 14 soccer fields, there are physiotherapists' practices as well as offices and a club's own restaurant for players and coaches on the premises. MUTV (its own television station) has also built its studios on the site. The stadium is surrounded by 30,000 trees, which serve to shield the site.
In early April 2013, Manchester United also officially announced that it would sell the name of the current training facility to shirt sponsor AON Corporation. The company also receives a print on the training garment and advertises Manchester United on overseas tours. The contract is initially for eight years and brings the club an estimated 184 to 230 million euros.
The highest average attendance comes from the 2006/07 season with 75,826 visitors. The lowest average was achieved in the Premier League's starting season, 1992/93. Only 35,084 fans came to Old Trafford per game. In 1992 the Premier League was introduced as the top English division and replaced the First Division .
The information on the number of viewers (and thus also the records) vary depending on the counting method. While Manchester United, like other clubs, always stated the number of tickets sold as the number of visitors, the police counted the number of spectators actually appearing in the stadium for security reasons: According to these figures, Manchester United had an average attendance of 61,739 in the 2012/13 season , the club, however, gave it 73,653. In a Champions League game against CFR Cluj in December 2012 , 71,521 tickets were sold, but only 46,894 visitors showed up for the game, according to police.
Supporters of the club
Manchester United's fans made their love for the club particularly clear in 1998 when Rupert Murdoch was about to take over the club . The fans then had plans to found their own club. After the plans for the takeover failed, the plan was temporarily put on hold. However, when Glazer began buying up the shares in 2005 and took over the club, the fans implemented their plan and founded FC United of Manchester . The club started in the tenth highest division; after four promotions, the club will play in the Conference North , the sixth highest division, from the 2015/16 season .
- English Championship ( Football League First Division / FA Premier League ): 20 ×
- English Cup ( FA Cup ): 12 ×
- English League Cup : 5 ×
- English Supercup ( Charity Shield or Community Shield ): 21 × (17 × alone, 4 shared - marked with *)
- UEFA Champions League or European Cup : 3 ×
- UEFA Europa League ; 1 ×
- European Cup Winners' Cup : 1 ×
World Cup : 1 ×
- FIFA Club World Cup : 1 ×
European Supercup : 1 ×
- 1892 / 93-1893 / 94 First Division
- 1894 / 95–1905 / 06 Second Division
- 1906 / 07–1921 / 22 First Division
- 1922 / 23–1924 / 25 Second Division
- 1925 / 26–1930 / 31 First Division
- 1931 / 32-1935 / 36 Second Division
- 1936/37 First Division
- 1937/38 Second Division
- 1938 / 39–1973 / 74 First Division
- 1974/75 Second Division
- since 1975/76 First Division / Premier League
Current squad 2020/21
- As of August 25, 2020
|No.||Nat.||Surname||birthday||in the team since|
|1||David de Gea||Nov 7, 1990||2011|
|13||Lee Grant||Jan. 27, 1983||2018|
|22nd||Sergio Romero||Feb 22, 1987||2015|
|40||Joel Pereira||June 28, 1996||2012|
|Dean Henderson||March 12 1997||2011|
|2||Victor Lindelof||17th July 1994||2017|
|3||Eric Bailly||Apr 12, 1994||2016|
|4th||Phil Jones||Feb 21, 1992||2011|
|5||Harry Maguire||5th Mar 1993||2019|
|12||Chris Smalling||Nov 22, 1989||2010|
|16||Marcos Rojo||20 Mar 1990||2014|
|20th||Diogo Dalot||18 Mar 1999||2018|
|23||Luke Shaw||July 12, 1995||2014|
|24||Timothy Fosu-Mensah||Jan. 2, 1998||2014|
|29||Aaron Wan-Bissaka||Nov 26, 1997||2019|
|38||Axel Tuanzebe||Nov 14, 1997||2005|
|53||Brandon Williams||3rd Sep 2000|
|6th||Paul Pogba||15th Mar 1993||2016|
|8th||Juan Mata||Apr 28, 1988||2014|
|14th||Jesse Lingard||Dec 15, 1992||2000|
|15th||Andreas Pereira||Jan. 1, 1996||2012|
|17th||Fred||5th Mar 1993||2018|
|18th||Bruno Fernandes||8 Sep 1994||2020|
|21st||Daniel James||Nov 10, 1997||2019|
|31||Nemanja Matic||Aug 1, 1988||2017|
|37||James Garner||13 Mar 2001||2009|
|39||Scott McTominay||Dec 8, 1996||2002|
|9||Anthony Martial||Dec 5, 1995||2015|
|10||Marcus Rashford||Oct 31, 1997||2007|
|25th||Odion Ighalo||June 16, 1989||2020|
|26th||Mason Greenwood||Oct. 1, 2001|
Squad changes 2020/21
|Summer 2020||Dean Henderson||Sheffield United (Loan End)|
|Joel Pereira||Heart of Midlothian (Loan)|
|Marcos Rojo||Estudiantes de La Plata (borrower)|
|Chris Smalling||AS Roma (loanee)|
|Summer 2020||Tahith Chong||Werder Bremen (loan)|
|Angel Gomes||Lille OSC|
(Former) players of the club
Player of the year
The Sir Matt Busby Player of the Year title is awarded annually to a Manchester United player elected by the club's supporters.
The award was introduced in 1988 under the name MUFC Members Player of the Year , but was given its current name following the death of longtime United coach Matt Busby in 1996. A trophy was also introduced at the time, which is a scaled-down version of the famous Busby statue in front of the East Stand of Old Trafford.
Voting takes place towards the end of each season, usually in April. At the beginning, only the members of the official United Fan Club were eligible to participate. Later, ordinary fans were also able to take part in the vote using an election form contained in the club's magazine. Today the voting takes place on the Internet. Anyone who has a member user account on the association's website is entitled to vote .
Statistics and records
Player with the most goals
Note: only official competitions (incl. Substitutions) - The information in brackets represents the total number of games played. Other games include the Community Shield, the World Cup and the UEFA Super Cup
|#||Surname||league||FA Cup||League Cup||Europe||Others||total|
|1||Wayne Rooney||183 (393)||22 (38)||5 (20)||39 (98)||4 (8)||253 (559)|
|2||Bobby Charlton||199 (606)||19 (78)||7 (24)||22 (45)||2 (5)||249 (758)|
|3||Denis Law||171 (309)||34 (46)||3 (11)||28 (33)||1 (5)||237 (404)|
|4th||Jack Rowley||182 (380)||26 (42)||0 (0)||0 (0)||3 (2)||211 (424)|
|5||Dennis Viollet||159 (259)||5 (18)||1 (2)||13 (12)||1 (2)||179 (293)|
|6th||George Best||137 (361)||21 (46)||9 (25)||11 (34)||1 (4)||179 (470)|
|7th||Ryan Giggs||114 (672)||12 (74)||12 (41)||29 (157)||1 (19)||168 (963)|
|7th||Joe Spence||158 (481)||10 (29)||0 (0)||0 (0)||0 (0)||168 (510)|
|9||Mark Hughes||120 (345)||17 (46)||16 (38)||9 (33)||1 (5)||163 (467)|
|10||Ruud van Nistelrooy||95 (150)||14 (14)||2 (6)||38 (47)||1 (2)||150 (219)|
|10||Paul Scholes||102 (466)||13 (44)||9 (21)||26 (130)||0 (15)||150 (676)|
Player with the most stakes
Note: only official competitions - the information in brackets stands for the games that were played as substitutes. Under Other Charity Shield, Super Cup, World Cup fall.
|#||Surname||league||FA Cup||League Cup||Europe||Others||total|
|1||Ryan Giggs||672 (116)||74 (12)||41 (6)||157 (23)||19 (3)||963 (160)|
|2||Bobby Charlton||606 (2)||78 (0)||24 (0)||45 (0)||5 (0)||758 (2)|
|3||Bill Foulkes||566 (3)||61 (0)||3 (0)||52 (0)||6 (0)||688 (3)|
|4th||Paul Scholes||428 (76)||41 (13)||19 (6)||120 (15)||14 (1)||622 (111)|
|5||Gary Neville||385 (19)||46 (3)||22 (1)||115 (8)||13 (2)||582 (33)|
|6th||Alex Stepney||433 (0)||44 (0)||35 (0)||23 (0)||4 (0)||539 (0)|
|7th||Tony Dunne||414 (0)||55 (1)||21 (0)||40 (0)||5 (0)||535 (1)|
|8th||Denis Irwin||368 (12)||43 (1)||31 (3)||75 (2)||12 (0)||529 (18)|
|9||Joe Spence||481 (0)||29 (0)||0 (0)||0 (0)||0 (0)||510 (0)|
|10||Arthur Albiston||379 (15)||36 (0)||40 (2)||27 (1)||3 (0)||485 (18)|
- Most championship wins in one season - 28, seasons: 1905/06, 1956/57, 1999/2000, 2006/07, 2008/09
- Fewest championship wins in one season - 6, seasons: 1892/93, 1893/94
- Most championship draws - 18, First Division, 1980/81
- The fewest draws in the championship - 2, First Division, 1893/94
- Most championship defeats in one season - 27, First Division, 1930/31
- Fewest championship defeats in one season - 3, Premier League, 1999/2000
- Most championship goals scored in one season - 103, First Division, 1956/57 and 1958/59
- Most championship goals scored in one season (Premier League) - 97, Premier, League, 1999/2000
- Fewest championship goals scored in one season - 36, First Division, 1893/94
- Most championship goals conceded in one season - 115, First Division, 1930/31
- Fewest championship goals conceded in one season - 22, Premier League, 2007/08
- Most championship points scored in a season (2-point rule) - 64 in 42 games, First Division, 1956/57
Fewest championship points scored in a season (2-point rule)
- 22 in 42 games, First Division, 1930-31
- 14 in 30 games, First Division, 1893/94
Most championship points scored in a season (3-point rule)
- 92 in 42 games, Premier League, 1993/94
- 91 in 38 games, Premier League, 1999/2000
- Fewest championship points scored in a season (3-point rule) - 48 in 38 games, First Division, 1989/90
- First competitive game - as Newton Heath versus Blackburn Olympic Reserves, Lancashire Cup, October 27, 1883 (2-7)
- First FA Cup game - first qualifying round against Fleetwood Rangers as Newton Heath, October 30, 1886 (2-2)
- First game in the Football Alliance - Newton Heath against Darwen, September 22, 1888 (4: 3)
- First game in the Football League - Newton Heath versus Sunderland Albion, September 21, 1889 (4-1)
- First game at Old Trafford - against Liverpool, 19 February 1910 (3: 4)
- First European Cup game - against Anderlecht in the trade fair cup, September 12, 1956 (0: 2)
- First League Cup game - first round against Exeter City, October 19, 1960 (1-1)
- Record victories
- Biggest championship win - 10-1 (at home against Wolverhampton Wanderers in the First Division, October 15, 1892)
- Biggest win in the FA Cup - 8-0 (in the home game against Yeovil Town, February 12, 1949)
- Biggest Premier League win - 9-0 (in home games against Ipswich Town, March 4, 1995)
- Biggest away win - 8-1 (v Nottingham Forest 6 February 1999)
- Biggest win in a European Cup game - 10: 0 (in the home game against Anderlecht, September 26, 1956)
- Record defeats
Biggest championship defeat - 7-0 in away games
- against Blackburn Rovers, First Division, April 10, 1926
- v Aston Villa, First Division, December 27, 1930
- against Wolverhampton Wanderers, Second Division, December 26, 1931
- Biggest home defeat in First Division - 7-1 (v Newcastle United, First Division, 10 September 1927)
- Biggest home defeat in the Premier League - 6-1 (v Manchester City, Premier League, 23 October 2011)
- Biggest loss in FA Cup - 7-1 (against Burnley, First Round, February 13, 1901)
- Biggest European defeat - 5-0 (v Sporting, March 18, 1964)
- Biggest championship defeat - 7-0 in away games
- Series of games won (championship only) - 14 (October 15, 1904 to January 3, 1905)
- Series of lost games (championship only) - 14 (April 26, 1930 to October 25, 1930)
- Longest draw series (championship only) - 6 (October 30, 1988 to November 27, 1988)
- Games without defeat
- Series of undefeated matches (all competitions) - 45 (December 26, 1998 to October 3, 1999)
- Series of undefeated games (championship only) - 29 (December 26, 1998 to September 25, 1999)
- Attendance records
- Biggest home crowd - 83,260 (against Arsenal on Main Road in First Division, January 17, 1948)
- Highest attendance for an away game - 135,000 (vs. Real Madrid, European Cup, April 11, 1957)
- Biggest crowd at Old Trafford - 76,098 (v Blackburn Rovers, March 31, 2007)
- Lowest league game attendance (post World War II) - 8456 (v Stoke City on Maine Road, First Division, February 5, 1947)
- Individual club records
- Youngest player used - David Gaskell, 16 years, 19 days (v Manchester City, Charity Shield, October 24, 1956)
- Oldest player used - Billy Meredith , 46 years old, 281 days (v Derby County, First Division, May 7, 1921)
- Oldest player used (after World War II) - Ryan Giggs , 40 years, 85 days (v Crystal Palace, Premier League, February 22, 2014)
- Record Runs Non-Stop - Steve Coppell , 206 ( Jan 15, 1977 to Nov 7, 1981)
- Most goals in one season (cross-competition) - 46, Denis Law (1963/64)
- Most championship goals in one season - 32, Dennis Viollet (1959/60)
- Most goals in a game - 6
- Fastest Goal - 15 seconds, Ryan Giggs (v Southampton, Premier League, November 18, 1995)
- Fastest hat trick - 4 minutes, Ernie Goldthorpe (v Notts County , Second Division, February 10, 1923)
- Most Hat Tricks - 18, Denis Law (November 3, 1962 to April 17, 1971)
Best player in Manchester United history
In 2011 the readers of the official club magazine Inside United and the users of the official homepage voted the greatest player in the club's history and came to the following conclusion:
- Ryan Giggs
- Eric Cantona
- George Best
- Bobby Charlton
- Cristiano Ronaldo
- Paul Scholes
- David Beckham
- Roy Keane
- Peter Schmeichel
- Wayne Rooney
Manchester United Reserves and Academy
Manchester has been known for years for an excellent job in the youth field. So big players like Ryan Giggs , Bobby Charlton , Bill Foulkes , Paul Scholes and Gary Neville got out of the youth system.
After Alex Ferguson's arrival in 1986, he immediately set about building long-term structures at United. To do this, he first modernized the club's youth work and hired a number of talent scouts . In the 1980s, for example, the Manchester United youth academy a.o. a. Players like Russell Beardsmore , Tony Gill , Deiniol Graham , Jules Maiorana , Lee Martin , Mark Robins , Lee Sharpe , David Wilson and Clayton Blackmore .
The so-called " Class of '92 " (class from 1992) is one of the best-known and most successful years from United's youth department . Its best-known representatives include David Beckham , Nicky Butt , Ryan Giggs , the brothers Gary and Phil Neville and Paul Scholes . In addition, players like Chris Casper , Terry Cooke , Simon Davies , Keith Gillespie , Colin McKee , Pat McGibbon , John O'Kane , Kevin Pilkinton , George Switzer , Ben Thornley and Wes Brown have become known.
Ferguson's intention when he took office was to lower the then high average age in the 1st team and to focus more on the youth. So he always tried to combine young and experienced players on the pitch. After Manchester United's defeat by Aston Villa on August 19, 1995, ex-Liverpool player and TV expert Alan Hansen made the often-quoted words "You won't win anything with kids." (German: "You won't win anything with children.") Despite this famous misjudgment by the Manchester United team, the scolded team won, including Gary Neville , Phil Neville , David Beckham , Paul Scholes and Nicky Butt - all 20 Years old or younger - stood, later on the double from the championship and the FA Cup and defeated Hansen's former club in the cup final with Liverpool FC .
In addition to various youth teams, there are the reserves , which would correspond to the second team in German football. This team accommodates those players who have outgrown the youth program and have not yet been promoted to the professional squad. However, the reserve team is also used to give players from the professional squad, who have been injured for a long time, game practice and thus slowly bring them back to the game. From summer 2008 to 2011 the team was coached by Ole Gunnar Solskjær and currently plays in the Premier Reserve League North. The championship has been won three times since the league was launched (2002, 2005 and 2006). The Reserves played all home games in Moss Lane in Altrincham until 2013, which has 6,000 seats. Previously you had to use either the Victoria Stadium from Northwich Victoria or the Ewen Fields from Hyde United.
The AJ Bell Stadium has been the new home of the Reserves since 2013 .
As of December 19, 2018. Only official games were considered.
(P, S, U, N = number of games / wins / draws / defeats; T + / T- = number of hits / goals against)
|James West||1900||September 28, 1903||113||46||20th||47||?||?|
|J. Ernest Mangnall||September 30, 1903||September 9, 1912||369||200||76||93||?||?|
|John Bentley||October 1912||December 1914||91||36||19th||36||?||?|
|Jack Robson||December 21, 1914||October 1921||121||38||36||47||?||?|
|John Chapman||November 1, 1921||October 7, 1926||220||86||58||76||?||?|
|Lal Hilditch||October 1926||April 1927||31||9||8th||14th||?||?|
|Herbert Bamlett||April 1927||April 1931||200||61||48||91||?||?|
|Walter Crickmer||April 1931||July 1932||49||19th||20th||10||?||?|
|Scott Duncan||August 1, 1932||November 1937||223||88||85||50||?||?|
|Walter Crickmer||November 1937||1945||108||45||29||34||?||?|
|Matt Busby||February 19, 1945||June 1969||1120||565||263||292||2286||1536|
|Wilf McGuinness||June 1969||December 29, 1970||91||33||34||24||?||?|
|Matt Busby||December 29, 1970||June 8th 1971||21st||11||3||7th||38||30th|
|Frank O'Farrell||June 9, 1971||December 19, 1972||82||30th||24||28||?||?|
|Tommy Docherty||December 30, 1972||4th July 1977||215||99||62||54||?||?|
|Dave Sexton||July 14, 1977||April 30, 1981||191||75||52||64||?||?|
|Ron Atkinson||June 1981||November 6, 1986||292||146||67||79||?||?|
|Alex Ferguson||November 6, 1986||30th of June 2013||1500||895||338||267||2769||1365|
|David Moyes||July, 1st 2013||April 22, 2014||51||27||9||15th||86||54|
|Ryan Giggs (interim)||April 22, 2014||June 30, 2014||4th||2||1||1||8th||3|
|Louis van Gaal||July 1, 2014||May 23, 2016||103||54||25th||24||158||98|
|José Mourinho||July 1, 2016||December 18, 2018||144||84||32||28||244||121|
|Ole Gunnar Solskjaer||19th December 2018|
In 1977 the department was founded under the name Manchester United Supporters Club Ladies . As part of the Three Counties League in 1979, the team was one of the first teams in the North West Women's Football League in 1989. In the same year, the name of the division was changed to Manchester United Ladies FC . In the 1998/99 season, the team played for the first time in the third-highest division. Before the start of the 2001/02 season, the women's team was finally fully integrated into the club. For financial reasons, however, it was decided at the beginning of the 2004/05 season to withdraw all women's teams. The decision, mainly due to the acquisition of Glazers, should help generate higher profits. Despite violent protests from fans, the decision remained final. Today the department works exclusively in the youth sector.
Following approval from the Football Association , there was a women's team at the club called Manchester United Women for the 2018-19 season . She entered the FA Women's Championship , which she won and can therefore play in the WSL from the 2019/20 season . The team is based in Broughton , Salford . The old training ground of the Red Devils , The Cliff , was restored there.
In the 1984/85 season United took control of the Vikings , a team playing in Warrington in the top national division "National Basketball League", and brought the team founded in Stockport back to Manchester. Under coach Joe Whelton they reached the end of second place in the league ahead of local rivals Manchester Giants, who were then united with United. The final game of the play-offs was won against the Kingston Kings . In the 1985/86 season they reached first place in the league at the end of the season, which was followed by a third place in 1987. Then, together with the best Scottish teams, the closed professional league British Basketball League was founded, in which United lost in the semi-finals of the play-offs to Portsmouth FC . However, the first season of the BBL was not very successful, after four of 15 teams from the league signed off at the end of the season. United also sold their team on, which subsequently continued to play in the BBL as Eagles and then again as Manchester Giants .
- Charbel Boujaoude: The Story of Green & Gold Newton Heath 1878-1902 . Empire Publications, Manchester 2010, ISBN 1-901746-57-7 .
- Jim White: Manchester United: The Biography . Sphere, London 2008, ISBN 978-1-84744-088-4 .
- Ross Biddiscombe: The Official Encyclopedia of Manchester United . Simon & Schuster, London 2011, ISBN 978-1-84737-918-4 .
- Alex Murphy, Andrew Endlar: The Official Illustrated History of Manchester United 1878–2012 . Simon & Schuster, London 2012, ISBN 978-1-4711-0262-2 .
- Charbel Boujaoude: The Story of Green & Gold Newton Heath 1878-1902 . Empire Publications, Manchester 2010, ISBN 1-901746-57-7 , pp. 4 .
- DELOITTE from January 2018
- Marcel Nasser: Manchester United 'most popular team in world' with 659 million fans. In: Guardian. May 29, 2012, accessed October 1, 2017 .
- History by Decade (1878–1899) ( Memento of the original from March 3, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- History of Manchester United 1900–1909 ( Memento of the original from March 3, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Premier League finances: the full club-by-club breakdown and verdict. In: The Guardian , May 1, 2014. Soccer's Manchester United move to Caymans could benefit Glazers in IPO. Reuters, July 12, 2012.
- Championship title for Barca, ManU and Inter
- Barcelona wins Champions League
- Ronaldo bid accepted ( Memento from June 14, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Owen joins United ( Memento from July 6, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Valencia replaces Ronaldo
- Chelsea wins English Supercup ( Memento of the original from August 12, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- David Moyes quits as Everton manager to take over at Manchester United
- David Moyes leaves United , April 22, 2014
- Moyes before the end, Manchester fans want Coach Klopp , April 21, 2014
- Giggs in temporary charge , accessed April 22, 2014
- Van Gaal named United manager
- United sign Angel Di Maria for record fee , August 26, 2014
- Juventus Turin: Paul Pogba joins Manchester United , August 9, 2016, accessed August 9, 2016
- Manchester United dismisses Mourinho , kicker.de, December 18, 2018, accessed on December 19, 2018.
- Solskjaer announced as full-time manager , manutd.com, March 28, 2019, accessed on March 28, 2019.
- Jörn Petersen: ManUnited back in the Champions League - Leicester's bitter conclusion. In: kicker online . Olympia-Verlag , July 26, 2020, accessed on August 4, 2020 .
- Christian Eichler: "Never again ManU", in: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung of May 21, 2008. See also Why you should call us by our correct name ( Memento of the original from January 6, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and not yet tested. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. on the United Lounge website .
- Historical Football Kits.
- Manchester United with a new sponsor
- Chevrolet signs seven year shirt deal beginning in 2014 on Manutd.com
- Manunited concludes record deal in jersey advertising on RAN.de.
- Barnes, Justyn; Bostock, Adam; Butler, Cliff; Ferguson, Jim; Meek, David; Middle, Andy; Pilgrim, sam; Taylor, Frank OBE; Tyrrell, Tom (2001) . The Official Manchester United Illustrated Encyclopedia (3rd ed.). London: Manchester United Books, p. 9
- Theguardian.com , The Guardian , November 25, 2012 Record income but record losses for Premier League , The Guardian , May 19, 2011
- Record champions in distress: Loans cost ManU very dearly. In: Handelsblatt , January 25, 2010
- Premier League finances: the full club-by-club breakdown and verdict. In: The Guardian , April 18, 2013
- Football club IPO: Billionaire Soros joins ManU. In: spiegel.de
- Premier League finances: the full club-by-club breakdown and verdict. In: The Guardian , April 29, 2015
- Premier League finances: the full club-by-club breakdown and verdict , Guardian article , June 6, 2018
- Establishment: Moston Brook High School ( Memento of the original from September 5, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- NWDA formally makes Compulsory Purchase Order North Manchester Business Park ( Memento of the original from September 6, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Red commemorative plaques in Manchester
- Manchester United sells naming rights to training grounds. In: sport.orf.at
- attendance in the highest English league since 1975/76. In: weltfussball.de
- Manchester United declare attendances far higher than police figures. In: The Guardian , April 12, 2013
- Manchester United - Development of the number of visitors. In: transfermarkt.de . Transfermarkt GmbH & Co. KG, accessed on August 4, 2020 .
- First Team , manutd.com (English)
- Wayne Rooney on the official Manchester United statistics pages, accessed November 24, 2016
- Ryan Giggs on the official Manchester United statistics pages, accessed May 14, 2013
- Giggs: United's greatest. In: manutd.com
- Ryan Giggs voted best player in Manchester United history. In: goal.com
- Sir Alex Ferguson: The early years. In: givemesport.com. GiveMeSport, May 8, 2013, accessed January 26, 2017 .
- Reading sample issue 1/2014 - Harvard Business Manager . In: Harvard Business Manager . ( harvardbusinessmanager.de [accessed on January 26, 2017]).
- Benjamin Turner, Gabe Turner: The Class of 92 November 29, 2013, accessed January 26, 2017 .
- Manchester United movie: Class reunion with the "lacquer monkey" Beckham. In: Spiegel Online. Retrieved January 26, 2017 .
- Hansen's infamous remark: 'You can't win anything with kids'. In: Daily Mail Online. Retrieved January 26, 2017 .
- Key opener at new venue. ( Memento of the original from February 27, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: manutd.com , August 19, 2013 (English).
- David Moyes on stretfordend.co.uk, accessed May 27, 2016
- Lous van Gaal on stretfordend.co.uk, accessed May 27, 2016
- José Mourinho on stretfordend.co.uk, accessed December 19, 2018
- United abandons women's football ( Memento of the original from September 29, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- manutd.com: We're going up! United Women clinch promotion
- manutd.com: Manchester United to join FA Women's Championship Article from May 28, 2018 (English)
- Basketball England: Senior Men - Playoff. (No longer available online.) Basketball England , archived from the original on August 13, 2013 ; accessed on May 30, 2013 (English, overview of finals). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Basketball England: Senior Men - League. (No longer available online.) Basketball England , archived from the original on April 2, 2013 ; accessed on May 30, 2013 (English, season overview). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.