There are various decorations , ornaments or agréments ( French agrément , convenience ' ), also manners with which melodies or chords of a piece are adorned with alterations in musical performances . In the case of musical compositions or arrangements, they are usually notated as special characters in the musical notation or the tablature , but decorations that are not notated are often part of performance practice. When performing the decorations, the interpreter has room for improvisation .
In contrast to the pitch change, as with the lead, ornaments do not change anything in the harmonic-melodic structure of a piece of music, but can enliven the voice guidance.
Ornaments serve in music - as in other arts too - as jewelry, as an animating or playful element. In a broader sense, musical decorations can therefore be found everywhere and always where music is played. The origin of the decorations is partly explained by a peculiarity of the plucked instruments and early keyboard instruments. The rapidly fading tones of these string instruments such as the lute , harpsichord and clavichord were therefore sought after. a. using the different types of trills. It is more likely, however, that these ornaments originally came from vocal music . The so-called canto fiorito persisted in the artistic singing of opera singers into the 19th century and beyond . In addition, until the middle of the 18th century, the requirement for the tasteful execution of ornaments, also in the field of instrumental music, was above all their singing . Only then were the decorations increasingly used to demonstrate technical brilliance or as a sound effect, but they persisted
A flourishing of the culture and art of ornamentation can be observed in European music between the 16th century and the middle of the 18th century. The result was an almost unmistakable amount of decorations of various regional characteristics that could be used in any kind of music, as well as various symbols for use in tablature and musical notation. A distinction can be made between the so-called essential adornments (suggestions, trills, mordenten, double strokes, etc.) and the arbitrary adornments created by improvisation . Since the end of the 17th century, the decorations have also been referred to as manners (to the manner of an artist's 'individual character'). Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach dedicates a comprehensive chapter to these in his attempt on the true way of playing the piano (two parts, 1753 and 1762).
France, a nation that has had a culturally defining style since the time of Louis XIV , had the largest and most finely worked out fund of essential decorations: the largest table of decorations published to date (with a total of 29 types of decoration) was written by Jean-Henri d'Anglebert in his Pièces de clavecin from 1689. François Couperin's decorations in his four volumes with Pièces de Clavecin, the first of which was published in 1713, were also very influential . In Italy, which had long served as a model for other European music, these essential manners and trills were supplemented by improvised or arbitrary adornments, which resulted primarily from the diminution of the given melody. Since the Viennese Classic , the improvisational decoration of the musical text by the interpreter has become more and more meaningless, as composers noted their ideas more and more precisely.
In the 20th century, Afro-American music ( jazz , spiritual , gospel , rhythm 'n' blues , blues , rock ) in particular gave rise to many new variants and, above all, rhythmic innovations that have so far hardly been reflected in the notation .
An important source for Johann Sebastian Bach's ornament repertoire is the piano booklet he created on January 22, 1720 for Wilhelm Friedemann Bach . The teaching and exercise booklet for his eldest son already contains a table with the most important decorations for Bach as symbols and an example in notes. The decorations are provided with an idiosyncratic mixture of Italian ( Trillo , Mordant ) and French names ( Cadenze , Accent ). Shown are trills or impact trills ( trillo ), mordent ( mordant ), trills with a follow-up ( trillo and mordant ), double beat ( cadenze ), trills with a preceding double beat from below and from above ( double cadenze ), the same decoration with a follow-up ( Double Cadenze and Mordant ), rising and falling lead ( accent ), mordent with lead ( accent and mordant ), trills with lead from below and from above ( accent and trillo ). The unsuccessful attempt by nine-year-old Friedemann to add a 14th ornament was later canceled. This table is preceded by the explanation of the keys, the explanation of the decorations is followed by a short piece ( Applicatio, BWV 994) with registered fingering. This shows the importance Bach attached to late baroque piano ornamentation in music lessons.
Transition to the classic
Johann Joachim Quantz describes in detail the ornamentation technique of his time in his textbook attempt at an instruction to play the flute traversiere , published in 1752 . The VIII. Main part is about the proposals and the associated little manners, the IX. Main piece From the trills.
Quantz sees the function of suspensions not only as "Zierrath" but also as a necessity to enhance a melody and make them "look gallant". He describes the preponderance of consonances over dissonances as a characteristic of the gallant style that replaced the music style of the baroque era in Germany . But since, in his opinion, the listener is “easily tired” with a long series of consonances, it is necessary to insert dissonances into the melody and thereby “cheer up”.
He also considered the trills to be indispensable, they “give playing a great shine”. The speed at which they are performed must be based on both the acoustic conditions of the location and the character of the piece.
Types of ornaments
A short suggestion ( Acciaccatura ) can be noted as a small note crossed out at the neck in front of the normal large main note. In the same way, notes that are crossed out are also found as long suggestions. In principle, the written duration of the grace note says nothing about its execution. The execution is different depending on the genre , epoch and performer , the suggestion is either shortly before and the main note or main emphasis on the beat (e.g. classical), the suggestion on and the main note shortly after the beat (baroque, " slide ”in jazz) or both played at the same time.
A long suggestion ( appoggiatura ) brings the note of the suggested suggestion first, then the main note as the grace note. The length of the suggestion is half the length of the two-phase main note or two thirds of the same if it is a dotted or three-phase main note. The main tone starts delayed by the duration of the suggestion. There is both the ascending appoggiatura and the descending one.
A long proposal usually has the function of a lead .
The double suggestion (English drag ) consists of two short suggestions before the main stroke.
The grinder consists of three or more short proposals before the main stroke.
Another possibility of decoration is the rapid repetition of a tone (tremolo). There are two main types: the written and the non-written tremolo. In the first option, the number of notes or tremolo speed is precisely specified, the second designates a tremolo that is usually performed faster and not rhythmically counted. The unwritten tremolo is usually notated in abbreviation notation with a 3-note stem.
- The string tremolo was developed in the 17th century.
- The on percussion instruments like the timpani usual vortex can for. B. can also be used on xylophone and piano .
In historical literature, drum rolls (possibly also other percussion) are still mostly notated as trills (see below), possibly with a trill snake.
- The tone repeater is also important for the traditional way of playing plucked instruments such as mandolin , tamburica and balalaika .
- In the singing of the 17th century (especially in Italy) tone repetitions for decorative purposes were also common.
- In wind instruments, tone repetitions are also called flutter tongue , abbreviated to "Flz." (Often especially on trumpet, trombone, flute and saxophone)
From a harmonic and melodic point of view, tone repetitions are not an ornament and correspond to holding tones or the organ point .
The trill consists of the note provided with the trill (main note) and its upper secondary note. Both sound in rapid alternation. The trill is to be played for the duration of the main note.
In addition to the trill symbol, a modern (more flexible way of writing) places the secondary note as a bracketed small stitch directly behind or in front of the main note. As a result, the secondary note can also be selected above and below the main note and offset chromatically and, in principle, any desired interval can be trilled.
Chromatic offsetting of the secondary note is indicated by an accidental in a small stitch above the trill symbol.
A so-called trill snake can be used to display the exact duration of the trill, regardless of the untrilled duration of the sound.
For chord trills, a corresponding number of trill symbols (tr) are arranged vertically above the staff with homophonic notation, and below the system with polyphonic notation for lower voice (s).
Up to the end of the Baroque period the trill is started with the upper secondary note, from the Classical period onwards with the main note. There are points of contention in the early classical period, in which the classical sentence mixes with ornamentation that is still traditional from the baroque era.
|notation||Execution before 1800||Execution from 1800|
In French baroque music and the styles influenced by it, the following extensions of the trill (tremblement) are possible: follow-up (the last two notes of the trill are the lower secondary note and main note), stretched upper secondary note at the beginning (appuyé), beginning of the lower secondary note and Start with a double strike. If the first note of the trill corresponds to the previous one, it is tied if this is indicated by a slur (lié).
Today's interpreters like to accelerate a trill on the final note of a piece. This way of playing can be traced back to at least the 1980s through recordings on records and CDs. It has not yet been clarified whether this is a way of playing from historical times. The trill begins appuyé, the following notes become faster and faster and the trill ends on the main note, which has a clearly perceptible length. In French baroque music, trills often appear on the third in the final chord (e.g. organ works by Louis-Nicolas Clérambault ), in Spanish up to and including the Classical period they also appear on the keynote (sonatas by Antonio Soler ).
If you want to start a trill with the secondary note from 1800, you have to add a short suggestion . A chromatic change in the secondary note is noted above the trill with the change sign or , otherwise, on the grace note . Over the duration of the main note, a multiple, rapid change between the main note and the upper secondary note is played.
Probably the earliest evidence that a trill can be started either with the upper or lower secondary note or with the main note can be found in Bernard Viguerie's : L'art de toucher le piano-forte (Paris, approx. 1796):
«Le tremblement ou trille qu'on appelle aussi quoiqu'improprement cadence, est un agrément qui se fait en battant alternativement le son de la note qui porte le signe avec celui de la note supérieure. Le principe anciennement établi etoit de commencer le tremblement par la note supérieure à celle qui portoit le signe; maintenant l'usage est de le commencer, soit par la note supérieure, soit par la note même, soit enfin par la note inférieure; cela dépend du gût de l'éxecutant, amoins que l'auteur, par le moyen d'une ou deux petites notes, n'ait expliqué la manière dont il entend qu'on le commence. »
“The trill, improperly called the cadence, is an ornament that is performed by alternately striking the note carrying the ornament and the upper secondary note. The previous practice was to start the trill with the upper secondary note of the note bearing the ornament; now it is customary to begin with the upper secondary note or the main note, or finally with the lower secondary note; that depends on the taste of the performer, unless the author has explained with one or two small notes how the ornament is to be carried out. "
Bernard Viguerie's piano school was hardly known outside of Paris. The closest chronological evidence of a "modern" execution of the trill can only be found again in Johann Nepomuk Hummel's instructions for playing the piano (Vienna 1828):
“With regard to the trill, one has so far stuck to the old, and always started it with the upper [sic!] Auxiliary note, which is probably based on the first basic rules designed for singing, which later also passed on to instruments. […] So the trill begins ( unless otherwise specified) with the main note and always ends with the same 1.); is he from above or from below begin this must by a Zusatznötchen from above, or be noticed from below 2). "
At what point in time Hummel's “modern” conception was generally accepted in piano music cannot be clearly determined. At least in the first half of the 19th century, both versions are probably still possible.
Timpani rolls (in the sense of a tremolo on only one pitch) are historically and sometimes still today notated as trills.
Bulging trills and mordent
|notation||Execution before 1800||Execution from 1800|
- Pralltrill : one-time, short change with the next higher ladder-specific note
- Mordent : one or more times, short changes with the next lower ladder-specific grade
The two decorations that can be seen under "Execution from 1800" are actually the same, only once turned up and the other time turned down. It is actually a very old ornament that appears in Spanish music of the 16th and 17th centuries, where it is called "quiebro" or "quiebro senzillo" (= more simply quiebro ), regardless of whether it is Mordent (French martellement or pincé ) or as an impact trill . Also, one suspects that this ornament in the English music Virginal ists William Byrd , John Bull , Giles Farnaby u. a. was used. Because in the famous Fitzwilliam Virginal Book and other English keyboard music sources there is often a character that consists of two parallel slashes //, and the most logical execution of which is like a Spanish quiebro . According to this theory, depending on whether the melody is ascending or descending, one would do a mordent or a short plump.
In French music of the 17th and 18th centuries, the impact trill begins with the upper secondary note (see figure above: “Execution before 1800”), except for fast and very fast note values (quarter, sixteenth) in descending lines: he can possibly be "tied over", that is, the upper secondary note is not triggered again - as with the old Spanish quiebro. In France, a tied trill is called “tremblement lié” and has been shown to have been used primarily from François Couperin and Jean-François Dandrieu .
These types of execution were generally adopted in the rest of Europe, especially in England and Germany (among others by Bach and Handel), but also in Italy, as Pier Francesco Tosi's remarks in his singing treatise Opinioni de cantori antichi e moderni ... from 1723 reveal. He made a distinction between a "half trill", i.e. the bulging trill with an upper secondary note, and a "mordent", which for him is the same as the old Spanish quiebro : either a short, simple bulging trill without an upper secondary note, or a real mordent .
With long notes, the mordent can also be performed like a trill, but with the lower secondary note.
The pianist Paul Badura-Skoda thinks that the rebound trill from above (“execution before 1800”) was an erroneous invention of the harpsichordist Wanda Landowska , based on a misprint (an allegedly missing slur) in the first edition of CPE Bach's attempt on the true Way of playing the piano . According to Badura-Skoda, the correct impact trill would be played from below, and the concept of “execution before and after 1800” is therefore fundamentally wrong. However, this theory is in comparison of all ornament tables by Chambonnières, d'Anglebert, F. Couperin, Georg Muffat, Johann Sebastian Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach etc. etc. and the above-mentioned theoretical works by Tosi 1723 / Agricola 1757, Quantz 1752 and others. a. so not durable. On the other hand, there has actually been a short impact trill from below since the 16th century, which was called quiebro senzillo or tremblement lié , which, however, in the manner cited by Badura-Skoda in the 18th century was only performed with rapidly descending note values.
Double strike (Gruppetto)
The suggesting or following double strike is noted by a mirrored S lying on the back (beginning with the upper secondary note - the more common variant) or noted by an S lying on its back (beginning with the lower secondary note). In many (older) music editions, however, these two variants are not differentiated.
- (left :) Longer main tone (front note), short upper secondary tone, short main tone, short lower secondary tone, longer main tone, back note.
- (right :) Short upper secondary tone, short main tone, short lower secondary tone, long main tone (in the picture above short because of the context because a quarter note is quite short).
Accents are placed above for the upper note and below it for the lower note.
Caution: Due to the lack of characters, the double punch is not always correctly noted. In terms of historical performance practice, there is often a desire for specific or written instructions.
The figure on the right shows three examples, some with alterations .
- Easy lookup
Notation: A short note is attached to the previous note with a bow. Also called "Chute" in France (Michel Pignolet de Montéclair, Henri-Louis Choquel)
Execution: The previous note is shortened by the duration of the follow-up note; in contrast to the suggestion, the following note starts on the beat.
- Double lookup
Notation: Two small grace notes are attached to the previous note with a bow.
Execution: The previous note is shortened by the duration of the two follow-up notes; in contrast to the suggestion, the following note starts on the beat.
A sequence of several fast ascending or descending notes sung on one syllable is called a roulade , especially in vocal music . The word is derived from the French verb rouler "roll".
A short chromatic connection or a short glissando is played between two notes of an interval . It is noted by a connecting line between the two notes.
The arpeggio (Italian; "harp style") is also an ornament.
Ornaments in the broader sense
Shake was the name for a trill or impact trill in English music of the 17th and 18th centuries. It was designated with two parallel slashes, something like this: //. Examples can be found e.g. B. in harpsichord music by Matthew Locke , John Blow or Henry Purcell .
The shake is also in the Big Band - Jazz common ornament which a trill quickly alternated tones is like, but these have a greater interval distance. The notation is not clear. As with the trill, a snake is noted above the note.
A rapidly ascending, often dramatically accentuated figure is played, not necessarily a chromatic one. Either a line leading upwards is placed behind the note after which the rip should begin, or a line is drawn between the start and end note. Most common are rep in the french horns, as a dramatic, hunting horn-like gesture.
A rapidly descending piece is played at the drop-off . The notation consists of a downward arc behind the note after which the drop-off should begin.
The fall , the dropping of notes, is common in jazz and pop music. Instead of intoning the note, its starting height is only hinted at and then immediately sinks into an indefinite depth.
Similar to the case, only that the glissando-like figure is played upwards (and not downwards).
It is used on some wind instruments, such as the trumpet or trombone, and is generated by a certain tongue technique in conjunction with valves that are not fully pressed and a plunger damper that is moved in front of the horn of the instrument. This creates a roaring, gurgling, rough sound.
The slide is similar to a grace note, but it is an even shorter slide from the grace note to the main note. Sometimes both are struck at the same time (e.g. with the thumb) and only the slide note is then released. The effect is more of letting go of the suggestion tone. This way of playing was already mentioned by Hans Buchner (1483–1538) in his Fundamentum (approx. 1520): “Notes with the curved cauda are called 'Mordentes'. Both notes must always be struck at the same time; the note itself with the middle finger, the one below it with the index finger. "
The technique of an extremely short suggestion is also used on instruments that continuously produce a tone when playing (e.g. bagpipe , hurdy-gurdy ), in order to separate two consecutive notes of the same pitch . From this necessity, instrument-specific decorations such as the "grace notes" on the Great Highland Bagpipe have developed over time. See also short suggestion .
A whole sequence of notes, often a chord from bottom to top, is rolled off before the main note. As with the slide, letting go of the notes gives the effect more.
The hammering is an ornament commonly used in pop . It is a short lead or slide in a triad. This technique was transferred from the guitar to the piano.
Mainly played in major , one often hears the following hammerings, also in arpeggiated form :
- G major sixth chord : Short suggestion from the second a up to the third b. The pitch is a big second.
- G major sixth chord: Short suggestion from the sixth e down to the fifth d. The pitch is a big second.
- G major sixth chord: Short suggestion from the ninth a down to the octave g. Here none a and octave g, not second a and prime g, because the chord occurs in the first inversion. The pitch is a big second.
- G major sixth fourth chord : Short suggestion from the second a to the third b upwards. The pitch is a big second.
- G major sixth fourth chord: Short suggestion from the fourth c down to the third b. The pitch is a small second.
- G major basic position : Short suggestion from the second a to the third b upwards. The pitch is a big second.
The G major chord has an exemplary function here. The predominance of large seconds is noticeable. The most interesting and typical sound is therefore the suggested fourth third with the small second.
Hammering is mainly used in melodic chord breaking play. Examples are an IV-IV-I chord progression in major with the corresponding second third proposal (I), second third proposal (V), second third proposal (IV), all three in the basic position and ninth octave proposal (I sixth chord). As arpeggio connections of the chords, for example, the second suggestion as hammering, then third and second as eighth notes and the root note of the preceding chord as fourths. Rhythmic variations and changes in sequence are possible.
Often used in folk music, a twist on a three-quarter note that starts on the target note and briefly strikes the upper and lower auxiliary notes after a quarter, as is usual with the grace note . The auxiliary notes in this group of five are played so briefly that the rhythmic effect is more important than the actual note value played. This is why the fourth is sometimes played on string instruments instead of the lower auxiliary note if the root note is on the open string.
If a roll falls on a quarter note, it is called a short roll, which consists of the same group of five notes, but emphasizes them differently. The accentuation and the playing of rolls gives the musician a high degree of freedom with regard to his own style, so that accents from triplet rhythms, syncopated accentuations to classic-looking ones are possible and there is no binding rule for this, except that the roll is rhythmic in the melody played has to insert.
- Isolde Ahlgrimm: The ornamentation of music for keyboard instruments. Graz 2005, ISBN 978-3-201-01820-3 .
- David Baker: Jazz improvisation. Advance Music, Rottenburg 1983 (on old and new decorations and other stylistic devices).
- Hermann J. Busch: On the interpretation of French organ music. Merseburger, Kassel 1986. ISBN 3-87537-214-X (on ornaments in French organ music [pp. 65–77]).
- Robert Donington : A Performer's Guide to Baroque Music . Faber & Faber, London, 1975.
- Jacky Dreksler, Quirin Härle: 1000 tips for keyboards. Voggenreiter (for hammering and decorations commonly used in pop).
- Dagmar Glüxam: Decoration. In: Oesterreichisches Musiklexikon . Online edition, Vienna 2002 ff., ISBN 3-7001-3077-5 ; Print edition: Volume 5, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 2006, ISBN 3-7001-3067-8 .
- Frederick Neumann: Ornamentation in Baroque and Post-Baroque Music, with Special Emphasis on JS Bach . Princeton University Press, Princeton 1978, ISBN 0-691-09123-4 (linen), ISBN 0-691-02707-2 (paperback).
- Eugen and Karin Ott : Handbook of the ornament art in music. Ricordi , Milan 1997 ff., ISBN 3-931788-01-6 (so far 10 volumes).
- Riemann music dictionary . Material part. Schott, Mainz.
- James Tyler: A guide to playing the baroque guitar. Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis 2011, ISBN 978-0-253-22289-3 , pp. 18-20 ( Ornament signs ).
- Wieland Ziegenrücker: General music theory with questions and tasks for self-control. German Publishing House for Music, Leipzig 1977; Paperback edition: Wilhelm Goldmann Verlag, and Musikverlag B. Schott's Sons, Mainz 1979, ISBN 3-442-33003-3 , pp. 161–164.
- Baroque Ornamentation: An Introduction ( Memento from January 10, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
- Ornaments. (PDF; 357 kB) Pian-E-Forte:
- ^ Jean-Henry d'Anglebert: Pièces de Clavecin. Édition de 1689, facsimile, ed. by J. Saint-Arroman, Édition JM Fuzeau, Courlay 1999.
- ^ François Couperin: Pièces de Clavecin. Premier Livre (1713), facsimile, ed. by J. Saint-Arroman, Edition JM Fuzeau, Courlay 1988, p. 74 f. ("Explication des agréments, et des signes" = explanation of the decorations and signs).
- ↑ Example: Corelli Op. 5/1 : Sheet music and audio files in the International Music Score Library Project
- ↑ The exact length of the trill cannot be shown in a table and depends on the musical context, so the same wavy line can indicate both a short bulging trill and a longer trill.
- ↑ Bach's term cadenze for the double strike is very strange, since in French the cadence is a trill ( Chambonnières 1670) or a trill with a tail ( d'Anglebert 1689).
- ↑ This could also be seen as a double strike from below and from above, lengthened by a trill. This ornament (as well as some others) is originally from the Pièces de clavecin (1689) by d'Anglebert . The same ornamentation is called “doubled trill” in Tosi (1723) and Agricola (1757). Johann Agricola, Instructions for Singing (translation of Tosis Opinioni de cantori antichi e moderni…, 1723), reprint of the 1757 edition, ed. v. Thomas Seedorf , Bärenreiter, Kassel et al. 2002, p. 101 f.
- ↑ This ornament, too, originally comes from the table by d'Anglebert, 1689.
- ↑ Gerhard Herz: Bach sources in America. Bärenreiter, Kassel 1984, ISBN 3-7618-0724-4 , p. 90.
- ↑ Johann Joachim Quantz: Attempting an instruction to play the flute traversiere. Facsimile reprint of the 3rd edition, Breslau 1789, published by Hans-Peter Schmitz. 4th edition. Bärenreiter, Kassel 1968, p. 77 ff. And p. 83 ff.
↑ The "quiebro" was described by Tomás de Santa María in 1565 , and also by Correa de Arauxo in 1626; calls him "quiebro senzillo" (simple "quiebro"). See:
Tomás de Santa María: Libro llamado Arte de tañer Fantasía, assi para Tecla como para Vihuela, y todo instrumento en que se pudire tañer a tres, ya quarto vozes a mas. In two books, Valladolid 1565, chap. 13-20.
Francisco Correa de Arauxo: Facultad Orgánica (Alcalà 1626). 2 volumes, ed. v. Macario Santiago Kastner (in: Monumentos de la Música española VI ), Barcelona: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones cientificas (CSIC), 1948 & 1952 (new edition 1974 & 1981), vol. 1, p. 54 ("Capitulo quinto ...").
↑ This ornamentation was explained for the first time in an ornamentation table from 1665 in the first Livre d'orgue (organ book) by Guilaume-Gabriel Nivers , and later in all publications of the French harpsichordists. See u. a .: Jean-Henry d'Anglebert: Pièces de Clavecin - Édition de 1689, Facsimile, publ. sous la dir. de J. Saint-Arroman, Courlay: Édition JM Fuzeau, 1999.
Jacques Champion de Chambonnières: Les Pièces de Clavessin, Vol. I & II, 1670. Facsimile, Broude Brothers, New York 1967.
François Couperin: Pièces de Clavecin, Premier Livre (1713), Facsimile, publ. sous la dir. de J. Saint-Arroman, Courlay: Édition JM Fuzeau, 1988.
- ↑ By Couperin in his four books Pièces de clavecin from 1713, 1716, 1722, and 1730; and by Dandrieu in three books from 1724, 1728 and 1734.
- ↑ Johann Agricola, Instructions for Singing (translation of Tosis Opinioni de cantori antichi e moderni…, 1723), reprint of the 1757 edition, ed. v. Thomas Seedorf, Kassel et al .: Bärenreiter, 2002, pp. 99–100 (“half trill”), and pp. 102–104 (Mordent).
- ^ Paul Badura-Skoda: Let's get rid of the wrong pralltriller! In: Early Music 41 (February 2013), pp. 113–118.
- ↑ Brockhaus Riemann Musiklexikon, Mainz 1995, Vol. 4, p. 72