Paris Saint-Germain

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Paris Saint-Germain
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Basic data
Surname Paris Saint-Germain Football Club
Seat Saint-Germain-en-Laye , France
founding August 12, 1970
Colours blue, red and white
owner Qatar Sports Investments
president Nasser Al-Khelaifi
First soccer team
Head coach Thomas Tuchel
Venue Parc des Princes
Places 47,929
league Ligue 1
2019/20 1st place (quotient regulation)

The Paris Saint-Germain Football Club , generally known in German-speaking countries as Paris Saint-Germain or just PSG , sometimes also run as Paris SG , is a French football club from the Paris suburb of Saint-Germain-en-Laye .

PSG plays its home games in the Prinzenparkstadion (Parc des Princes) . The club colors are blue and red. The club has been French champions 9 times , French cup winners 13 times and, in 1996, European cup winners' cups . This makes PSG one of the most successful football clubs in France.


The club was officially founded on August 12, 1970 on the initiative of Parisian personalities and emerged from the suburban club Stade Saint-Germain from Saint-Germain-en-Laye , which had been founded in 1904. This had qualified for promotion to the second division in 1969/70 . PSG took this place and in 1970/71 even achieved immediate promotion to the top division, Division 1 (D1 for short), which has been referred to as Ligue 1 since 2002 . In 1972, however, PSG was transferred to the third-tier national team because of the violation of a requirement of the FFF football association , according to which professional clubs also had to have a substructure of amateur and youth teams , with the previous league team switching to Paris FC , which was also newly founded a few years earlier . This was allowed to take Saint-Germains place in Division 1 in the 1972/73 season . PSG became Stade Saint-Germain again in the third division, but after being promoted to Division 2 in 1973, they renamed themselves to Paris Saint-Germain FC.

In the same year, fashion designer Daniel Hechter joined Saint-Germain as a patron ; from 1974 to 1978 he was president. With the French football legend Just Fontaine as coach, the second promotion in a row took place and thus already after the season 1973/74 the return to the D1. Oddly enough, Paris FC was relegated from D1 in the same season. Since then, PSG have played in the top division without interruption. In 1974 the club also moved to the Prinzenparkstadion . This new club replaced the two traditional Parisian clubs Racing Club and Red Star in the top French division as the capital club.

At the beginning of the 1980s, when he won the French soccer cup twice, the first major successes were achieved, which were crowned by the championship title of the 1985/86 season . Important players in this championship team were midfielder Safet Sušić , striker Dominique Rocheteau and captain Luis Fernández , who years later took over the club twice as coach.

The 1990s were even more successful for the capital city club; The cup was won three more times, the league again in the 1993/94 season . Part of this championship team was the Liberian George Weah , who was the top scorer of the Champions League in the following season . Weah was also named FIFA World Player of the Year and Europe's Footballer of the Year in 1995 ; but he moved to AC Milan in the summer of the same year .

However, PSG celebrated the greatest success in the 1995/96 season when the club won the Austrian club SK Rapid Wien in the final of the European Cup Winners' Cup with players like Bernard Lama , Paul Le Guen , Youri Djorkaeff , Alain Roche , Vincent Guérin and Raí thanks to one goal from Bruno N'Gotty could defeat 0: at 1. The following year PSG reached the final of this competition again, but this time had to bow to FC Barcelona with 0-1.

PSG could not build on such successes in the first decade of the new millennium, although the club invested large sums in players like Nicolas Anelka , Stéphane Dalmat or Pauleta or acquired talents like Ronaldinho or Gabriel Heinze relatively cheaply. Although the cup was won three times again, PSG was only able to convince in the league at the beginning of the new millennium, while after that they lost contact with the top teams and were mostly in the middle of the table. The low point was the 2007/08 season , when the club narrowly escaped relegation. The 2010/11 season ended in fourth place, the best placement for the club in several years. In the Europa League , the team was eliminated in the round of 16 against Benfica Lisbon .

In the 2011/12 season he was runner-up, the best placement in over ten years, and finally the third championship title twelve months later . In 2013 the club gave itself a new logo, which in some cases met with fierce criticism from its followers - among other things because "Saint-Germain" is written much smaller than "Paris" and the year it was founded is no longer mentioned.

In the two following seasons PSG defended the championship title. In addition, in the 2014/15 season , the players made it onto the winners' lists of all four national competitions (league, state and league cup, and at the start of the season - and again before the start of the 2015/16 season - the Trophée des Champions , i.e. the Supercup) to be entered; PSG, under coach Laurent Blanc, was the first French club to win the "Quadruplé". All four titles were defended in the 2015/16 season , but in 2016/17 PSG were only runner-up behind AS Monaco for the first time in five years. As a result, the club signed the Brazilian striker Neymar from FC Barcelona for 222 million euros (making him the most expensive player of all time) and the exceptional French talent Kylian Mbappé for 180 million euros from league rivals and reigning champions Monaco in August 2017 . After the 2015/16 season, coach Laurent Blanc and PSG separated after 3 years and 11 titles, but could not win the Champions League title despite winning the four national French titles.

For the 2016/17 season, the Spaniard and three-time UEFA Europa League winner of Sevilla FC , Unai Emery, became PSG's new head coach. In the 2017/18 season they set a new goal record of 25 goals in the Champions League group stage, but were eliminated in the round of 16 against eventual winner Real Madrid . At the national level, meanwhile, the seventh championship title , the 12th cup and the eighth league cup and supercup have been won. After the 2017/18 season, PSG and Unai Emery split after 2 years after failing to win the Champions League title and only winning all four national French titles.

For the 2018/19 season, the German Thomas Tuchel became the new head coach of Paris Saint-Germain and thus the first German coach in the history of the club. With the 2-1 win against OSC Lille on matchday 12 of the 2018/19 season, the club also set a new start record for a European league: 12 wins in the first 12 games of the season. On matchday 15, the streak of 14 wins in a row broke after a 2-2 win at Girondins Bordeaux . In the end, Thomas Tuchel and PSG won the French Supercup 2018 and the French championship 2019, the eighth championship of the club. In the Coupe de France they failed in the final against Stade Rennes on penalties, in the Coupe de la Ligue in the quarter-finals to EA Guingamp . In the Champions League it was already over against Manchester United in the round of 16.

In the 2019/20 season, PSG won the Coupe de France and the Coupe de la Ligue, which were held for the time being for the last time. After Ligue 1 was canceled on April 30, 2020 due to the corona pandemic , the point quotient was chosen as the decisive criterion. PSG were champions again and won their seventh national championship in the last eight years. In August 2020 they moved into the final of the UEFA Champions League for the first time at the final tournament in Lisbon , which however was lost 1-0 to FC Bayern Munich on 23 August 2020 .


President Nasser Al-Khelaifi in
Doha in January 2013

In 2006, the US company Colony Capital acquired the association from the French television channel Canal + , which had been owned by PSG since 1991. At the time of the change of ownership, PSG's debts had grown to 240 million euros. In May 2011 Colony Capital sold 70% of its shares for about 30 million euros to the Qatari investor group Qatar Sports Investments (QSI); a further 20 million euros were raised to cover debts. A year later, QSI invested another 108 million euros in the club. In 2012 QSI took over the remaining 30% shares from Colony Capital. The newly created position of a super manager (a kind of sports director based on the English model) was filled by the new owner of the club in 2011 with Leonardo , who had played for PSG in the mid-1990s; In 2013 he resigned due to a one-year suspension.

Since the takeover by QSI , Paris has spent around 360 million euros on the transfer of new players, while only around 20.5 million (as of August 2013) were taken in through sales. So were u. a. Kevin Gameiro for 11 million and Javier Pastore for 42 million euros. Pastore was the most expensive signing and also the most expensive signing in Ligue 1. Despite these notable gains succeeded the favorite club in the 2011-12 season behind Montpellier , although coach only the runner- Antoine Kombouare as "winter champions" by Carlo Ancelotti replaced and in January 2012 other top-class players ( Maxwell , Alex , Thiago Motta ) were signed. In the following years PSG strengthened the squad and invested around 130 million euros before and during the 2012/13 season . a. in the commitment of Zlatan Ibrahimović , which ultimately paid off with the first championship win in 19 years. Before the 2013/14 season , around 111 million euros were again invested in new players, including Edinson Cavani for around 65 million euros, the most expensive new addition in league history.

With an annual turnover of 80 million euros in 2012, PSG was behind Olympique Marseille (150 million) and Olympique Lyon (132 million) in France . In 2012 the club made an operating loss of around 92 million euros; at the same time it was announced that it had signed a sponsorship contract with the QTA (Qatar's Tourism Authority), which should bring the association around 600 million euros by 2016. Critics alleged that QSI was circumventing UEFA's financial fair play requirement and pointed to the disproportionate nature of this sponsorship deal; clubs such as Real Madrid , FC Barcelona or Manchester United generate only around 10 percent of this amount with their best sponsorship deals. In 2012/13 the club's budget was 300 million euros, more than twice as much as that of Olympique Lyon. At the same time, Ibrahimović (15 million annually), Thiago Silva (9.6 million) and Lavezzi (9.4 million) were the three best-paid players in France under contract with PSG.

President Nasser Al-Khelaifi (left) with Neymar Jr. 2017 in the Prinzenparkstadion

On August 4, 2017, the Brazilian Neymar Jr. was officially introduced as a new addition. The fixed transfer fee of 222 million euros to his old club, FC Barcelona , made Neymar the most expensive player in football history to date. By signing Kylian Mbappé for 180 million euros in the same month, the two most expensive players of all time are currently playing for PSG.

Club crest history

First team

Current squad 2020/21

No. Nat. Surname Date of birth in the team since Contract until
01 Costa RicaCosta Rica Keylor Navas Dec 15, 1986 2019 2023
16 SpainSpain Sergio Rico 0Sep 1 1993 2019 8/2020
30th PolandPoland Marcin Bułka 0Oct. 4, 1999 2019 2021
40 FranceFrance Garissone Innocent Apr 16, 2000 2023
02 BrazilBrazil Thiago Silva (C)Captain of the crew 22 Sep 1984 2012 8/2020
03 FranceFrance Presnel Kimpembe Aug 13, 1995 2005 2024
04th GermanyGermany Thilo Kehrer 21 Sep 1996 2018 2023
05 BrazilBrazil Marquinhos May 14, 1994 2013 2024
14th SpainSpain Juan Bernat 01st Mar 1993 2018 2021
20th FranceFrance Layvin Kurzawa 04th Sep 1992 2015 2024
22nd FranceFrance Abdou Diallo 0May 4, 1996 2019 2024
25th NetherlandsNetherlands Mitchel Bakker June 20, 2000 2019 2023
31 FranceFrance Colin Dagba 0Sep 9 1998 2016 2024
36 FranceFrance Loïc Mbe Soh June 13, 2001 2013 2021
midfield player
06th ItalyItaly Marco Verratti 0Nov 5, 1992 2012 2024
08th ArgentinaArgentina Leandro Paredes June 29, 1994 2019 2023
11 ArgentinaArgentina Ángel Di María Feb. 14, 1988 2015 2021
19th SpainSpain Pablo Sarabia May 11, 1992 2019 2024
21st SpainSpain Other Herrera Aug 14, 1989 2019 2024
23 GermanyGermany Julian Draxler Sep 20 1993 2017 2021
27 SenegalSenegal Idrissa Gueye 26 Sep 1989 2019 2023
07th FranceFrance Kylian Mbappé Dec 20, 1998 2017 2022
10 BrazilBrazil Neymar 0Feb 5, 1992 2017 2022
17th CameroonCameroon Eric Maxim Choupo-Moting 23 Mar 1989 2018 8/2020
18th ArgentinaArgentina Mauro Icardi 19 Feb 1993 2019 2024
As of August 25, 2020

Squad changes 2020/21

time player Transferring club
time player Receiving club
Summer 2020 Adil Aouchiche AS Saint-Etienne
Edinson Cavani unknown
Thomas Meunier Borussia Dortmund
Tanguy Nianzou FC Bayern Munich

Coaching staff

Thomas Tuchel in 2019, head coach since 2018
nationality Surname function
Coaching staff
GermanyGermany Thomas Tuchel Head coach
HungaryHungary Zsolt Lőw Assistant coach
GermanyGermany Arno Michels Assistant coach
FranceFrance Zoumana Camara Assistant coach
GermanyGermany Rainer Schrey Assistant coach
ItalyItaly Gianluca Spinelli Goalkeeping coach




Former players and coaches (selection)


Coach history

No. Term of office Trainer
1 1970-1972 FranceFrance Pierre Phelipon
2 1972-1973 FranceFrance Robert Vicot
3 1973-1976 FranceFrance Just Fontaine
4th 1976-1977 Yugoslavia Socialist Federal RepublicYugoslavia Velibor Vasović
5 1977 Yugoslavia Socialist Federal RepublicYugoslavia Ilija Pantelić , Pierre AlonzoFranceFrance 
6th 1977-1988 FranceFrance Jean-Michel Larqué
7th 1978 FranceFrance Pierre Alonzo
8th 1978-1979 Yugoslavia Socialist Federal RepublicYugoslavia Velibor Vasović
9 1979-1983 FranceFrance Georges Peyroche
10 1983-1984 FranceFrance Lucien Leduc
11 1984-1985 FranceFrance Georges Peyroche
12 1985 FranceFrance Christian Coste
13 1985-1987 FranceFrance Gerard Houllier
14th 1987-1988 FranceFrance Erick Mombaerts
15th 1988 FranceFrance Gérard Houllier , Erick MombaertsFranceFrance 
16 1988-1990 Yugoslavia Socialist Federal RepublicYugoslavia Tomislav Ivić
17th 1990-1991 FranceFrance Henri Michel
No. Term of office Trainer
18th 1991-1994 PortugalPortugal Artur Jorge
19th 1994-1996 FranceFrance Luis Fernández
20th 1996-1998 BrazilBrazil Ricardo Gomes , Joël BatsFranceFrance 
21st 1998 FranceFrance Alain Giresse
22nd 1998-1999 PortugalPortugal Artur Jorge
23 1999-2000 FranceFrance Philippe Bergeroo
24 2000-2003 FranceFrance Luis Fernández
25th 2003-2005 Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and Herzegovina Vahid Halilhodžić
26th 2005 FranceFrance Laurent Fournier
27 2005-2007 FranceFrance Guy Lacombe
28 2007-2009 FranceFrance Paul Le Guen
29 2009-2011 FranceFrance Antoine Kombouaré
30th 2011-2013 ItalyItaly Carlo Ancelotti
31 2013-2016 FranceFrance Laurent Blanc
32 2016-2018 SpainSpain Unai Emery
33 since 2018 GermanyGermany Thomas Tuchel

Record player

Edinson Cavani in September 2013

(Status: December 12, 2019; all competitive games and goals are listed. Players with names in bold are currently active for the club)

1 FranceFrance Jean-Marc Pilorget 1975-1987
2 FranceFrance Sylvain Armand 2004-2013 380
3 Yugoslavia Socialist Federal RepublicYugoslavia Safet Sušić 1982-1991 344
FranceFrance Paul Le Guen 1991-1998
5 FranceFrance Bernard Lama 1992-1997
6th AlgeriaAlgeria Mustapha Dahleb 1974-1984 310
7th BrazilBrazil Thiago Silva since 2012 300
8th FranceFrance Blaise Matuidi 2011-2017 295
ItalyItaly Marco Verratti since 2012
10 FranceFrance Eric Renaut 1972-1975
UruguayUruguay Edinson Cavani since 2013
1 UruguayUruguay Edinson Cavani since 2013 196
2 SwedenSweden Zlatan Ibrahimović 2012-2016 156
3 PortugalPortugal Pauleta 2003-2008 109
4th FranceFrance Dominique Rocheteau 1980-1987 100
5 AlgeriaAlgeria Mustapha Dahleb 1974-1984 98
6th Congo RepublicRepublic of the Congo François M'Pelé 1973-1979 95
7th Yugoslavia Socialist Federal RepublicYugoslavia Safet Sušić 1982-1991 85
8th ArgentinaArgentina Ángel Di María since 2015 78
9 FranceFrance Kylian Mbappé since 2017 73
10 BrazilBrazil Raí 1993-1998 72

European Cup history

→ see: Paris Saint-Germain / European Cup Statistics


PSG fans in the Prinzenparkstadion

As with other clubs, PSG has a number of fan groups, including some ultra and hooligan groups. One of the largest and best known is "Kop K", which supports its team at home games from the stadium block of the same name.

On the evening of November 23, 2006, following the UEFA Cup match against Hapoel Tel Aviv, there was a serious incident: after their club lost 4-2, up to 150 violent hooligans chased a single Tel Aviv fan with an Israeli one Flag . Thereupon a black policeman in plain clothes came to the rescue, who fled with the Israeli to the top floor of a fast food restaurant and was massively insulted, threatened and beaten there. After the use of tear gas had proven to be pointless, the officer, who had repeatedly identified himself as such, took up arms and shot a member of the right-wing extremist fan group "Boulogne Boys". Another PSG supporter was seriously injured and five were arrested shortly afterwards.

A day later, there was a demonstration in front of the Parc des Princes, in which the immediate dissolution of the club, whose fans had often been noticed by extremely violent behavior, was demanded.

On March 29, 2008, the “Boulogne Boys” presented a banner at the league cup final against RC Lens with the inscription “Pédophiles, chômeurs, consanguins: bienvenue chez les Ch'tis” (German: “Pedophiles, unemployed, incest-begotten: Welcome in the Northern French "), the latter as an allusion to the film" Bienvenue chez les Ch'tis ", which was very popular that year . As a result, the group was banned by the Ministry of the Interior and PSG excluded from the 2008/09 League Cup. However, the association was able to successfully defend itself legally against the exclusion. In the 2009/10 season there were repeated violent clashes between two PSG fan groups, who are based on the one hand at the tribune Boulogne and on the other hand at the tribune Auteuil in the stadium and who at least for the most part also differ in their place of residence and social affiliation: the former are rather residents of the city of Paris and the more affluent western suburbs, the latter are more likely to be attributed to the northern and eastern banlieue . Another fatality occurred in these clashes. This incident led to the ban on the groups “Supras Auteuil”, “Authentiks” and “La Grinta”.

In the 2011/2012 season, the new club president Robin Leproux took drastic security measures under the catchphrase “Tous PSG” in order to get the violence problem in the stadium under control and to improve the image of PSG. All fan groups were dissolved and their members were no longer allowed to sit in the same blocks, which was achieved by assigning a different seat to each season ticket holder for each game. In order to attract new audience groups, tickets were offered free of charge for women and half price for young people under the age of 16. These measures, which were very unpopular among the supporters, were overall successful. However, they did not stop a number of PSG fans in January 2013 from again uttering discriminatory slogans against the northern French in the game against OSC Lille , which led to an investigation by the League Association.

At the end of September 2016 there was a meeting between club president Nasser Al-Khelaifi and police prefect Michel Cadot. It was subsequently announced that the police would allow PSG organized ultras to return. Long negotiations between club representatives and the new fan association “Collectif Ultras Paris” were decisive for this. The club even announced that it would set up a mood block in the Virage Auteuil fan curve in the following home game against Girondins Bordeaux , for which season tickets could also be purchased. At the same time, PSG made it clear that this area is under special observation and that it expressly reserves the right to cancel the privilege in the event of further violations.

Women's soccer

The PSG women before a league game against Juvisy FCF in December 2012

The PSG also has a women's football division , which after winning the second division championship in 2001 played predominantly in the top group of Division 1 Féminine and won a major national title for the first time in 2010, namely the national cup  - with which the women gave the club a double , as few Weeks earlier, the men's team also won the French Cup. The women had already reached the final in 2008, but lost it at the time as well as in 2014.

For the 2012/13 season, PSG also invested heavily in women. The new coach was Farid Benstiti , former successful coach of the women's Olympique Lyons ; With Karima Benameur , the Costa Rican Shirley Cruz Traña (from Lyon), Tobin Heath and Lindsey Horan from the USA, the two Germans Annike Krahn and Linda Bresonik and the Swede Kosovare Asllani , the Parisian women gained international experience. At EUR 4.5 million, PSG also had by far the highest seasonal budget in the first French women's football league. This “purchasing policy” continued before the 2013/14 season - PSG qualified for the European championship competition due to second place in the previous season  - when PSG included the current national players Marie-Laure Delie and Laura Georges , plus Léa Declercq and Ghoutia Karchouni, however, also signed two talented A-youths (2012 and U-17 world and runner-up European champions respectively ) who made six and seven league appearances respectively.

After the renewed runner-up, at which PSG at least managed to bring Lyon its first league defeat after almost four years, the club continued its purchasing policy and signed Caroline Seger from Sweden and Fatmire Alushi , Josephine Henning and Ann-Katrin Berger from Germany for 2014/15 . This season, the capital city women were indeed turn only League Second, but made it for the first time at European level under the two best female machinations of the continent - thanks a success in the second round against domestic rivals Lyon and the switching off of defending champions VfL Wolfsburg . In the final, however, they lost 1: 2 to 1. FFC Frankfurt .

For the 2015/16 season, PSG had strengthened themselves with the two Brazilian internationals Cristiane and Érika as well as with Anja Mittag , but were again only French runners-up. In the 2016/17 season, the club's women reached both the national and European cup finals under their new coach Patrice Lair . In both finals, which were played almost two weeks apart, they were defeated by Olympique Lyon.


The supporters of PSG and Olympique Marseille have a young, but all the more intense rivalry, which is not only about sporting success, but also about the two largest and most influential cities in France with the most supporters. Historical, cultural and social aspects also play a role. Since the Derby de France regularly leads to serious riots, clashes between the two clubs are considered risk games .


The owner Qatar Sports Investments also operates e-sports sub-class. The teams compete in the games Dota 2 , Rocket League and FIFA .


  • Thierry Berthou / Collectif: Dictionnaire historique des clubs de football français. Pages de Foot, Créteil 1999 - Volume 1 (A-Mo) ISBN 2-913146-01-5 , Volume 2 (Mu-W) ISBN 2-913146-02-3 .

Web links

Commons : Paris Saint-Germain  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. The club has been registered with the French Football Association FFF since May 30, 1970 under its current name.
  2. Its founding date, June 21, 1904, is occasionally taken in France as the actual founding date of PSG, for example by Berthou (see literature).
  3. That is why 1973 occasionally appears as the year the association was founded. On this subject, see also France Football of February 2, 2010, p. 27, in the cover story “PSG - 40 bougies, 40 éclats”.
  4. ^ Berthou / Collectif, pp. 304, 327f. and 338
  5. Logo see here
  6. France Football, June 11, 2013, p. 12
  7. ^ Coupe de France: le PSG bat Auxerre (1-0) et s'offre le quadruplé. In: L'Équipe , May 30, 2015 (French).
  8. ^ Neymar: Paris St-Germain sign Barcelona forward for world record 222m euros. In: August 3, 2017, accessed January 29, 2019 .
  9. a b Paris Saint-Germain sign 'great talent' Kylian Mbappé on initial loan. In: The Guardian. August 31, 2017, accessed January 29, 2019 .
  10. Champions League: PSG set goal record, Barça and Chelsea continue . In: Spiegel Online . November 22, 2017 ( [accessed November 23, 2017]).
  11. PSG sets new European record on, November 3, 2018
  12. Paris Saint-Germain only plays a draw in Bordeaux ,, December 2, 2018
  13. LFP consensus in Ligue 1 & Ligue 2: PSG champions, Amiens and Toulouse relegate. Accessed April 30, 2020 .
  14. ^ Tanja Kuchenbecker: Desperately looking for new donors. In: Handelsblatt .
  15. Qataris get on at Paris Saint-Germain. In: kicker , May 31, 2011.
  16. PSG sports director Leonardo resigns. In: Spiegel Online , July 10, 2013.
  17. Saint-Germain: Success has its price
  18. ^ Paris St. Germain: Eleven million for Lorients Kevin Gameiro , from June 12, 2011
  19. PSG makes pastore deal perfect , from August 6, 2011
  20. Simon Fehr: Perfect: Pastore is France's record transfer. Football transfers, July 31, 2011, accessed November 27, 2012 .
  21. Ancelotti takes over PSG , of December 30, 2011
  22. PSG sign national player Motta , from January 31, 2012
  23. Record spending thanks to Monaco and Paris
  24. to
  25. SG
  26. France Football of July 31, 2012, p. 6, and France Football of March 19, 2013, pp. 4-18; the budget information is partly based on notifications from the clubs, and partly also calculations by the FF editorial team.
  27. ^ Paris Saint-Neymar. In: August 4, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017 .
  28. [1] ,
  29. Effectif , (players added with bets).
  30. Tuchel and PSG win national triple in France. August 1, 2020, accessed August 1, 2020 .
  33. Kim Rahir: Hooligan drama in Paris: "These are savages, these are criminals". In: . November 24, 2006, accessed December 11, 2019 .
  34. Details on these disputes in France Football of March 23, 2010, pp. 32–35.
  35. see the article from January 29, 2013 at
  36. Ultras are allowed to return to Paris SG. In: September 30, 2016, accessed September 30, 2016 .
  37. France Football, September 11, 2012, p. 14
  38. see the article from July 2, 2013 at
  39. according to the article " Erika and Cristiane are Parisians " from August 20, 2015 at