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Wind orchestra in Eindhoven
Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra

An orchestra ( ancient Greek ὀρχήστρα Orchestra , Dance Floor ', d. H. A semicircular space in front of the stage of a Greek theater on which a choir danced) is a large occupied instrumental ensemble , in which at least some votes more than once ( "chorisch") are occupied. In the field of classical music, a distinction is made between the large symphony orchestra and the smaller chamber orchestra . There are also orchestras that only consist of musical instruments of a certain genre, e.g. B. Wind orchestra , string orchestra , plucked orchestra, Accordion orchestras, and certain types of ensembles such as Indonesia's gamelan . Jazz orchestras and similar dance and light music formations are usually referred to as big bands .

Symphony orchestra

Symphony orchestra: typical line-up of individual parts, American line-up
A symphony orchestra tunes in to the note a before a concert

The symphony orchestra (alternative spelling: symphony orchestra) was formed in the middle of the 18th century, for example through the Mannheim school . Today it is the usual body for the reproduction of orchestral works from around the second half of the 18th century.

The main groups in the classical orchestra are:

  • String instruments
  • Woodwinds
  • Brass
  • Percussion and other instruments (such as harps, piano etc.)

The strings, whose voices are multiple (e.g. 16 first violins, 14 second violins, 12 violas, 10 cellos, 8 double basses) form the center of the action. In contrast to the rest of the instrument groups, which are individually positioned, they share a music stand with two players.

In general, the composition of the orchestra changed steadily over the various musical epochs. Thus the orchestra grew from the Baroque era ( Concerto grosso ) to the late Romantic period ( Gustav Mahler ) and modern times. In the course of the departure from the figured bass practice of the Baroque era, the harpsichord and instruments such as theorbo and recorder ( Brandenburg concerts ) disappeared . The natural trumpet and the natural horn were followed by the respective valve instruments from the second half of the 19th century . The general line-up of brass and woodwinds was constantly enlarged and expanded to include new instruments (such as tuba and bass clarinet) up to the late Romantic period. While two horns were the standard in Viennese classical music, the works of Richard Wagner or Richard Strauss often require 6 or 8; Even double wood was often no longer enough for romantic composers. In order to compensate for this enlarged wind corpus, the string apparatus was significantly increased as a result. For example, in his voluminously orchestrated Gurre songs , Arnold Schönberg demands 80 strings alone in order to withstand the enormous number of wind instruments (10 horns, 7 trumpets and 7 trombones).

From the late 19th, but especially in the later 20th century, partly due to globalization, numerous completely new instruments of ethnic origin were discovered at that time. This also includes an immense variety of percussion instruments . In addition, many well-known instruments, such as the saxophone or the clarinet , were expanded to include new vocal registers , which were rarely used in the orchestra, not least because of their sometimes almost grotesque external proportions.

Especially after the Second World War, the orchestra was joined by other new types of instruments, which were initially more familiar from the genres that were emerging at the time, such as rock and pop , such as drums and, last but not least, numerous electronic sound generators such as synthesizers , electric bass and the Electric guitar , the u. a. also found their place in some orchestral works of serial and aleatoric music of this time.

Another outstanding extreme example from the early 20th century to the present day with the largest orchestral corpus ever used is Havergal Brian's 1st symphony (the so-called Gothic ), composed between 1919 and 1927 , which requires a 200-person orchestra and 500 vocal parts.

The following is a list of instruments of a possible late romantic or modern orchestra, arranged according to their arrangement in the score :

In addition, there can be other instruments, but these are rarely permanently occupied in German professional orchestras. This includes

An added choir and / or solo vocal parts are also required in some symphonic compositions. Similar to the orchestra itself, however, it can vary enormously in shape and size. The choir is usually not included in the definition of “orchestra” and is rather treated and named separately (for example, one usually speaks of a piece for orchestra and choir ). For more see the article choir .

Since the later Baroque era, all required instruments have usually been meticulously noted. The only exception to this tradition are the string instruments (at least in a larger part of the scores), since the exact size of the string apparatus can vary from orchestra to orchestra, but must always be adapted to the rest of the instrumentation - this also applies to a participating choir . In addition, a larger or smaller ensemble size is usually much less important for strings or singers than for winds or percussion instruments. However, some composers also make precise notes on the strings and / or choir, e.g. B. especially in some scores from the Romantic period (e.g. in Hector Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique or Wagner's Ring des Nibelungen ). The required strings are often meticulously specified for the scores in film music recording sessions, for example: (from violins I to double basses) or Predetermined odd strings cast (z. B. 14:12. 9 . 7 . 5 ) are uncommon, since as described above the strings normally mentioned pairs share a desk. For reasons of tonal balance, the strings are often used compared to the winds.

The final overall size of the orchestra can, as already indicated above, differ greatly and range from more chamber music-like ensembles (approx. 20 players) to very large ensembles (100 or more players).


Here are a few examples, sorted from small to large. The total number of players can only be given roughly for the reasons mentioned above:

  • -, str: (chamber orchestra-like instrumentation - from Wagner's Siegfried Idyll , 13 players; later a second version with 35 players followed)
  • Reed I (flute, piccolo, clarinet), Reed II (flute, oboe, clarinet), Reed III (cor anglais, oboe), Reed IV (bassoon, bass clarinet) -, 1 perc, git, 3 keyb, hp, str: (example of a typical musical orchestra , 27 players)
  • -, timp, 2 perc, str (chamber orchestra-like instrumentation - from Prokofiev's Peter and the Wolf , approx. 40 players)
  • -, timp, str (frequent instrumentation for the period of the Viennese Classic, e.g. numerous Haydn symphonies, approx. 46 players)
  • sop-, alt-, ten-sax -, timp, 2 perc, banjo, 2 pno, str ("Americanized", rather unusual instrumentation - from George Antheil's Jazz Symphony , approx. 55 players)
  • -, timp, pno, 2 perc, hp, str (instrumentation from Marco Beltrami's soundtrack to the film Repo Men , approx. 58 players; it is noteworthy that the wood is only occupied by a single flute, what is not uncommon for modern film music)
  • 0.0.2 (basset hn) .2 - 0.2.3 (alt, ten, bass) .0, timp, str, basso continuo (instrumentation for Mozart's Requiem, approx. 60 players + choir and vocal soloists; the wind instrumentation is particularly noticeable)
  • -, timp, 3 perc, hp, str (frequent "standard instrumentation" since late romanticism, approx. 75 players)
  • -, str: (also pure string orchestras (without wind instruments or percussion) are often used; this instrumentation comes from a piece from the soundtrack by Hans Zimmer to Batman Dark Knight , which is striking here extremely many cellos; 88 players)
  • -, timp, 3 perc, hp, str ("standard instrumentation" of the late romantic era with expanded wind instruments, approx. 90 players)
  • -, 2 timp, 4 perc, 6 hp, str (instrumentation from Wagner's Ring des Nibelungen , approx. 100 players + vocal parts)
  • -, timp, 3 perc, 4 hp, cel, pno, harm, org, 2 mand, str - remote orchestra: 4 tpt, 3 tbn (very large instrumentation - from Mahler's 8th Symphony, approx. 135 Player + numerous choir / singing voices)
  • -, timp, 8 perc, 4 hp, cel, str - remote orchestra: btrp, bpos (extremely large instrumentation - from Schönberg's Gurre songs , approx. 150 players + numerous choir / vocal parts)

Seating arrangements

The instruments are placed on the podium or in the orchestra pit according to a specific arrangement. The so-called American constellation is common nowadays ; however, some orchestras also play in the German line-up , which was common until the beginning of the 20th century and is still used today in the context of historical performance practice . The Staatskapelle Berlin plays its concerts in a mixed formation: the wind instruments placed in the American style, the harps left or right depending on the tonal disposition, the strings always in the traditional German arrangement.

name suffix

"Sinfoniker", "Kapelle", "Philharmonisches Orchester" or "Philharmoniker" are frequent names of symphony orchestras; they do not indicate a difference in the line-up or role of an orchestra, but can help to distinguish between different orchestras in a city (for example the Staatskapelle Dresden from the Dresden Philharmonic or the Vienna Philharmonic from the Vienna Symphony ).

Chamber orchestra

The Munich Chamber Orchestra at a concert in the Pinakothek der Moderne , Munich

A chamber orchestra is significantly smaller than a symphony orchestra, since most of the instrument groups are smaller or have been omitted entirely. The boundaries to the large ensemble are fluid. The pure string orchestra is a special form .

The first modern chamber orchestras emerged in the 1920s, the earliest example being the Golschmann Concerts, for which Vladimir Golschmann was responsible and which were held in Paris from 1919 to the mid-1920s. The main trigger for the numerous foundations in Europe (in some cases also in the USA) was a counter-movement to the sprawling masses of sounds of late Romantic music and the huge orchestras required for it; The rediscovery of "old" music and the precarious economic situation, which made it difficult to maintain very large orchestras, also played a role. The film orchestras (for accompanying silent films) were also mostly chamber orchestra sizes.

Because of the lower economic risk, it was possible to perform more contemporary music with a chamber orchestra. With a comparatively small number of musicians, this was first realized in the vicinity of Arnold Schönberg and within the organizational framework of the Association for Private Musical Performances , where both original works for "chamber orchestras" and arrangements of larger-scale works (made by Benno Sachs and Erwin Stein , among others ) were played . In addition to the solo strings and a few solo winds, a keyboard instrument (harmonium and / or piano) was used in these performances.

Paul Sacher , who was socialized in the youth music movement, had a similar objective. He founded the Basel Chamber Orchestra in 1926 and, thanks to the rapid professionalization of the orchestra and the unusually good financial resources of the supporting structure, was soon able to award numerous composition commissions. Until its dissolution in 1987, the orchestra regularly played world premieres by composers such as Béla Bartók , Arthur Honegger , Frank Martin , Igor Stravinsky , Bohuslav Martinů , Witold Lutosławski , Henri Dutilleux , Luciano Berio and Elliott Carter . The Zurich Chamber Orchestra founded by Alexander Schaichet in 1920 , the Trigintuor in Lyon, the New Chamber Orchestra founded by Michael Taube in Berlin, the Boston Chamber Orchestra founded by Nicolas Slonimsky and the early 1940s also had a high proportion of works by contemporary composers Collegium Musicum Zurich created by Paul Sacher. Occasionally there were also composers in the direct organizational context of a chamber orchestra, for example Manuel de Falla in Seville with the Orquesta Bética de Cámara, Helmut Degen in Cologne with the Chamber Orchestra for New Music or Wolfgang Fortner with the Heidelberg Chamber Orchestra.

Most of the chamber orchestras founded before 1939 did not survive the war years, the exception being the ensembles founded and directed by Sacher in Basel and Zurich. In 1942, Victor Desarzens founded the Orchester de Chambre de Lausanne . After 1945, numerous new foundations took place, especially in the German-speaking countries, of which the Stuttgart Chamber Orchestra under Karl Münchinger , the Munich Chamber Orchestra under Hans Stadlmair , the Southwest German Chamber Orchestra Pforzheim under Friedrich Tilegant, the Württemberg Chamber Orchestra Heilbronn under Jörg Faerber , the Kurpfälz Chamber Orchestra under Wolfgang Hofmann , the Camerata Academica of the Mozarteum Salzburg under Bernhard Paumgartner , the Zurich Chamber Orchestra under Edmond de Stoutz or the Camerata Zurich under Räto Tschupp received special attention and were also able to distinguish themselves through radio and record productions. This group also includes the Cologne Chamber Orchestra, which was founded in 1923 and has been directed by Helmut Müller-Brühl since 1964 . Ensembles such as the Festival Strings Lucerne under Rudolf Baumgartner , the Tibor Varga Chamber Orchestra and the Orchester de chambre Jean-François Paillard performed in a smaller line-up, more focused on string orchestra literature . Chamber orchestra formations also formed in the context of broadcasting companies, such as the Saarland Radio Chamber Orchestra under Karl Ristenpart .

Outside of the German-speaking area, formations such as the Academy of St Martin in the Fields under Neville Marriner , the English Chamber Orchestra (which worked without a permanent conductor until 1985) or the Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra gained considerable importance in the post-war period .

Since the 1950s, specialist ensembles have emerged that deal intensively with the special instrumentation, notation and technical requirements of the avant-garde composers, which are difficult to master by a classical chamber orchestra. In addition, the resurgent preoccupation with early music from around the 1970s gave rise to numerous formations that appear in changing line-ups, but mostly with chamber orchestral strengths, and sometimes even without a conductor.

After all, a "third generation" of chamber orchestras has emerged since the 1980s, often emerging from college graduate orchestras or youth orchestras, such as the Deutsche Kammerphilharmonie Bremen , the Mahler Chamber Orchestra , the Chamber Orchestra of Europe or the Chamber Orchestra Basel . The Orpheus Chamber Orchestra was formed back in the 1970s and has consistently followed the principle of making music without a conductor to this day.

Film orchestra

Film orchestras were formed during the silent film era , on the one hand to accentuate the action during film screenings and on the other to drown out the noise of the projector. Both original compositions and potpourris from well-known pieces were performed. In Germany in 1929 over 6,000 musicians were active in such cinema orchestras. With the introduction of the sound film in 1930, cinema orchestras became superfluous. In contrast, the studios in Hollywood began to build their own orchestras. Since many of the committed film composers were influenced by European late Romantic music, these orchestras often had extensive symphonic ensembles. Its importance only declined in the 1970s, when pop music found its way increasingly into the soundtracks of films. In Germany there is currently only one professional film orchestra, the Babelsberg German Film Orchestra , which emerged from the UFA and DEFA orchestras.


Nowadays the musicians are usually led by a conductor , while in the early days the first violinist ( concert master ) or the harpsichordist playing the figured bass played this role. Even some modern orchestras can do without a conductor, especially smaller orchestras that specialize in the historical performance of early music .

The first modern conductor is considered to be the composer and conductor Carl Maria von Weber (1786–1826), who initially led the orchestra with a piano roll and later with a baton .


From a musical point of view, the first concertmaster is primus inter pares . During rehearsals and performances, he interacts with the leaders of the other string groups as well as the solo winds, the solo timpani and the solo harp.

The remaining groups of instruments are led by the section leader (also known as the register leader in wind orchestras ), who usually (like the concertmaster) have a deputy with whom they share the first desk. With the winds, the person who plays the 1st part is the leader of the respective instruments. If wood and brass players are combined, the 1st oboe and the 1st trumpet are considered the leader. With the percussion the timpanist presides over the group of instruments.

In addition, the strings also have so-called forerunners who are in the hierarchy between the concert masters or section leaders and the tutti players .

Orchestras are the only organizational units in the German world of work in which the entirety of colleagues, if possible, makes democratic decisions about the admission and employment of new members. Since up to 300 musicians sometimes apply for a vacancy, an extensive selection process is necessary in order to maintain the quality of the ensemble. For this purpose, auditions are held in which all applicants have to prove their command of their instruments one after the other in several rounds. At the end of each round, a secret vote is held to determine which candidates will go into the next round. At the end of this competition, the new member will be engaged by the orchestra with a qualified majority. Some of these auditions take place anonymously so that the orchestra members present cannot see who is playing behind an opaque curtain. This is intended to ensure that only musical aspects flow into the decision, but not things like gender, age or ethnic origin. After the audition has been won, a probation period of one year begins for the new member, which can be extended. During this time, the actual suitability for the orchestra service as well as the human qualities are assessed by as many colleagues as possible. At the end of this period, the entire college again decides on the candidate. Only when this vote is positive will the new musician be accepted into the orchestra. Decisions about the occupation of an orchestral position occasionally give rise to disputes between the members of the ensemble and the chief conductor. The best-known example is the dispute between the Berliner Philharmoniker and their conductor Herbert von Karajan over the clarinetist Sabine Meyer in 1983.

The future chief conductor is proposed by some orchestras themselves. The Berliner Philharmoniker also have this tradition, so that the members of the orchestra can propose and elect any living conductor in the world without the latter having been asked beforehand or having declared his readiness. It is simply assumed that the elected will accept the election.

Rehearsal operation

Most of the orchestra rehearsals take place in full cast ( tutti rehearsal ). In rare cases, however, there are initially separate samples from individual groups of instruments ( register samples ). These are set and led by the respective solo strings or solo winds. Partial rehearsals with a larger cast, such as rehearsals for all of the strings or all of the winds, are held by the respective conductor or his assistant. All of this should lead to extreme instrumental demands or new pieces to be rehearsed, so that those vocal groups with a particularly difficult part can largely master it in order not to let the rest of the rehearsal process stall due to permanent technical challenges.

Publicly funded orchestras in Germany


The oldest uninterrupted German orchestra is the Orchestra of the Kassel State Theater , founded in 1502.

Until the early 1930s, the activities of a German orchestral musician were not regulated uniformly in terms of training and livelihood security. Some musicians came from the town piping , others had attended a music school, some also attended a music college. Existential security was regulated in 1938 with the collective agreement that has now been introduced. With this collective agreement, the concept of the cultural orchestra became a cultural-political term. The term, the structure and the intended artistic direction of this publicly financed ensemble was coined by the then President of the Reichsmusikkammer , Peter Raabe . Closely related to this term was the strict separation of musical life into an area of ​​“serious concert undertakings” (Peter Raabe 1928) and an area of ​​other European and non-European concert events. The alleged seriousness of classical (German) music was given as a justification for its worthy of funding, because Raabe took his “role as mediator and defender of German cultural assets very seriously.” Raabe's view of the special value of “serious music” was also reflected reflected in the musical copyright, which was also the responsibility of the President of the Reich Music Chamber. That is why it was in keeping with this cultural concept, for example, to prevent the obligation of a jazz orchestra in a communal institution, because Raabe wanted to use the concept of the cultural orchestra to create an alternative to the “unculture” of jazz. Although big bands were occasionally founded as part of educational institutions, there is still a cultural and political preference for strings over jazz saxophonists in Germany, regardless of their artistic qualifications. The retention of the Nazi term cultural orchestra to this day must also be described as extremely unfortunate. Raabe's philosophy that symphonic music should be given priority in the promotion of local musical life has not been called into significant question to this day. The orchestras were rated differently in Germany in terms of tariffs according to a hierarchical principle, which also included the size of the orchestra. In connection with historical performance practice, the philosophy anchored in this tariff system of combining size and quality has become questionable. Initially there were three classification groups A, B and C orchestras. Seven different tariff groups were later distinguished.

Current situation

The professional, publicly financed cultural orchestra landscape in Germany with currently 133 cultural orchestras and 9922 posts is divided into four groups:

  • 84 theater orchestras that mainly serve the opera, operetta and musicals of the city and state theaters. The spectrum ranges from the large, internationally renowned opera houses in Berlin, Hamburg, Dresden, Frankfurt, Stuttgart or Munich to the small theaters in Lüneburg, Annaberg, Coburg or Hildesheim.
  • 30 concert orchestras that work exclusively or mainly in the concert hall or with an independent concert tradition also work in the opera house. Some are among the leading ensembles worldwide. A renowned panel of experts selected the following German orchestras in the international top ten: the Berlin Philharmonic , the Gewandhausorchester Leipzig , the Staatskapelle Berlin and the Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden .
  • 12 radio or radio symphony orchestras as well as four big bands from ARD and Rundfunkorchester und -Chöre GmbH (Berlin), which are also concert orchestras and focus on music recordings. They especially cultivate contemporary music in Germany with numerous commissioned compositions and world premieres. Ensembles such as the symphony orchestras of the Bavarian, North German or West German Radio enjoy a high international reputation.
  • Seven chamber orchestras, which are financed with public funds and which usually work all year round as pure string orchestras without their own wind instrumentation. B. the Stuttgart Chamber Orchestra , the Württemberg Chamber Orchestra Heilbronn or the Munich Chamber Orchestra .

There are small symphony orchestras with a line-up of approx. 30 members or more, with some wind instruments only being single. Medium to large orchestras usually have between 66 and over 100 members. The largest German orchestra is the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra with 185 posts; However, it also plays in three formations: as a concert orchestra in the Leipzig Gewandhaus, as an opera orchestra in the Leipzig Opera and as a cantata orchestra in the Leipzig Thomaskirche, where Johann Sebastian Bach worked for many years. The second largest orchestra with currently 159 posts is the Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden. The number of permanent positions is not necessarily identical to the number of musicians employed there, because the original concept was expanded by setting up half posts. Many cultural orchestras require members of other cultural orchestras to expand their line-up, who then work on a part-time basis in their respective neighboring cities.

The German Orchestra Association e. V. (DOV) is an influential cultural-political institution that mainly acts as a nationwide representation of the interests of cultural orchestra musicians. In addition, the DOV is committed to improving the financial conditions for the secondary employment of cultural orchestra musicians as lecturers at music colleges.

Amateur orchestra

See also


  • Peter Raabe : City administration and choir singing . Speech at a choir congress in Essen (1928). In: Peter Raabe: Cultural will in German musical life, cultural-political speeches and essays . Regensburg 1936, pp. 26–41.
  • Malte Korff (Ed.): Concert book orchestral music 1650-1800 . Breitkopf and Härtel, Wiesbaden 1991, ISBN 3-7651-0281-4 .
  • Nina Okrassa: Peter Raabe - conductor, music writer and president of the Reichsmusikkammer (1872–1945) , Cologne 2004, ISBN 3-412-09304-1 .
  • Orchestra, special ensembles and musical theater . In: German Music Council (Ed.): Music Almanach. Data and facts about musical life in Germany . Volume 7 (2007/08), 2006, pp. 733-823, ISSN  0930-8954 .
  • Gerald Mertens: orchestras, radio ensembles and opera choirs . In: German Music Council / German Music Information Center (Hrsg.): Musical life in Germany. Bonn 2019, pp. 188-217 full text (PDF; 471 kB)
  • Arnold Jacobshagen: Music theater . In: German Music Council / German Music Information Center (Hrsg.): Musical life in Germany. Bonn 2019, pp. 244–273 full text (PDF; 594 kB)
  • Arnold Werner-Jensen: The great German orchestras . Laaber-Verlag, Laaber 2015, ISBN 978-3-89007-867-0 .

Web links

Wiktionary: Orchestra  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Orchestra  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Gurre-Lieder (Schoenberg, Arnold) - IMSLP / Petrucci Music Library: Free Public Domain Sheet Music. In: imslp.org. Retrieved March 21, 2016 .
  2. newsok.com ( Memento of the original from April 6, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / newsok.com
  3. ^ Repo Man score. (PDF) (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on May 31, 2016 ; Retrieved April 28, 2016 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / marcobeltrami.com
  4. ^ Hans Zimmer and James Newton Howard's The Dark Knight: A Film Score Guide. Retrieved June 13, 2016 .
  5. Christoph Gaiser: The chamber orchestra as a medium of a "new" music. Diss. HU Berlin, 2004, p. 197f.
  6. Ibid., Pp. 20ff.
  7. Ibid., Pp. 219-254.
  8. Ibid., Pp. 254-261.
  9. Ibid., Pp. 262-278.
  10. Ibid., Pp. 279-292.
  11. Ibid., Pp. 317-320.
  12. Ibid., Pp. 259f.
  13. Ibid., Pp. 292-312.
  14. Ibid., Pp. 312-317.
  15. ^ Colin Lawson (Ed.): The Cambridge Companion to the Orchestra . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2003, ISBN 0-521-00132-3 .
  16. rbb-online.de
  17. ^ Tariff regulations for the German cultural orchestras from March 30, 1938.
  18. The Aachen General Music Director Peter Raabe spoke highly of the "serious concert undertakings" in 1928 and complained that one was completely powerless against the enemy of serious music, because he was regularly doused with the "wretched jazz broth" (Raabe 1928, p. 38 ), see. also Frieder W. Bergner: The U and the E in music
  19. Okrassa 2004, p. 156.
  20. ↑ In 1935, Raabe expressly welcomed the ban on "nigger jazz" on the Nazi radio, because jazz was an "ugly poison that would contaminate the taste of the people" (Okrassa 2004, p. 333).
  21. Mertens 2010
  22. ↑ In 1934, in his capacity as GMD Aachens, Raabe said in a lecture he gave at the first working conference of the Reichsmusikkammer that a new generation of orchestral musicians and opera members should be included in the reconstruction of German musical culture as a generation “who are the bearers of this culture ". (Peter Raabe, “Vom Neubau der deutschen Musikischen Kultur”, in: Peter Raabe, Die Musik im third Reich , Regensburg 1943, p. 49 f.). As President of the Reich Music Chamber, he implemented this plan in 1938.
  23. Source: Das Orchester 2010 issue 2, supplement
  24. Gerald Mertens, cultural orchestra, radio ensembles and opera choirs ( Memento of the original from November 22, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF) here: point 2. Overview @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.miz.org
  25. Lecturers who do not have municipal employee status also benefit from this DOV commitment.