Historical performance practice

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Historical performance practice , also known as "historically informed performance practice" or HIP (from historically informed performance or historically informed performance practice ), is the name given to efforts to recreate the music of past eras with authentic instruments , historical playing technique and knowledge of the artistic means of creation of the respective time to reproduce. Originally, the term referred to early music , to the interpretation of works written before around 1830. Since the last quarter of the 20th century, historical performance practice has increasingly occupied itself with works from the Romantic and Late Romantic periods and the early 20th century.

Aspects of historical performance practice


In earlier periods of musical history, instruments were often used that later fell out of use, for example viols , spines and crooked horns . If one wants to perform music on such instruments today, the few surviving and mostly no longer playable originals must first be copied by instrument makers. In addition, learning the required playing techniques requires special study of the sources, as the teaching tradition is interrupted.

Even when choosing the instrument, the question arises to what extent original instruments ("period instruments") or copies of them should and can be used or whether an approximation of a presumably historical sound is also possible on modern instruments.

String instruments

The baroque violins were in terms of their scale lengths less standardized than the modern instruments. The interplay of different vibrating string lengths and pitch pitches resulted in very different instruments in terms of sound. Georg Philipp Telemann reports as an author on extremely loud violins that he had heard from dance musicians. The strings of string instruments usually consisted of a string core made of animal gut instead of metal or plastic. The bows used at that time were, unlike today, elongated to convex instead of concave , which has an overall effect on the required playing style and thus also on the sound.

Woodwind instruments

Otto Steinkopf was the first to rebuild a number of Renaissance and Baroque instruments in the 20th century. He copied crumhorns , Kortholte , Rankette , dulcians , shawms and Pomerania , and teeth , in addition also baroque bassoons and Baroque oboe . He is considered a " Nestor of the revival of historical woodwind instruments".

Brass instruments

Another example is the horn , which before about 1840 had no valves and therefore only offered limited possibilities for producing chromatic tone sequences . The different construction as well as the special playing techniques of the natural horn require its own sound, which differs from that of a modern valve horn.

The same applies to the natural trumpet or the baroque trumpet , which also have no valves and, with the same tuning, have a double or (compared to the piccolo trumpet ) four times the tube length compared to the modern valve trumpet .

In 1959, Helmut Finke and Otto Steinkopf jointly constructed the round clarin trumpet based on the famous clarin trumpet, which is shown in the portrait of the Leipzig council musician Gottfried Reiche by Elias Gottlob Haußmann from 1727.

Keyboard instruments

As early as the 1920s, Fritz Neumeyer turned to attempts to reproduce the original sound of early music with historical keyboard instruments or replicas. Wanda Landowska made an outstanding contribution to the rediscovery of the keel instruments and thus also gave an important impetus for historical performance practice. As the first harpsichordist led 1933 the Goldberg Variations by Johann Sebastian Bach , contiguous and in full on a keel instrument.


Tuning tone

Before the first international pitch conference in Paris in 1858, the frequency of the concert pitch a 1 was not standardized. However, instrument finds show that in the 18th century music was predominantly made with a lower concert pitch. In addition to the concert pitch for secular instrumental music, there was also the so-called chorus pitch for the tuning of organs and thus for sacred vocal music , which was about a whole tone above the respective concert pitch.

In circles of historical performance practice there is now a pragmatic agreement to play Central European baroque music between around 1650 and 1750 with a standard concert pitch of a 1 = 415 Hz. For some genres (e.g. early Italian baroque) a higher pitch of 466 Hz has become established, for others (French baroque) 392 Hz. For music between around 1750 and 1850 one often chooses a 1 = 430 Hz. With these only Specialized instrumentalists can operate internationally and instrument makers can sell their copies of historical original instruments on a global market.

Mood systems

Before the general widespread use of equal tuning , medium-tone tunings were used , followed by well-tempered tunings , so that different keys were also characterized differently. In the area of ​​historical performance practice, one falls back today to unequal tunings in order to make the key character audible in older music .

Playing styles and relation to notation

Embellishments and improvisation

By the end of the baroque era, performing musicians had to be able to add their own embellishments and improvisations to the musical text , especially with prescribed repetitions. In addition, the composers generally did not write down as meticulously as in later times, for example when changing tempo. The suspension of the figured bass also gave the performer considerable freedom.


In French baroque music in particular, rhythmic inequality was an indispensable stylistic device: several successive notes of the same note value were played for unequal lengths. The so-called Notes inégales are mainly pairs of eighth notes, the first of which is stretched and the second of which is shortened, similar to swing in jazz or a dotted line.

For the Italian ( Frescobaldi ) and Spanish baroque music (Fray Tomás de Santa María ) inegal rhythmic interpretations have been handed down. Another common rhythmic variation is the sharpening of dots, which is mostly used in connection with the French overture , but z. B. is recommended by Leopold Mozart in other places.


For centuries, the musical tempo has been based on the human pulse in such a way that the strike and strike of the tactus or battuta , i.e. the conducting movement, occurs approximately at the rate of the human pulse (approx. 70–80 beats per minute). The assignment of note values ​​to the conducting movement was regulated in the white mensural notation by scale and proportion symbols. Typically, in the tense imperfectum nondiminutum, a complete conducting movement with downstroke and upstroke corresponded to a semibrevis, which was later called “whole note” in Germany. By adding a proportion, usually 3/1 or 3/2, the assignment could be changed so that with 3/2 three minima (= half notes), with 3/1 three semibreven (whole notes) fall into a complete conducting movement. For this purpose, the conducting movement was changed according to the proportions so that, with the total duration unchanged, the precipitation accounts for two thirds and the impact accounts for one third of the duration; this was called a Battuta inequale .

In the 17th century, numerous other proportions came into use: 3/4, 3/8, 6/8, 9/8, 12/8 etc. These proportions only changed the assignment of the note values ​​to the conducting movement. The tempo of execution of the notes was no longer automatically derived from the proportion, since the tempo of the conducting movement was no longer kept constant with proportions, but could in principle be freely changed. However, certain tempo conventions still existed well into the 18th century: As a rule, in all proportions with a 3 or its multiple in the denominator, the note values ​​tended to be executed twice as fast as in the tense imperfectum nondiminutum . As a result, 3/2 is twice as fast as the tense imperfectum , in 3/4 the quarter notes are twice as fast as the half notes in 3/2, correspondingly in 3/8, 6/8, 9/8 and 12/8 the eighth notes are twice as fast as the quarter notes in 3/4.

This sometimes results in very fast tempi, which we know from the Baroque period in the form of length specifications for a thread pendulum and the like. a. of the court singer Michel l'Affilard (1705), the postmaster general Louis-Léon Pajot (d'Onzembray) (1732) and the parliamentary attorney Henri-Louis Choquel (1762).

In 1752, Quantz determined the most common tempos using a pulse of 80 beats per minute as a rule of thumb for “young people who devote themselves to music”.

Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg noted in 1763: "This proper value (of the 4/4 time) must be learned from practice, since the pulse rate is no more an infallible rule than the step of a person."

For Baroque composers, the "natural movement" of the time signature was primarily sufficient for specifying the tempo; Johann Philipp Kirnberger wrote in 1776: “In general, it should be noted that of the types of tack that have the same number of times, the one which has larger or longer tack parts is naturally somewhat more serious than that of short times: so is the 4 / 4 tack less lively than 4/8 tack; the 3/2 tack more cumbersome than the 3/4, and this not as lively as the 3/8 tack. ” c was used to mark a slower piece, ¢ a faster piece . In the stile antico of church music, ¢ was twice as fast as c .

Secondly, the tempo resulted from the smallest temporally relevant note values: “With regard to the note types, the dance pieces in which sixteenths and two-and-threesome parts occur have a slower clock movement than those which, with the same time signature, only tolerate eighth notes, at most sixteenth notes, than the fastest note types . So the tempo giusto is determined by the time signature and the longer and shorter note types of a piece. "

In the second half of the 18th century it became necessary to differentiate the tempo indications more closely: “Did the young composer first get a feel for this (the tempo giusto ), because he soon understood how much the adjectives largo, adagio, andante, allegro, presto , and its modifications ... add or decrease speed or slowness to the natural rhythmic movement ”.

Contrary to later usage, in the late 18th century the tempo word alone was not the " tempo designation ". The combination of time signature, grade of note and tempo word determined the structure of the accent as well as the speed, the character and the variety, ie the "movement" and the performance in the broadest sense. “Performance and movement are determined by the longer or shorter note types that are specific to each time signature; namely, heavy and slow with those, and lighter and livelier with these. ... The 3/8 time z. B. gives an easy lecture; but a piece in this time signature is marked Adagio , and filled with two-and-thirty-eight parts, because it is more difficult to perform than it would be without it, but not as difficult as if the same piece were set in 3/4 time. "

In addition to treatises on contemporary gaming practice, historical slot machines , which existed during Handel's lifetime and for which he wrote especially pieces, are examined as possible sources for answering questions about speed and decoration technique. In France there are around 500 pinned rollers for automatic music boxes and organs. Problematic for their use as sources for performance practice is - except in the Tonotechnie des Père Engramelle , which stated the playing times in minutes - their drive speed, which can only rarely be checked. Françoise Cossart-Cotte warned that antiquarians and restorers might be tempted to elicit the “historically fast” speeds from the devices that musicology and collectors expected of them.

Representatives of the Tempo Giusto movement believe that many classical works are often played too quickly today. The musicians of "tempo giusto" advocate the "right tempo", a new slowness in musical expression.

See also: Tempo Interpretation and Performance Practice


In historical performance practice today it is common to use vibrato sparingly on string instruments . Francesco Geminiani recommends, however, in his writing Rules for Playing in a True Taste (London, c. 1748), that vibrato be used as often as possible. In his violin school The Art of Playing on the Violin (London 1751) he also comments on vibrato with short notes: “If you use it on short notes, it only serves to make their sound more pleasant.” Leopold Mozart turns in his violin school (1756) against the practice of constant vibrato, which was apparently already widespread at that time. In any case, this speaks against the view that baroque music was played entirely without vibrato.

Singing voices

A difference to today's practice of church music is the earlier intensive use of boy's voices (nowadays the voice break occurs earlier), caused primarily by the church's prohibition of women to make music. Furthermore, castrati were used both in church music and in opera . However, women were also used as soloists in the church of the then important music center in Hamburg or in England for Handel's oratorios. According to Michael Talbot , Vivaldi's choral works in Venice's orphanage were sung exclusively by female voices.

There are numerous boys' choirs that implement some of the findings of historical performance practice and make music with the instruments of the respective epoch. In particular Nikolaus Harnoncourt , Gustav Leonhardt (complete recording of the Bach cantatas ), Ton Koopman (recording of Buxtehude cantatas), Heinz Hennig (recording of numerous works by Heinrich Schütz , Andreas Hammerschmidt and others with the Hanover Boys Choir ) and above all Gerhard Schmidt-Gaden (recordings the vocal compositions by Orlando di Lasso , Heinrich Schütz and Johann Sebastian Bach with the Tölzer Knabenchor ) have partially implemented the knowledge of historical performance practice with the involvement of boys 'choirs and boys' voices since the 1970s.

In practice, especially since the 1990s , numerous conductors and ensembles have increasingly refrained from using boys' choirs. This is first and foremost a pragmatic decision, as the use of professional professional musicians allows far greater flexibility than the use of children. In addition, there are now more and more singers and countertenors who specialize in a corresponding vocal sound.

Ensemble sizes

The later, "standardized" orchestra did not yet exist in the pre-classical period. The performance apparatuses were generally much smaller and their occupation varied from work to work and from performance to performance.

In particular, the size of the choirs did not correspond to today's practice. Some representatives of historical performance practice, such as Joshua Rifkin and Andrew Parrott , propose the hypothesis that the concerted church music of Lutheranism, especially the cantatas and passions of Bach, were mostly performed as soloists, but with only two singers per voice at most.


Choice of performance locations

Historically informed performance practice also includes the choice of suitable performance locations. Often it can be seen whether an old musical work was written for a small and acoustically "dry" room or for a large, reverberant room. Very important in this context is the fact that many compositions explicitly include the extension of space, e.g. B. in the Venetian polychoir .

Disposition of the participants in the room

Pictorial representations, installation sketches and written sources inform us about the spatial arrangement of the participants. The common practice today of placing the choir behind the orchestra has also been documented, but seems to have been the exception.

“With vocal music one should pay particular attention to the fact that the singing voices can be heard best and most clearly, and that they are not made unpleasant by the instruments. At the end it will be best if he gives the singing characters quite the freedom to turn their faces towards the audience, but the instrumentalists either sideways, or, whichever is best, behind the singers. "

- Johann Adolf Scheibe : Der critische Musicus 1745, p. 712

Even Johann Mattheson writes: "The singer must be preceded everywhere"

We encounter the following basic constellations:

  • Circle or loose bunch (Renaissance and early Baroque);
  • Vocalists at the front and instrumentalists at the back (this list is documented well into the 19th century);
  • Vocalists and instruments in groups next to each other on the gallery.

The position of the choir in front of the orchestra is documented by photographs for the St. Thomas Choir for the time of Karl Straube .

Sheet music

Vocal works of the Renaissance and Baroque were usually published in individual parts. This made it possible for the instrumentalists to reinforce or replace the voices colla parte in works in a cappella style . In modern editions, however, individual voices tend to be the exception.


Today's interpreters will only be able to partially implement the findings of historical performance practice, while compromises have to be made on a number of the points mentioned above. For example, even well-known ensembles from the HIP sector rarely practice the historical arrangement of the choir in front of the orchestra. But even under unfavorable conditions (e.g. if no historical instruments are available or a large amateur choir has to be used), a number of sub-aspects can still be implemented.


An important milestone in the rediscovery of early music was the re-performance of Bach's St. Matthew Passion in 1829 by Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy . The work was, however , subjected to extensive adaptations ( instrumentation , abbreviations), as it was felt to be unreasonable in its original form. In addition, the currently usual instruments, playing techniques and orchestra sizes were simply used.

At the beginning of the 20th century, a gradual reflection on more faithful performance techniques began, initially with baroque music with the help of originally preserved instruments or exact replicas.

An initially ridiculed pioneer was the musician and instrument maker Arnold Dolmetsch (1858–1940), who lived in England ; Also of importance was Alfred Deller , who revived the countertenor singing technique.

Members of the “Société de concerts des instruments anciens” 1901

In France, in 1901, Henri Casadesus ( viola d'amore ) and Édouard Nanny ( double bass ) founded the Société de concerts des instruments anciens (Concert Society for Historical Instruments), which was under the presidency of the composer Camille Saint-Saëns . The aim of the society was to revive the music of the 17th and 18th centuries on original instruments. It was from this group, all of whom were laureates at the Paris Conservatory , that intensive research into baroque music began.

In Germany, the cellist Christian Döbereiner (1874–1961) studied the viol and around 1905 founded the “Association for Early Music”. The so-called "Gamba Movement " of the 1920s was, like the Wandervogel movement, a form of protest against the (in this case artistic) establishment. At the same time, the lute expert Olga Schwind became interested in the sound of historical instruments, built them and made music with them. From 1927, August Wenzinger , who came from Basel, made music with other interested musicians in the “Kabeler Kammermusik”, partly on historical instruments, with the support of the amateur violinist and industrialist Hans Hoesch from Hagen. Almost simultaneously, Hans Grischkat worked in Reutlingen from 1924, he used both historical instruments in the interpretation of Claudio Monteverdi's Vespers of Mary and in Bach's great passions, which he performed again in full in his church concerts together with the Swabian Singing Circle .

A milestone in historical performance practice was September 18, 1954, when the first orchestra with original instruments, the Cappella Coloniensis , founded in May 1954 , performed under the direction of Wenzinger with a Bach program in the Cologne radio house of the then Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk.

The pianist Wanda Landowska , who came from Poland, gave further impetus and advocated the reuse of the harpsichord , albeit not in its historical form, but in the form of the new constructions with steel frames used at the time. Ralph Kirkpatrick and Fritz Neumeyer were particularly important for the reuse of keyboard instruments based on historical models . The latter had also founded an "Association for Early Music" in Saarbrücken in 1927 , which mainly performed chamber music from the 18th century. Numerous concerts were broadcast live by what was then "Radio Saarbrücken" in the 1930s and 1940s.

On the initiative of the composer Paul Hindemith , one of the first public performances of Johann Sebastian Bach's solo sonatas and partitas took place in Austria by the violinist Eduard Melkus at the beginning of the 1950s. Melkus belonged to the narrow circle of musicians around the cellist and later conductor Nikolaus Harnoncourt and his wife Alice Harnoncourt , who from 1948 devoted himself intensively to early music as a counterpoint to modern orchestral work. From this group the Concentus Musicus Wien gradually formed , which appeared in public for the first time in 1957. The ensemble's Bach interpretations became milestones in historically informed performance practice.

Modern performance with soloists

Around 1980, the practice initiated by Joshua Rifkin and Andrew Parrott of performing choral works by Johann Sebastian Bach only with a soloist quartet sparked controversy .

Contemporary choir in a historical setting

Around the turn of the millennium, various conductors experimented with historically documented constellations of choir and orchestra, for example Helmut Kickton with the Kreuznacher Diakonie Kantorei in 2003 and Benoît Haller with the Chapelle Rhénane in 2008 . In 2013 the historical constellation practice of Thomaskantor Christoph Biller was presented at the Leipzig Bach Festival and in 2014 at a concert with the Leipzig Bach Soloists . In 2015 Martin Haselböck performed Ludwig van Beethoven's 9th symphony with the Vienna Academy Orchestra in the Redoutensaal in Vienna with a choir positioned in front of the orchestra. Until the late 1970s, historical performance practice related almost entirely to older music up to the mid-18th century. Conductors such as Trevor Pinnock , Christopher Hogwood , Roger Norrington and John Eliot Gardiner then opened up the repertoire of Viennese classical music with recordings of symphonies and concerts by Mozart , Haydn and Beethoven . In the meantime, historical performance practice is also turning to Romanticism and Late Romanticism . The difference between the early 20th century and the present in terms of instruments and playing style is so significant that in 2006 a historically informed recording of orchestral works by Maurice Ravel was presented.

For a list of some performers, see: List of Baroque performers and ensembles


Interpretation and sound

While the achievements of historical performance practice in terms of playing technique and mastery of the instruments are also generally recognized by critics, the method of interpretation and the tonal result are still controversial. The music journalist Christoph Schlüren criticizes “the harshness that is common today”, “the notorious lack of balance, the inability to meet broad tempos, the obligatory shortening of the note values ​​or the increasingly popular rubato mania, which makes the context even less tangible as the long ridiculed 'sewing machine' ”. “Small articulation” emphasizes “the dance and rhetoric so strongly that the singing and the larger developmental traits that make up the individual character of the music take a back seat and disappear”. Schlüren also criticizes the “cultural ideological enforcement” of historical performance practice in musical life and in the record industry.



“Data carriers” for mechanical jukeboxes (pin-on rollers, etc., see phonography ) have been around since the 17th century. In France, for example, around 500 reels for automatic music boxes and organs have been preserved. The technical problem of using them as sources for performance practice is the drive speed, which is rarely verifiable (see above "Tempi"). An exception is the "Tonotechnie" of the Père Engramelle , which stated the playing times in minutes.

More reliable sound documents have only appeared in recent history, for example in the form of phonograph recordings (possible from around 1877, but music recordings only received with Edison's improved wax cylinder phonograph from 1888) or of Welte Mignon rolls (from 1904). From this point on, there is no doubt that there is audible evidence of performance practice.

Musical text

A printed music text is not automatically a reliable source because there are several steps between the composition and the printing, in which different people are involved. Even an autograph does not always represent the ultimate will of the composer.

Ludwig van Beethoven always had to deal with the copyists and engravers, which led him to say that the printed scores are as full of errors as there are fish in the water. This wasn't just due to carelessness. Compositional innovations by Beethoven were sometimes interpreted by the arrangers as errors to be corrected. On the other hand, their own mistakes sometimes resulted in musically meaningful variations, which makes it difficult to identify them as mistakes today.

The editors defended themselves with the argument that Beethoven's handwriting was illegible and in some cases refused to cooperate further. Also, changing the printing plates was a slow and expensive process back then. Publishers preferred to include an errata sheet .

Metronome marks

Beethoven's deafness forced him to communicate in writing at the end of his life. That is why we also know details of the creative process that were lost with other composers. For example, he was concerned about the right pace when his works were performed by others. That is why he welcomed the invention of the metronome and used metronome numbers - even if only in 25 of his more than 400 works - to rule out misinterpretations of tempo terms.

Nevertheless, the following saying is passed down by Beethoven: “No metronome at all! Whoever has the right feeling doesn't need it; and if you don't have it, it's no use. "

The correct interpretation of his tempo indications is controversial. One theory says For example, historical metronome markings should be halved according to today's understanding, since otherwise many pieces of music at the given tempo will prove to be barely executable or unplayable. While this is questioned by some authors, Lorenz Gadient, for example, refers in a more recent, extensive work to numerous historical sources that support such a "halving" interpretation of the metronome numbers.

Distance to the time of origin

The closer to the present, the more the composers tried to provide the most exact possible specifications. In the case of electronic music, the composer finally fixes the composition himself on the sound carrier, so that an interpreter is unnecessary. Conversely, the more you go back into the past, the fewer interpretative rules you will find.

In the music of the figured bass age z. B. the harmonies of the accompaniment were indicated only by numbers. The interpreter was responsible for the exact suspension of the chords.

Tempo, dynamics, mood, choice of instruments, etc. can often no longer be determined with certainty for works from before around 1750. The practical performance therefore always has the character of an interpretive reconstruction. The situation is similar to that in the study of dead languages, the writing of which has been learned to decipher, but whose pronunciation there is little prospect of final clarification.

Danger of dogmatism

Richard Taruskin sees the danger that the approach to historical sound images will degenerate into a museum end in itself. Both interpreters and listeners are people of today who have to discover, evaluate and classify early music for themselves in their contemporary context. It is not enough, therefore, to simply copy the style of other practically performing performers, as this would only create a new, dogmatic performance tradition. Despite all historical correctness, a lively discussion of the music must be ensured.

Against the background of this area of ​​tension, the conductor Christian Thielemann formulates his opinion: “For me, historical performance practice always means: reading with the eyes of the past and hearing with today's ears. Understand what is written, put it in relation to the available possibilities - and transfer the effect to today's circumstances ”.


Sources of performance practice





Secondary literature

Web links

supporting documents

  1. David Dodge Boyden: The history of violin playing from its beginnings to 1761. Schott's Sons, Mainz 1971.
  2. Lorenz Welker:  Zinc. In: Ludwig Finscher (Hrsg.): The music in past and present . Second edition, factual part, Volume 9 (Sydney - Cyprus). Bärenreiter / Metzler, Kassel et al. 1998, ISBN 3-7618-1128-4 , Sp. 2383–2390, here Sp. 2388 ( online edition , subscription required for full access)
  3. ^ Hermann Moeck: Otto Steinkopf †. In: Tibia , 2/1980, p. 117 f.
  4. 1954-2004, 50 Years of Early Music on WDR , PDF pages 15 & 155, HG: Thomas Synofzik, Barbara Schwendowius and Richard Lorber, Concerto Verlag 2005, Cologne (PDF 6.74 MB)
  5. Thorough Violin School, p. 39 f.
  6. ^ Roland Eberlein : Proportions in music of the 17th century, their meaning and execution. In: Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 56, 1999, pp. 29–51.
  7. Helmut Breidenstein, Mälzel's murder of Mozart. The unsuitable attempts to measure musical time , in “Das Orchester” 2007/11, pp. 8–15.
  8. Ms. Wilh. Marpurg: Instructions for music in general and for the art of singing in particular ... , Berlin 1763, Zweyter Part, which deals with the principles of the art of singing in general. , Chapter 4, On the Tact in general, and the movement of the Tact. , P. 74.
  9. Joh. Phil. Kirnberger, The art of pure movement in music , Part 2 (1776), p. 133.
  10. Joh. Phil. Kirnberger, The art of pure movement in music , Part 2 (1776), p. 106 f.
  11. Joh. Phil. Kirnberger, The art of pure movement in music , Part 2 (1776), p. 107.
  12. Johann Abraham Peter Schulz, article “Tact” and article “Lecture” in: Johann Georg Sulzer: General Theory of Fine Arts , Volumes I-IV, Leipzig 1792–94; Reprint Hildesheim 1967.
  13. http://www.haendelfestspiele.halle.de/de/programm-bak/2006/Wwissenschaftliche_Konferenz  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. >@1@ 2Template: Toter Link / www.haendelfestspiele.halle.de  
  14. ^ F. Marie Dominique Joseph Engramelle: La Tonotechnie ou l'Art de noter les Cylindres , Paris 1775 (German: Hans-Peter Schmitz: Die Tontechnik des Père Engramelle. A contribution to the teaching of musical performance in the 18th century , Kassel 1953 )
  15. ^ 'Documents sonores' de la fin du XVIIIe siècle , in: Colloques Internationaux du CNRS, 537, Paris 1974, p. 147
  16. tempogiusto.de , visited on April 5, 2008
  17. Michael Talbot: Vivaldi . Oxford University Press 2000.
  18. ^ Andrew Parrot: Bach's choir: for a new understanding . Metzler / Bärenreiter, Stuttgart and Kassel 2003.
  19. Johann Mattheson: The perfect Capellmeister . Hamburg 1739, p. 484; Facsimile Kassel 1991, ISBN 3-7618-0100-9 .
  20. www.rundfunkschaetze.de ; accessed on July 12, 2020
  21. September 18, 1954: Debut of the "Cappella Coloniensis" ( Memento from December 4, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Audio contribution (2:49 min.) By Anette Unger in the Allegro magazine of BR-Klassik, September 17, 2013
  22. website of www.kantoreiarchiv.de of 28 January 2003
  23. ^ Rhein-Zeitung of October 13, 2003
  24. Channel of the Chapelle Rhenane on YouTube ; accessed on July 12, 2020
  25. ^ Forum Kirchenmusik , Issue 5, 2013, p. 23.
  26. Hundreds at a benefit concert for refugees from Tröglitzer In: Leipziger Volkszeitung ; accessed on July 12, 2020
  27. B&W Group ; accessed on July 13, 2020
  28. a b c Christoph Schlüren: About "historical performance practice". Double-edged sword ( Memento of the original from October 9, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.musikmph.de
  29. see also Arthur Sullivan # Miscellaneous
  30. ^ Adolf Bernhard Marx: Instructions for the lecture of Beethoven's piano works , Berlin 1863, p. 63.
  31. Willem Retze Talsma: The rebirth of the classics , vol. 1: Instructions for the de-mechanization of music , Innsbruck 1980. - In addition: Klaus Miehling: “The truth about the interpretation of the pre- and early metronomic tempo indications. Some arguments against the 'metric' theory ”; in: Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 44 (1989), pp. 81–89. - Peter Reidemeister: Historical performance practice. An introduction , Darmstadt 1988, pp. 107-135. - Helmut Breidenstein: “Mälzel's murder of Mozart. The inept attempts to measure musical time ”; in: Das Orchester 11/2007, pp. 8–15. Arguments for the 'metric' theory ': Lorenz Gadient: Clock and pendulum beat. Source texts for musical tempo measurement from the 17th to the 19th centuries reviewed , Munich-Salzburg 2010.
  32. ^ Christian Thielemann : My life with Wagner . CH Beck, Munich 2012, ISBN 978-3-406-63446-8 , p. 48.