A patron [ mɛt͜seːn ] (also patronage , female patron or patroness ) is a person who supports an institution municipal entity or person with money or monetary funds in the implementation of a project, without a direct return to demand. The name patron is derived from the Etruscan and Roman Gaius Cilnius Maecenas , who promoted poets like Virgil , Properz and Horace in the Augustan era .
Definition of terms
Patrons can be sponsors of art or, for example, university graduates who support science by appearing as patrons to their former university. Many universities have an alumni association to promote this form of patronage.
The work of patrons is purely voluntary, so it can be canceled at any time without giving reasons.
An important function of patronage is, among other things, the promotion of suitable projects of social importance.
To describe state or public funding (e.g. composition commissions from public broadcasting) as patronage is a mistake insofar as the mandate of these institutions is to promote the development of art.
In 2010, the two well-known multi-billionaires Bill Gates and Warren Buffett started the campaign The Giving Pledge (English for The promise to give something ). It is an attempt to “get wealthy families to think about how they can use their wealth wisely.” By early August they had already convinced 40 billionaires to donate at least half of their wealth to charity. Buffett also announced that after his death he would leave 99 percent of his fortune for charity.
- Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn (1545-1617)
- Johann Philipp von Greiffenclau zu Vollraths (1652–1719)
- Moritz Casimir I of Bentheim-Tecklenburg (1701–1768)
- Friedrich Metzler (1749-1825)
- Sophie von Oranien-Nassau (1824–1897), also known as Grand Duchess Sophie of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach
- Mathilde von Rothschild (1832-1924)
- Charles Lazarus Hallgarten (1838–1908)
- Max Jüdel (1845-1910)
- Emil Possehl (1850-1919)
- Alfred Beit (1853-1906)
- Karl Ernst Osthaus (1874–1921)
- Richard Merton (1881-1960)
- Ernst Emil Jung (1896–1976)
- Werner Otto (1909–2011)
- Paul Sacher (1906-1999)
- Henri Nannen (1913–1996)
- Erich Marx (* 1921)
- Reinhard Mohn (1921-2009)
- Otto Beisheim (1924-2013)
- Hannelore Greve (* 1926)
- Udo van Meeteren (* 1926)
- Irene Ludwig (1927-2010)
- Friedrich Wilhelm Schnitzler (1928–2011)
- Jean Loering (1934-2005)
- Reinhold Würth (* 1935)
- Hansjörg Wyss (* 1935)
- Hartwig Piepenbrock (1937–2013)
- Manfred Lautenschläger (* 1938)
- Arend Oetker (* 1939)
- Dieter Schwarz (* 1939)
- Dietmar Hopp (* 1940)
- Klaus Tschira (1940-2015)
- Heidi Horten (* 1941)
- Hans Wall (1942–2019)
- Friedrich von Metzler (* 1943)
- Erich Lejeune (* 1944)
- Egidio Marzona (* 1944)
- Hasso Plattner (* 1944)
- Caroline von Faber-Castell (* 1961)
- Abdol-Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma (1857-1939)
- Florence Foster Jenkins (1868-1944)
- Charles T Munger (* 1924)
- Warren Buffett (born 1930)
- Michael Bloomberg (born 1942)
- George Lucas (* 1944)
- Bill Gates (* 1955), see Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
- Jack Ma (born 1964)
- Markus Persson (* 1979)
- Mark Zuckerberg (* 1984)
- Joachim Bumke : Patrons in the Middle Ages. The patrons and patrons of court literature in Germany 1150–1300. Beck, Munich 1979, ISBN 3-406-04871-4 .
- Peter Hirschfeld: Patrons. The role of the client in art (= Art Studies. Vol. 40, ). Deutscher Kunstverlag, Berlin et al. 1968.
- Francis Haskell : painter and client. Art and Society in the Italian Baroque. With an afterword by Werner Busch . DuMont, Cologne 1996, ISBN 3-7701-3795-7 .
- Nikolaus Turner: In the name of Maecenas for art. Art and culture promotion through foundations. In: the scales. Journal of Grünenthal GmbH , Volume 35, Aachen 1996, number 3 (pp. 89-133: Foundations ), pp. 111-118.
- 40 US billionaires want to donate half of their wealth. In: N24.de . August 5, 2010. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
- Stefan Kummer : Architecture and fine arts from the beginnings of the Renaissance to the end of the Baroque. In: Ulrich Wagner (Hrsg.): History of the city of Würzburg. 4 volumes; Volume 2: From the Peasants' War in 1525 to the transition to the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1814. Theiss, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-8062-1477-8 , pp. 576–678 and 942–952, here: pp. 628–647 ( Die Greiffenclau- Time ).