Groove (music)

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The term groove (also known as "the piece groovt", "groovy"), which was adopted from American English into German , is interpreted several times and "multidimensional":

  • as musical specialist terminus of a typical for a music rhythm figure or rhythmic-metric basic model or pattern (for example, the solid rhythm of the Cha-Cha-Cha or the Bolero would be such a groove). One differentiates among other things different time signatures and within these binary and ternary grooves as well as the distribution of the accents. Swing, for example, is characterized by four-four time and the repeating pattern of a quarter note, a triplet quarter and a triplet eighth. The song “Take Five” is in five-four time and can be almost identified by the distinctive pattern of triplet quarters, quarters, triplet eighth, quarters, quarters, quarters and the emphasis on 1 and 4.
  • The swinging play and interplay of musicians in the microtiming area (see Swing (rhythm) #production and effect ). A “laid back” -played four-four time (“laid back” in the sense of withdrawn, slowed down) sounds different than when it is being played. The means for creating a groove feeling are presumably dependent on the respective musical style: Experimental studies show that, for example, drum rhythms stimulate the strongest sense of movement when the pattern is presented without micro-temporal fluctuations (quantized). This " aesthetic of exactness" initially only applies to certain forms of rock music . However, the current findings on groove perception and microrhythmic deviation, which can also only serve to better perceive individual instruments, can be viewed as mixed. A study from 2016 revealed z. B. no differences between exact, "quantized" timing and certain asynchronicities with regard to the groove perception in contemporary music, while a work by Benjamin Burkhart regards the interplay of micro and macro timing, in a specific context, as relevant groove criteria. In music with an African heritage, the pulses of the metric structure are stretched and stretched in a cyclically recurring pattern. In binary meter, such as 4/4 time, there is the so-called swing or shuffle, which usually consists of a long pulse on the emphasized beats and followed by a short pulse on the unstressed beats (off-beat) becomes (long-short pattern). In ternary meter, such as 6/8 time, there is a three-part division of the quarter notes (beats) into pulses of different lengths, such as long-medium-short or short-medium-long. In polymetric music, the binary and ternary forms are often superimposed, creating a cyclical timing pattern with a length of six pulses.
  • Being able to carry away or animate the audience to interact (rocking along to the rhythm, clapping, snapping fingers, dancing)
  • The feeling that then arises in the listener, which is generated by the rhythm, tension and tempo of the piece of music (see Drive ).
  • Also the euphoria that sets in (jazz) musicians when the interaction works

Inspirational groove can be found not only in rhythmically accented modern light music , especially in those styles that have their roots in Afro-American music (e.g. rhythm and blues , funk , jazz , soul , salsa , rock , pop and Hip-hop ), but e.g. B. also in Bach's music. Some music lovers call the concept of groove a subjective and elusive term; However, among experienced musicians there is a common, intuitive and practice-based understanding and feeling for the term groove.

The term emerged in the second half of the 20th century and is derived from the image of the always constant furrow (Engl. Groove = "rut", "Groove", "track"), which sets the farmers march direction. The record grooves are also called “grooves” in English, as are the furrows on a car tire profile. The “groove” in the rhythm is what is called the riff in the melody , but in contrast to the riff it runs through the entire piece of music. Both fall under the umbrella term of ostinato ( Italian , derived from Latin obstinatus = "stubborn", "stubborn") - a repetitive musical phrase.

The groove provides a rhythmic, often syncopated, basic pattern that can be varied in the sequence and against which the other musicians allude. This tension gives the groove a special charm. A groove has an unconscious psychomotor stimulating effect on the listener. The groove is therefore particularly important in dance music styles such as funk or disco . A good example is the music of James Brown in the early 1970s.

A well-known example of how the groove established itself in white mainstream pop is the pop song "Take a Chance On Me" by ABBA . While Agnetha and Frida sing the melody voices, Benny and Björn chant the groove “Take a chance, take a chance, take a chance, take a chance”.

“Being in the groove” is, on the one hand, an expression of agreement in actions of several people B. the interplay of several musicians, on the other hand the term for a feeling of happiness that is triggered by psychomotor stimulation such as dancing , but also simply the perception of the flow of a piece of music.

See also

Web links

  • Heinrich Klingmann: Academic Grooves. (PDF; 240 kB). In: The Groove Issue. (= PopScriptum. No. 11). 2010.

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d Martin Pfleiderer : Dimensions of the groove experience. An empirical study. (PDF; 214 kB)
  2. laid back., accessed July 3, 2014 .
  3. J. Frühauf, R. Copyz, F. Platz: Music on the timing grid: The influence of microtiming on the perceived groove quality of a simple drum pattern performance . In: Musicae Scientiae . tape 17 , no. 2 , 2013, p. 246-260 , doi : 10.1177 / 1029864913486793 .
  4. Olivier Senn, Lorenz Kilchenmann, Richard von Georgi, Claudia Bullerjahn: The Effect of Expert Performance Microtiming on Listeners' Experience of Groove in Swing or Funk Music . In: Frontiers in Psychology . tape 7 , 2016, ISSN  1664-1078 , doi : 10.3389 / fpsyg.2016.01487 ( [accessed October 11, 2017]).
  5. Benjamin Burkhart: Rhythm and microtiming in reggae and dancehall riddims. For the analysis of style-specific design methods and lines of development. (PDF) January 28, 2015, accessed October 11, 2017 .
  6. ^ MW Butterfield: Why Do Jazz Musicians Swing Their Eighth Notes? In: Music Theory Spectrum . Vol. 33, No. 1, 2011, p. 3-26 .
  7. ^ R. Polak: Rhythmic Feel as Meter: Non-Isochronous Beat Subdivision in Jembe Music from Mali . In: Music Theory Online . tape 16 , no. 4 , 2010.
  8. Oliver Weede: Polymetric Rhythmic Feel for a Cognitive Drum Computer . In: Carsten Busch, Jürgen Sieck (Ed.): Culture and Computer Science . Werner Hülsbusch Verlag, Berlin 2016, ISBN 978-3-86488-103-9 , pp. 281-294 .