from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Louis Armstrong , one of the most important hot jazz musicians with a great influence on the further development of jazz

Jazz (pronunciation [ d͡ʒæz ] or [ jat͡s ]) is a genre of music that originated around 1900 in the southern United States and was originally mainly produced by Afro-Americans . It has been further developed in a variety of ways, often in crossover with other musical traditions and genres . In the meantime, jazz also includes forms of music that are often only loosely or hardly connected to the Afro-American tradition.

In terms of its artistic importance, jazz is often understood as the American counterpart to classical European music. In addition, it has opened up new possibilities for almost all other branches of music, from pop to folk .

Hallmarks of jazz

Jazz draws on a predominantly European sound system and uses European melodies and harmonics , musical forms ( e.g. song form ), as well as European instruments (wind instruments, piano, guitar, double bass, large and small drums, cymbals). These components, which come from Europe, are used in jazz in their own way. Central is a special rhythm ( swing , groove ) related to a sense of movement , intensive, improvisational and spontaneous interaction (including call and response ) and tone formation based on vocal expression. These elements, especially the rhythm, can be traced back to the musical perception of African musical cultures .

The newer movements in jazz also have individual musical and aesthetic characteristics that make them recognizable as jazz. These features include, above all, the blue notes , but also:

Jazz was created in a process of merging elements of Afro-American folk music ( blues , work song , negro spiritual ) and European-American march, dance and popular music. The history of jazz is "primarily a story of individual and collective musical styles, improvisational strategies, phrasing and intonation ways: in short, an interpretation of history." But it also gives: The Jazz There are no (more) - in the course In the history of jazz, it is becoming increasingly difficult to agree on a uniform definition of this term and to define jazz music solely on the basis of its musical design means.

Central jazz styles

With the increasing spread and popularization, first the jazz criticism and then the jazz research emerged . She understands jazz not only as rousing light music, but also as a cultural achievement to be taken seriously. In this way, she made a decisive contribution to the appreciation and understanding of a larger audience for this music. In doing so, she prepared the ground for the developments that began in the 1940s and which, like modern jazz , go beyond popular music, also found a worldwide audience. However, the jazz criticism, with its categorizations and interpretations, often contradicted the musicians' different and predominantly Afro-American culture.

The jazz critics designed a number of jazz styles and interpreted their sequence in such a way that the jazz history based on blues, gospel and ragtime appeared to be an approximately "logical" development at least until the 1960s: New Orleans Jazz / Dixieland Jazz ; Chicago Jazz ; Swing ; Bebop ; Cool Jazz / West Coast Jazz ; Hard bop / east coast jazz ; Free jazz ; Fusion / rock jazz . From around 1970 the diversity of the different styles increased considerably and with them also contradicting views of what is important in jazz, which developments are trend-setting and which new musicians are to be regarded as important. From the 1970s onwards, it was no longer possible to achieve a generally recognized representation of a stylistic development. Today several, sometimes different names are used for styles, currents and musical circles. From a more recent perspective, the styles of the past are also sometimes enriched with additional style names (“ Latin Jazz ”, “ Modal Jazz ”) and assessed differently. All these categorizations are fundamentally questioned by musicians, but also by jazz critics and researchers themselves. However, they have remained in use for general guidance.

New Orleans Jazz (from 1905)

The Algiers Brass Band in New Orleans

New Orleans Jazz developed in New Orleans, Louisiana in the early 20th century and spread to Chicago, Illinois and New York through New Orleans bands in the 1910s. New Orleans jazz is often seen as the first real jazz style. It was also the first music to be cited under the term jazz . Before 1917 the word jazz was often spelled "Jass". Well-known representatives of New Orleans jazz were Kid Ory and Louis Armstrong , who worked in many different areas of jazz. The historical predecessor was the music of the marching bands , hymns, Negro spirituals and blues , but also the cakewalk and ragtime. His stylistic features are: collective improvisation , breaks , the trumpet as the main voice (played around by the other wind players). In the 1950s, New Orleans jazz experienced a renaissance under the name New Orleans Revival.

Dixieland Jazz (from 1910)

Due to the racial segregation at the time, bands were separated according to skin color. New Orleans has had both African American and white bands from the start. They often gave each other musical duels in the streets. Finally a white variety of New Orleans jazz developed, the Dixieland . The Original Dixieland Jass Band recorded their first shellac record on February 26, 1917 , which was released in May 1917 and became a million-dollar hit. With her, jazz began to establish itself worldwide. In the case of Dixieland, the original tone formation, grinding tones, expressive vibrato and overall expression receded. The melodies were smoother, the harmonies cleaner, and the technique more accomplished. However, Dixieland Jazz cannot be sharply differentiated from New Orleans Jazz. Over time, musicians played both directions regardless of their skin color. Today there are three mainstreams of Dixieland Jazz: the Chicago Style, West Coast Revival and New Orleans Traditional.

Chicago Jazz (from 1919)

In Chicago, the New Orleans Jazz and Dixieland Jazz of the professionals from the south found many imitators. This included young amateurs in particular, mostly schoolchildren and students. They did not succeed in reproducing the complex constructions equally. Therefore a new style was developed, the Chicago Jazz . The melodies no longer cross each other, but lie parallel to each other. In contrast to the collective improvisation of New Orleans Jazz, the individual solos are more important. For the first time the saxophone appears as an important instrument. An important representative of this style was Bix Beiderbecke .

Django Reinhardt , one of the great jazz guitarists of his time

Swing (from 1926)

The Swing was the most popular style of jazz history. It was created in the mid to late 1920s. Due to the global economic crisis, the musicians formed so-called big bands , as they could no longer survive as individuals in this profession. The swing had its heyday between 1935 and 1945. Kansas City Jazz and Western Swing are initially regional sub-styles of swing, but from the mid-1930s they also gained supraregional and international importance. During this time, gospel also took over a lot from the jazz harmonic and later influenced rhythm and blues with it.

In Europe, gypsy jazz or jazz manouche developed since the late 1920s . The best-known representative of this direction was the guitarist Django Reinhardt , who played a decisive role in shaping this style with his extraordinary fingering techniques and his virtuosity. Gypsy jazz emerged as a European offshoot of Anglo-American swing and was influenced by many European musical styles, in particular the Valse Musette and the Hungarian Csárdás. Gypsy jazz or jazz manouche was also called "string jazz" because it was mainly played with stringed instruments such as guitar, violin and double bass in the line-up of the early Quintette du Hot Club de France .

Bebop (from 1940)

Dizzy Gillespie - pioneer of bebop and Latin jazz

Bebop developed from 1940 and laid the foundations for modern jazz. Special features of bebop are greater rhythmic freedom for drums and bass, extremely fast tempos and more complex harmony schemes than in swing, as well as the introduction of the doubling of tempo in solo improvisations. At the same time, the connection to a topic loosened. Musicians like Charlie Parker usually only resorted to the formal framework and the harmony sequences of a piece of music and largely disregarded the melody of the theme in the improvisations. Another characteristic of bebop is improvisation over a longer period of time, sometimes starting or ending in the middle of a chorus . Mixed forms of this modern jazz with swing were initially marketed under the name mainstream jazz .

Latin Jazz (from 1947)

Latin jazz is a variety of modern jazz, which is characterized primarily by the adoption of rhythms and sometimes compositions from the repertoire of Latin American music . At first it was mainly a connection of jazz with elements of different styles from the Caribbean , whereby the music of Cuba was given a key position. In a broader sense, the term also includes influences from Brazilian popular music . The pioneer of Latin jazz was Dizzy Gillespie . In 1947 he performed the “Afro-Cuban Drums Suite” at Carnegie Hall in New York together with Cuban percussionists.

Cool Jazz (from 1948)

Cool Jazz was developed out of bebop in New York in the late 1940s . The term “cool” refers to a more introverted attitude towards making music. Cool jazz with pioneers such as Lennie Tristano or Miles Davis is more concert-oriented and prefers slower tempos and sweeping melodies. The West Coast Jazz is like to meet one resulting in California melodic variant of this style, which clearly entertainment needs.

Hard Bop (from 1955)

The hard bop (also hard bop) is a further development of the bebop . He took up elements from the newer Afro-American light music, which resulted in an overall rhythmically accentuated playing style geared towards the time units. Soul Jazz is the funky variant that emerged in the early 60s.

Pharoah Sanders also brings the intensity of free play into contemporary forms (in the background Rob Mazurek ).

Free Jazz (from the late 1950s)

On the one hand, free jazz is a historical term for free, unbound improvisation play in jazz since the 1960s. On the other hand, it is a paradigm that still radiates today , which provides the opportunity for ever new forms of jazz to develop freely. A stylistic analysis is therefore only possible to a limited extent. In contemporary avant-garde jazz - a later, intellectual variant of free jazz - one usually falls back on continuous meters. In addition, a form of spontaneous play has recently opened up with free improvisation , which, however, abandons the references and reconnections to jazz and breaks new ground beyond established genres.

Jazz Fusion (from the late 1960s)

Jazz Fusion is a genre that combines jazz with other styles, especially rock and funk music. Typically, jazz musicians mix jazz techniques using electrically amplified instruments such as the electric guitar , the electric piano or the synthesizer with rhythmic structures of Afro-American pop music. These can be the grooves of soul music , those of rhythm and blues or binary rhythms of rock music. Jazz radio is a funky variant of fusion music. To the same extent, how jazz musicians of the rock or funk music approached (for example, Herbie Hancock ), there was also a merger from the other side: rock musicians such as Brian Auger , Al Kooper and bands such as embryo created the Rock Jazz similar to the jazz-rock of Miles Davis or Weather Report .

Contemporary developments

AACM saxophonist Matana Roberts at the Moers Festival 2006

Modern creative

Modern Creative is a jazz style that takes up the stylistic diversity of modern jazz in a contemporary way. It is seen as a further development of free jazz and was created through the diverse musical means that are accessible to musicians today. Many jazz musicians have developed different personal improvisation languages ​​from this. So they can express themselves improvisationally in the various contemporary jazz styles. Musicians like Paul Bley , James Carter , Theo Jörgensmann or Michael Moore can be attributed to Modern Creative Jazz .

World jazz or ethno jazz

Unlike earlier encounters between jazz musicians and musicians from other musical cultures, in which exotic topics were dealt with using the tools of jazz stylistics, from the 1970s onwards, connections between jazz and "non-western" music emerged, in which the jazz character was in favor of an equal exchange and the endeavor to actually merge has been postponed (for example in the Shakti or Codona groups ). For these attempts at a musical synthesis terms such as “World Jazz” or “ Ethno-Jazz ” became common. The term " World Music " is also understood in a wider way, in the sense of a common ground on which all musical cultures are based, a world-spanning musical language and even in the sense of a mapping of universal (spiritual) world processes in music.


Supporters of “neotraditionalism” reject the developments of free jazz and jazz fusion as contradicting the essence of jazz and see the elements of blues and swing as indispensable components of jazz. The so-called " neobop " - a current form of a jazz tradition derived from bebop and hardbop - forms an essential part of neo-traditionalism, but goes far beyond that: on the one hand, through a reference to older styles (Louis Armstrong serves as an important point of reference), on the other through a strong influence of so-called modal jazz (the model of the Miles Davis quintets is omnipresent). The trumpeter Wynton Marsalis is in the foreground of the movement's public attention .


The term “neoclassicism” is used to denote a style that is both the logical consequence and the departure from free jazz. It emerged from the "gesture of long improvisational free flight", but has given up the aesthetics of the avant-garde . This trend shares with neotraditionalism (“classicism” in Berendt's sense) the appreciation for the Afro-American jazz tradition, but brings the forms and means of expression of jazz as a whole into its understanding of tradition. Protagonists of this style, which has been moving more and more towards neo-traditionalism since the 1990s, include: a. Archie Shepp or David Murray . For example, the scream-like overblowing effects of free jazz are melodised in the playing of tenor saxophonist David Murray and thus appear more like modern forms of ancient blues shouts than they should be understood in an avant-garde sense.

Acid jazz

The term acid jazz was coined in the late 1980s when mainly British DJs rediscovered danceable soul and funk jazz recordings from the 1960s and 1970s and played them in discos . Many recordings of the time were republished under this name. In the course of this revival, new formations were formed that combined jazz with soul and funk . Electronic sound generators were also used, especially for the beat , but also otherwise in the arrangement. Acid jazz works as a danceable club sound and is close to the music genre disco .


“Downtown” is a name for an almost exclusively Euro-American scene that has developed a specific style in downtown Manhattan. In the 1980s she first led jazz into extremely avant-garde areas (“ noise music ”, use of noises instead of tones) with connections to “ new music ” and avant-garde rock music. From this she developed an extremely eclectic understanding of music: the most diverse types of music ( cartoon music , avant-garde jazz, grindcore , etc.) are used equally - often like collages and in rapidly changing sequences. Alto saxophonist John Zorn is considered to be the central personality of this scene .

Imaginary folklore

In the concept of imaginary folklore , folkloric melodies or melodies perceived as folkloric or their rhythmic structures form the starting point for the improvisations. In addition to musicians from the Association à la Recherche d'un Folklore Imaginaire (ARFI) such as Louis Sclavis , Gianluigi Trovesi and now also Norbert Stein from Germany are among the leading representatives of this direction.


Steve Coleman (Paris 2004), most important representative of the M-Base movement

The music of the outstanding representatives of the M-Base group of musicians is highly complex, structured and virtuoso, incorporates numerous elements of the jazz tradition, but emphasizes the relevance to the present and is anchored in current Afro-American groove music.

Nu jazz

Nu Jazz (sometimes referred to as Electro Jazz ) is a genre of electronic music from the late 1990s and 2000s. Nu jazz can also only be described as an original jazz style to a limited extent, since the basis of this music is mostly electronic music, which is combined with jazz elements. Like electronica or downtempo , nu jazz is not precisely defined, but is used in many ways and used for many different musical variations. Nu Jazz, for example, describes both drum and bass or house with jazz echoes and broken beats .

Rebekka Bakken (Vienna 2007)

Smooth jazz or pop jazz

Smooth jazz is often assigned to easy listening music. Originating from jazz-rock (fusion) in the 1970s, this melodic variety combines jazz with the rhythmic textures of pop music. Smooth jazz is predominantly a radio format in North America that became very popular there in the 1990s. The pioneers include Bob James , Lee Ritenour and Grover Washington Jr. Particularly successful performers are George Benson and Kenny G. and in Germany Till Brönner . In recent years jazz music has been redefined using popular music , primarily through singers such as Silje Nergaard , Rebekka Bakken , Katie Melua , Norah Jones , Viktoria Tolstoy and Solveig Slettahjell . The term pop jazz is used here (see also pop jazz ).

Jazz rap

With the emergence of hip-hop as a youth culture, jazz-rap music was also integrated into jazz. The Jazzkantine is a representative of jazz rap in Germany . The band project Jazzmatazz is regarded as a pioneer of this type of jazz .


The Electro Swing is a form of contemporary electronic dance music and uses in retro style melodies, sometimes instrumentation from jazz and popular music from the 1920s to 1950s. They are underlaid with electronic sounds and beats.

Musical form

In comparison with the “architecture of great form” in European concert music with the increasingly large-scale complex structure of its compositions, jazz (similar to African and Indian forms of music) mostly appears simple. In accordance with the great importance of improvisation and groove in jazz, the musical design is very much embedded in the course of time, with a fundamentally open ending. Jazz is therefore largely organized in series (running one behind the other) and therefore tends towards modular , smaller design units . According to the musicologist and pianist Vijay Iyer , the focus “instead of the large-scale hierarchical form” is increasingly “on the fine-grained rhythmic details and the hierarchy of rhythmic overlays. Therefore, the larger musical forms resulting emergent from the improvised design of this little musical ingredients. "

Formally closer proximity to concert music of the European tradition was sought only in part. First of all, Duke Ellington should be mentioned with compositions such as the Diminuendo And Crescendo In Blue or the Suite Black, Brown and Beige . The progressive jazz of Stan Kenton and above all the third stream of Gunther Schuller , Charles Mingus or John Lewis have continued on this path. More often, however, in the past, the aesthetic attitude from concert music in Europe was transferred to less complex pieces of music in the song characteristics and the improvisation played in them, for example by Dave Brubeck or Jutta Hipp .

In some jazz currents (for example Modern Creative or M-Base) improvisations are based on their own compositions, in others, proven standards and well-known songs from other musical genres are often used.

Jazz standards

A jazz standard is a melody with a fixed harmony sequence that is often used as the theme and material of a jazz improvisation. Usually the topic is introduced at the beginning and at the end of the piece; in between there are improvisations (almost always in a solo sequence). Standards have come from hits , chansons , musicals , film music and original compositions by jazz musicians since around 1930 . They belong to the basic repertoire of a traditionally oriented jazz musician . Since the 1940s, bebop musicians have been using such well-known songs and writing new melodies over their chord progressions or keeping the melody but changing the chord progressions (harmonies) of these songs. In this way, new standards were created, the newly developed topics of which are designated with the technical term bebop head .

Many jazz musicians play these melodies and improvise over them or over the chord progression formed by melodies. The musical arrangements for this vary from style to style. Some jazz groups use a selection of jazz standards generally recognized in jazz, which various musicians can often quickly agree on. This standardization forms the basis for general understanding. This allows them to give a concert without a rehearsal, even if they have never met before. Even at the spontaneous jazz musicians' meetings, the jam sessions , standards play a binding role. A compilation of the most important and most played jazz standards can be found in the so-called Real Book , which is the basis for most sessions.

Training and promotion

From the beginning of the 1960s, in Europe from around 1970, there was a strong upswing in jazz training. In addition to independent academic training courses in the “motherland” of jazz such as the Berklee College of Music , the New England Conservatory of Music or the Juilliard School , jazz could now also be studied at the Graz University of Art . The Swiss Jazz School has been offering training opportunities in Switzerland since then . In Germany it has been customary since the 1980s for music universities to have their own courses in jazz and popular music. In recent years, competitions such as youth jazz and, above all, jazz prizes have arisen in most countries , with which either promising young musicians are appropriately recognized and promoted or deserving musicians are honored.

The young jazz musicians today are generally at a very good technical level. Most of these up-and-coming artists fixate themselves primarily on imitating widely recognized forms of jazz. A few, however, confidently implement their own ideas in new forms of musical design.


Early sheet music edition of That Funny Jas Band from Dixieland (1916, in today's unusual spelling)

The origin of the term jazz is unclear. In the beginning, early jazz was often referred to as “hot ragtime” or simply “ragtime”. For a long time it was assumed that the term appeared as early as 1909 in Cal Stewart's song Uncle Josh in Society : "One lady asked me if I danced the jazz ...", probably meaning a kind of ragtime dance. In fact, however, this term was only included in a later recording. Possibly the derivation of the word “jass” or “jazz” from the use of the term “jasm” (French dictionary from 1860) for energy , dynamism and vitality , as a suitable replacement term for African dance names (such as Mandingo “jasi” or Temne “ yas "), at least another slang word (" jism ") is also derived from this. "Jasi" is not only the name of a dance, but also stands for "to get excited".

The first documented use of the word "jazz" is in sports journalism in California in April 1912, when a baseball player named Ben Henderson described his throwing technique to a Los Angeles Times reporter as "jazz ball," which was soon followed in 1913 by reporters in the San Francisco area for an energetic game with "Pep" was picked up. At that time, however, “jazz” was not used as a musical term (in New Orleans it was called a hot variant of syncopated music).

There are different versions of the transfer of the term to music:

  • According to the drummer and band leader Art Hickman, this happened when the baseball team of the San Francisco Seals met with his ragtime band in their training camp in the spa town of Boyes Springs. He only used this for a particularly "energetic" way of playing and did not use it to describe the style of his band.
  • According to his banjo player Bert Kelly (in a 1957 letter to Variety and unpublished memoir) who became a Chicago band leader in 1914, his formation was the first to use the word for their style of play.

Is detectable Jazz as a label for the new form of music for the first time in an article in the Chicago Tribune by Gordon Seagrove of 11 June 1915 entitled Blues is Jazz and Blues Jazz is . The term soon took root and can then be found in a large number of articles.

From 1915 at the latest, there were groups from New Orleans who had “Jass” or “Jazz” in their names or who used them to describe their music. The band leader Tom Brown claimed to have been the first to use this word to describe a band more precisely, which sparked a heated argument with Nick LaRocca of the Original Dixieland Jass Band . In December 1916, the (white) comedian duo Arthur Collins & Byron G. Harlan recorded the song That Funny Jas Band from Dixieland , at the end of which an attempt was made to introduce typical instrumental noises that characterize a jazz band.

The English verb "to jazz" for "to speed or liven up", to get faster or to liven up, to get going, is documented from 1917 onwards.

Jazz - a racist term?

Building on Alfons M. Dauer , who pointed out the initially stigmatizing effect of the term jazz , the musicologist Maximilian Hendler emphasizes “that the term jazz originally had neither musical nor stylistic, but social connotations. He expressed a derogatory judgment of the master's society - the bearer of the superstructure - against all forms of music that did not correspond to the norms set by it . "

Numerous jazz musicians therefore rejected the term jazz for their music ; that is "a word of the white man," said Miles Davis . In the 1970s, the Art Ensemble of Chicago propagated the term Great Black Music in its place , but this did not catch on. Trumpeter Nicholas Payton proposed in 2011 to replace the term jazz with Black American Music (BAM) , as the word jazz had a racist connotation and BAM was an invention of black Americans, which should be recognized. Other musicians have made similar statements, such as Orrin Evans , who said that jazz was “a repressive, colonialist slave term and I don't want anything to do with it,” or Archie Shepp , who said, “I insisted that my students avoid the word jazz in their seminar papers. ”Rather, this music began in Africa, with call and response, clapping hands, stamping feet, blues scales that you would not find in Mozart or Anton Webern , but in small tribes in West Africa.

See also

Portal: Jazz  - Overview of Wikipedia content on the topic of jazz


reference books


Web links

Commons : Jazz  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikibooks: Jazz guitar  - learning and teaching materials
Wikiquote: Jazz  Quotes
Wiktionary: Jazz  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. See John Miller Chernoff: Rhythms of the community. Munich 1994 (1979) ISBN 3-923804-39-3 ; Gerhard Kubik , African elements in jazz - European elements in popular music in Africa. In: G. Kubik: To understand African music. Leipzig 1988. ISBN 3-379-00356-5 , p. 322 ff.
  2. Wolfram Knauer An overview of jazz history.
  3. Hans-Jürgen Schaal (Ed.): Jazz standards. The encyclopedia. 3rd, revised edition. Bärenreiter, Kassel u. a. 2004, ISBN 3-7618-1414-3 , p. 7.
  4. Cf. Ekkehard Jost Jazz , in Wolf Kampmann Reclam's Jazzlexikon. Stuttgart 2003, p. 632 f. Jost emphasizes improvisation, interaction, rhythm and the self-centeredness of musical expression as the aesthetic premises of jazz music throughout its entire development.
  5. Bert Noglik 100 years of jazz on record (Deutsche Welle)
  6. ^ Andre Asriel: Jazz: Aspects and Analyzes. Berlin 1985, p. 186
  7. Quotation from Hannah Dübgen, Blue Notes on Black and White Keys: Stations and aspects of piano jazz of the 1970s with special consideration of the solo improvisations by Keith Jarrett, Chick Corea and Alexander von Schlippenbach . 2003.
  8. ^ V. Iyer, Microstructures of Feel, Macrostructures of Sound: Embodied Cognition in West African and African-American Musics. Diss .: Berkeley 1998 ( Memento from October 29, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  9. ^ Peter W. Schatt, "Jazz" in Art Music: Studies on the Function of Afro-American Music in Compositions of the 20th Century. Kassel 1995. ISBN 3-7649-2476-4
  10. ^ Lewis Porter Jazz: A Century of Change New York 1997, p. 9
  11. See Oxford English Dictionary Online
  12. Jan Bäumer The Sound of a City? New York and Bebop 1941–1949 Münster New York 2014, p. 13 f.
  13. Article Ben's Jazz Curve , Los Angeles Times, April 2, 1912
  14. Ben Zimmer: How baseball gave us 'jazz'. The surprising origins of a 100-year-old word, The Boston Globe, March 25, 2012
  15. Dave Wilton, Jazz, an unlikely, but true american journey , Oxford Dictionary Language Matters, April 4, 2015. Thereafter, this discovery was made by New York librarian George Thompson in 2003 when the Los Angeles Times archive was brought online and systematic Enabled word searches
  16. First from sports reporter ET "Scoop" Gleason in the San Francisco Bulletin of March 6, 1913 about the Seals game at Boyes Springs training camp: What is the "jazz"? Why, it's a little of that "old life", the "gin-i-ker", the "pep", otherwise known as the enthusiasalum.
  17. See New Orleans Biographical Listings. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on November 27, 2010 ; accessed on October 15, 2014 . and Wolfram Knauer: "Jazz". An overview of jazz history. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on August 20, 2014 ; accessed on October 15, 2014 .
  18. Collins and Harlan: That Funny Jas Band from Dixieland.  - Internet Archive
  19. Alfons M. Duration Don't Call My Music Jazz In: Helmut Rösing (ed.): Aspects of the history of popular music (= contributions to popular music research 11), Baden-Baden 1992, pp. 42–55.
  20. ^ Maximilian Hendler: Prehistory of Jazz. Graz 2008, p. 261.
  21. "I hate the word jazz that the whites have stuck to us, I just play black music." Cf. I hate the word jazz In: Die Zeit No. 04 of January 21, 2010.
  22. Süddeutsche Zeitung . No. 101 v. May 2, 2012, features section, p. 11.
  23. ^ The Word "Jazz" Will Now Be Racist. In: The Philly Post. January 10, 2012.
  24. Machine guns don't rust. A visit to the saxophonist and jazz revolutionary Archie Shepp, who is celebrating his 75th birthday in Paris, by Stefan Hentz. In: The time . No. 22 of May 24, 2012, p. 57.