Dance (around 1200 like English dance borrowed from the old French danse , whose further origin is controversial. In old German-language publications also "Tantz" and "Dantz"; in Spanish and thus also in Flamenco baile ) the implementation of inspiration (mostly music and / or rhythm) in motion. Dancing is a ritual , a custom , a performing arts , an occupation , a sport , a form of therapy , a form of social interaction or simply an expression of feeling .
Other internationally used names for dance titles are Danza and Danca .
Dancing has many functions in society, but it can also be an end in itself or a pastime.
Ritualized dancing expresses togetherness and emotions and can accompany the acceptance of new members into a community as a festive initiation rite, for example when young girls are introduced to society at the debutante ball or when students celebrate a passed exam at the prom . Against a religious background, gods are honored with dance rituals or asked for assistance, while evil spirits are warded off or driven away.
Dancing as a sport promotes muscle building, motor skills, coordination and a sense of balance. The successful learning, planning and implementation of complex movement sequences builds self-confidence and supports a healthy relationship with one's own body.
As an art form , dancing is used to depict feelings and actions. Facial expressions, gestures and whole-body dance movements, together with music, form the demanding work material of artistic dance, which shows the viewer the elegance and expressiveness of the human body.
The oldest surviving documentations of dancing are Indian cave paintings , dating from 5000 to 2000 BC. Originated in BC; a painting in the Bhimbetka caves shows a row dance formation . Representations of the earliest forms of Hinduism show the god Shiva as Natraj , the "king of dance". In India, between 400 and 200 BC Chr. Arising Natyashastra , the "sacred science of dance," the most influential early work on dance.
The ancient Greeks systematized the dance according to deities and the emotional expressions associated with them. Homer's description of the dance chorea in the Iliad from the 8th to 6th centuries BC is an important testimony to the times . Chr. Ecstatic dances were part of the Dionysia , make up later drama and comedy developed. In these forms of theater, a choir often played, whose movements were noted as so-called choreography in the pieces; from this the modern term choreography developed . Terpsichore , who dances happily in a round dance, is the muse for choral lyric and dance (attribute: lyre ).
Although there was probably always dancing, especially (for example, as a peasant dance ) at the farmers' seasonal festivals, there is little material on this. A marked change occurred in the early 15th century when mixed-couple ballroom dancing became a popular pastime in most European courts. The appearance of the first court dance masters and the appearance of the first dance manuals underscore the fact that dance became part of the noble lifestyle. The court poet Antonio Cornazzano (1429–1484) wrote a Libro sull'arte del danzatore (around 1455) in addition to numerous other writings . The danse basse , in vogue throughout the Renaissance , was essentially a processional dance with dignified ceremonial movements that even the ladies in their uncomfortable clothes could perform. The pavane (peacock dance) was one of the most popular dances of this type . The cheerfulness and inclination for freer customs of the early 16th century then led to the introduction of danse haute , which required faster movements, jumps and physical agility. The first such dance was the Gaillarde from Italy , which was mostly danced with various steps and jumps without touching the hands. The Gaillarde usually followed the Pavane. The Volta ( shown vividly in the film Elisabeth with Cate Blanchett as Elisabeth I ) was a popular danse haute , in which the man turned his partner and lifted her onto his knee. Also courante , allemande and the very popular Gavotte of the 17th century were among them.
In lute tablatures of the 16th century, dance (often written as “Tantz” or “Dantz” in German-speaking countries) is found as an instrumental piece or instrumental accompaniment. For example as Tantz (or also Affen Tantz and Der stifl Tantz ) in Stephan Craus' lute book or in the work of Hans Judenkönig from the first half of the 16th century or as Rossina (a Welsh dance) in Ain schone kunstliche instruction by Hans Judenkönig , but also in anonymous records (e.g. the Welsche dance in a lute manuscript.
The lively, exuberant dances of the social upper class of the 16th century were stylized adoptions of the dances of the lower classes. In the second half of the 16th century the dances became more uniform and at the same time more spectacular. Dance schools at the main European courts taught the nobility, so the most popular dances could easily be transferred from one country to another. Skilled impresarios organized splendid performances in which dances, singing , recitation and pantomime were performed in a richly decorated setting. These were the Italian balli , the French ballets de cour and the English masques (mask games), the planning and performance of which the royal family themselves often participated in. Orchésographie (1588) by Thoinot Arbeau is considered the best contemporary source for the dance of the late Renaissance.
There is an abundance of dance forms that is difficult to understand; the list of dances brings together the most important dances in the world. At this point only the most famous dances and those dance forms that stand out from the crowd due to their unique characteristics are presented.
The following breakdown serves only as a rough guide and is not a binding categorization. The attempt to organize dances in an all-encompassing system has repeatedly turned out to be sterile in the past. It is possible to find characteristics according to which dances can be roughly grouped, but there are hardly any hard criteria that make a sharp distinction.
A common categorization is according to the social occasion or purpose of the dance. Depending on the occasion, one knows ritual dances that have a religious background, folk dances that belong to popular customs and social dances that are played for social occasions of all kinds. According to the purpose, a distinction is made between art dance, an art form in itself, tournament dance , which is used for sporting competition, show dance, which is purely entertaining, and advertising dance, which is used as partner advertising.
The division according to the number of dancers into individual dance , couple dance and group dance is also popular; The problem here is that many dances are danced in several constellations. In the group dance, a distinction according to the geometrical arrangement of the dancers on between circle dance , dance chain (one after another) and series dance (side by side); there is also formation dance , in which the formation of the dancers changes frequently.
There are numerous other characteristics according to which dances can be divided, above all characteristics of the dance technique, but these are relatively rare.
Folkloric, historical and spiritual dance
Folk dance occupies a prominent position in many matters . The sub- articles African dance , Chinese dance and Bolivian dances deal specifically with the diversity of this area. Well-known folk dances of the German-speaking area are the Schuhplattler and the Landler , from which the Viennese waltz later developed. An example of an internationally known folk dance is the Hawaiian hula . Technically outstanding folk dances are the South Pacific seated dance , which is danced while seated, and the Scottish sword dance , which is danced with swords.
Special dance forms have become an indispensable part of the folk tradition of Carnival, Mardi Gras and Mardi Gras . If one thinks of the guard dance in view of the German tradition, the Brazilian samba of the Carnival in Rio de Janeiro is internationally well-known .
Under the term historical dance , dancers all over the world try to recreate dances that practically no longer exist today and can only be reconstructed from written or pictorial sources. This area includes dances such as the Pavane , known from traditional music , the polonaise , which has become part of the modern carnival, and the quadrille , which is especially known to lovers of crossword puzzles.
Dance forms such as trance dance or church dance aim to have spiritual experiences while dancing. The focus here is mostly on concentrating on one's own body in connection with meditation . The Turkish dervishes are famous for this type of dancing .
In his dissertation (with Arnd Krüger ) at the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Detlef Kappert empirically compared the training in the various dance forms (ballet, Caribbean, New York) and found that, regardless of the different terminology in each case, the learning progress , the internalization of the movement and the perfecting of the body takes place in similar steps.
Alongside drama and opera, stage dance is one of the traditional branches of theater. Due to its long tradition, classical ballet in particular has strongly influenced numerous other dance forms. Classic ballet terms such as pas de deux have found their place in colloquial language and terms such as lace dance and tutu are part of general education. At the beginning of the 20th century, expressive dance emerged as a countermovement to ballet. A specific further development since the 1960s, especially by Pina Bausch, is dance theater . At the same time, modern dance developed in the USA . In the meantime, the artistic contemporary dance under the collective term contemporary dance offers an aesthetically very broad spectrum of abstract and narrative dance art. In cross-genre works by contemporary choreographers, works of current social relevance are created.
The ballroom dancing is marked by the world dance program with the three genres of music waltz , disco and swing that are internationally played wherever ballroom dancing takes place. These are supplemented by regionally emerging music styles Latino and Tango .
However, salsa has also become popular with its other dances, merengue and bachata , which are also taught in classical dance schools, but has also become a separate salsa scene with its own dance schools. A tango scene of its own has also established itself around the original Tango Argentino . Tango also includes the vals (tango waltz) and the cheerful milonga .
Ballroom dancing also includes the mostly very short-lived fashion dances, which are often danced to a fixed piece of music, such as the lambada . There are also party dances , which are danced in the group according to a fixed choreography to a given piece of music; one of the oldest party dances is Memphis , one of the most famous is the Time Warp of the Rocky Horror Picture Show .
A popular modern representative of the dances with "announcer" is the square dance . Here a caller or singer calls figure names into the room, to which the dance group has to react spontaneously. This type of dancing can also be found in other forms of dance, for example the Contra Dance or the Rueda de Casino .
A special form is the wheelchair dance, in which the classic couple dances are implemented for a partner with a handicap.
In addition to the artistic, sporting or religious elements, Schautanz tries to focus on the entertainment of the audience.
The tap dance and its relatives Irish dance and clogging are characterized by the fact that the dancers mainly act with their feet, while body and arm movements play subordinate roles. The specially shod shoes are striking, which means that every contact with the ground is an audible clack! and the dancers themselves become musically active.
Jazz and modern dance summarize a whole series of dances that sooner or later developed from jazz. In addition to classical jazz dance and modern dance , there are youthful forms of dance such as hip-hop or popping , in which the dancers imitate the jerky movements of robots. Breakdance is noticeably different , in which dancers perform acrobatic performances with an unusually large amount of ground contact.
Oriental dance , also known as belly dance because of its hip-emphasizing movements, is danced by a dancer or by groups. The different styles and sub-forms look back on a long but diffuse history. Although often interpreted in an erotic way, oriental dance has basically nothing to do with erotic dance.
Erotic dance forms are possibly as old as dance itself. In the modern world these are embodied mainly through go-go dance , table dance and striptease , in which sexually suggestive movements are intended to charm the viewer.
More dance forms
In figure skating , especially in ice dancing , various dance forms are danced with ice skates on the ice. Also, the synchronized swimming is a form of dancing. The Bandaloop project developed a young and extremely unusual form of dance : In this combination of climbing and dancing, the dancers float meters above the ground. Headbanging is a dance form that is inextricably linked to the music genre metal and is danced almost exclusively with the head. Pogo is even more intense and even violent , in which large groups usually jump wildly against each other with live music. This type of dance is mainly found in punk . Martial arts have many movements that are very similar to dance moves; This is particularly evident in stylized fights such as the kata . Because of this similarity, the martial art of capoeira, developed by slaves, was disguised as a dance with music.
In the 1970s, the majorette dance became the twirling sport. You work with a metal rod about the length of your arm that has to be kept in constant motion. The Twirler performs elements from ballet, rhythmic gymnastics and dance form. It is whirled alone, in duos or in teams.
Contact improvisation is a postmodern dance form that developed from avant-garde dance experiments in the 1970s. A constantly shifting body contact point serves the partners as a common base from which they play with their weight, move together and lift themselves up with surprising ease. Every movement develops directly from the previous one through the communication of the bodies. The dancers meet in jam sessions , workshops or international festivals lasting several days with up to 400 participants.
In wheelchair dancing, it is important not to lose sight of the character of the dance in question, taking into account the physical possibilities of the wheelchair user.
Music and dance are closely linked, in some cultures - for example in African dance - so closely that there is only one term for both together. This is particularly evident when music and dance have a ritual meaning and, for example, certain instruments and dance movements symbolize gods. Direct mixed forms of dance and music-making are also common, for example in flamenco , Schuhplattler , so-called rubber boot dance or tap dance .
With the emergence of ballroom dancing, a separation into two independent art forms took place in the western world. From the 14th century onwards, folk dances were stylized in order to satisfy the stiff courtly etiquette, and underlaid with "befitting" music, which was little more than the time signature by a metronome .
As a result, both forms continued to develop mutually, but no longer necessarily together. Usually the goal of the dancer today is to interpret the music , i.e. to translate it into movement as effectively and harmoniously as possible.
The essential element that connects music and dance is rhythm . In modern ballroom dancing, for example, every dance is firmly tied to a certain basic rhythm that the music must maintain at the same tempo over the entire duration of a piece. The constant sequence of durations and pauses determines the start and speed of the movements and is reflected in so-called counting methods such as slow-quick-quick ( slowfox ) or 1,2,3 - 5,6,7 ( salsa ). In other forms of dance, the common rhythm varies more frequently and according to more complex patterns.
There are numerous items of clothing such as ball gowns , tailcoats and petticoats and accessories such as feather boa , silk veils and the long-stemmed red rose worn in the mouth , which are inevitably associated with certain dances.
The dance shoes are of particular interest in many dances , because only with the right mixture of roughness and smoothness of the sole, standard dancers glide elegantly over the parquet and without rubber boots the African rubber boot dance would be pointless. Special dance figures such as Michael Jackson's Lean even require patented special shoes. However, there are also dances in which the footwear is completely irrelevant. Thus, in contact improvisation traditionally danced barefoot and most African dances.
Permanently recording dances in order to spread them or to preserve them for posterity is such a difficult problem that satisfactory solutions have only recently been found. From an IT point of view, multidimensional data are necessary to describe a dance: In addition to the movements in three spatial directions and their chronological sequence, the accompanying music must also be taken into account; in most cases explanations are added, without which it is difficult for the observer to understand the movements. Sketches, abstract symbols and traced movement paths in connection with textual annotations are just some of the ideas that were pursued.
Labanotation and choreology of many dance notations are still in use today, but mostly the simpler possibility of video recording is preferred. Outstanding choreographies are recorded for television or filmed as dance films for the cinema and released as DVDs and books .
Step sequences are shown graphically as a step diagram .
The training to become a dancer differs greatly depending on the form of dance and ranges from studying at a university for classical dance, through sports training in tournament dance (e.g. Latin dance) to private training as a solo dancer (e.g. oriental dance). Dancers are either hired for a short time as part of a dance stage project or, trained as a graduate dancer at the University of Dance, can receive a multi-year engagement as a stage dancer with a theater or ensemble. Often, an extension of the engagement as a stage dancer beyond the age of 35 is only possible in a few cases. Constantly changing work situations , strong competitive pressure and rarely high salaries can deter those interested from taking up this profession. Professional dancers often choose a second mainstay, for example as a dance teacher, in order to gain financial stability. The state institution of the Artists' Social Fund (Oldenburg) supports dancers (as well as choreographers and dance teachers) in the Federal Republic of Germany if they can prove that they can earn their living as an artist / teacher in dance.
Dance teacher (ballroom dance)
You can become a certified dance teacher in Germany through a classical, state-not recognized training at one of the three dance teacher associations General German Dance Teachers Association (ADTV), Professional Association of German Dance Teachers (BDT) or German Dance Teachers and Hip Hop Dance Teachers Organization (DTHO). The ADTV is a member of the "Council for Performing Arts and Dance" of the German Cultural Council . No certificate is required to wear the title of dance teacher or to open a dance school. Especially in dance forms without an association structure such as salsa or tango argentino, there are often dance teachers who have turned their hobby into a profession without formalized training. In Austria, training to become a dance teacher is part of the Association of Dance Teachers in Vienna. The training is publicly recognized and lasts three years. In most federal states, opening a dance school is only possible after completing the dance teacher training. The granting of a license as a dance school is a state matter in Austria. In Vienna and Styria there is a new, very strict dance school law, whereas in Carinthia the opening of a dance school is not linked to any training. Since 2014, the completion of the dance master training after the dance teacher training in the dance school law of Vienna. This lasts for another two years and concludes with the qualification to open a dance school.
Dance sports trainer
Dance sports trainers are tournament dancers or former dance athletes who have completed a training prescribed by a dance sports association. This includes a number of dance class-related trainer certificates (C, B, A license), each of which declares the trainer to be able to train dancers of the class mentioned. Usually a certificate of a class can only be taken if the trainer has successfully left the class behind. Dance sports trainers are mainly employed by dance sports clubs or give private lessons to tournament couples.
Graduated dance teacher
The job title of dance pedagogue is not legally protected. On the other hand, the title “qualified dance pedagogue” can only be used if a degree or training has been completed. The course is offered at dance universities. A dance pedagogue certified here will, since this was the main focus of study, teach stage dance (such as ballet, modern dance, tap dance, character dance, etc.). These lessons can be given for (prospective) professionals or laypeople. State schools, theaters and ensembles usually only employ dance teachers who have been trained in this way. Training is possible at several institutes in Germany that are represented by the Dance Advisory Board in the German Cultural Council of the Federal Government. Dance pedagogy works with different types of dance techniques and does not necessarily aim at performing on stage.
The choreographer is the author of a choreography . In many countries, training to become a choreographer is completed by studying at a dance university. Trained stage dancers can also work as choreographers (usually after their dance career). Choreographers are employed on a project or part-by-project basis, or are permanently employed at a university or theater. Well-known choreographers such as William Forsythe , Sasha Waltz , Pina Bausch and Heike Hennig were able to found an economically independent dance ensemble under their name .
The dance schools of the Association of General German Dance Teachers Association (ADTV), Professional Association of German Dance Teachers (BDT), the Swiss Association of Certified Dance Teachers for Ballroom Dance (swiss dance ) and the Association of Dance Teachers Austria (VTÖ) have their competence in couple and ballroom dances Standard and Latin section, Disco Fox , Salsa , Tango Argentino , Boogie Woogie and much more. Additional training creates knowledge in hip hop , video clip dancing, children's dance, wheelchair and tap dance, or additional offers such as manners and rhetoric seminars . The dance schools employ full-time and part-time dance teachers. All dance teachers have completed several years of in-service training at the respective association, which at ADTV is based on the Vocational Training Act in its contracts and implementation.
The end of the first dance course is traditionally celebrated with a festive prom , often referred to as a premiere ball. Talented and ambitious students from the BDT dance schools can compete against each other in the popular sports competitions organized by the German Amateur Tournament Office (DAT) on a regional and national level. The ADTV is involved in non-competitive, entertaining and qualified leisure dancing and offers its dance students the opportunity to participate in the DTA ( German Dance Badge ).
In dance sports clubs , dancing is taught as a sport rather than viewed as a leisure activity. They teach basic skills to take part in loose mass sports competitions and the more tightly organized tournament dance , but there are also quite a number of groups for sociable dance (dance circles), similar to the dance schools. Both club dancing and ballroom dancing are open to beginners. In Switzerland dance sport is united under the roof SDSF (Swiss Dance Sport Federation). In Austria, dance sport is organized in the ÖTSV (Austrian Dance Sport Association).
Dance sports clubs usually employ licensed trainers for the tournament dancers, who, unlike many dance teachers, can look back on a long amateur or professional career and who are trained in the training of tournament couples during their training.
Dance in Education
Dance can become a medium in education and therapy. With the help of dance one wants to achieve learning, education or therapy goals. Dance is an appropriate means of setting learning processes in motion.
Experienced dance teachers and therapists know from experience how well children can develop in dance. It is not of great importance whether you have a strong motivation , since movement in itself, and thus also the "orderly" movement in dance, is one of the prerequisites for successful psychological development. With competent pedagogical or therapeutic guidance, improved physical competence as well as openness, self-confidence and, with the right support, a willingness to experiment can be determined in the children if they have been involved in dance sport for a longer period of time.
In order to inspire and encourage as many children as possible, an educational and therapeutic effort should keep an eye on the different personalities of the participants in dance projects:
- Dance units could be designed in such a way that there is room for as much individuality as possible. Units must leave the children free space in which they can express themselves and implement their own ideas.
- One varies methodically: One leaves a possibility for controlled "romping" with exercise sequences in which given movements are practiced.
- It is important that the period of a unit is not used for too long. One should orientate oneself on the possibilities and needs of the children.
- When dancing with children, the goal cannot be to perform all movements of all children as exactly "right" (measured against their demands) or at the "right" time (exactly in rhythm) so that a perfect result is achieved in the end. Rather, the focus should be on giving every child access to dance in order to convey a feeling of “I can do that”.
- Children must be given the opportunity to compensate for their individual weaknesses by giving them the space to do so (the chance for an individual learning plan).
Aspects of promotion through dance can u. a. be:
- Control of the body
- motor creativity
- Sensitivity to rhythm and music
- Ability to concentrate
- social interaction
- physical well-being, health
- Perception of space
- Identity , self-awareness , self-esteem
Dance and religion
The importance of dance in religions is usually very small in the western tradition nowadays. That was still different in antiquity: Augustine of Hippo is said to have said that the angels did not know what to do with a person who could not dance. In the ancient Judeo-Christian tradition, the ability to dance well was closely related to the "purity of heart", which the prophets of the Old Testament and Jesus usually always preached in conflict with religious leaders close to the rule.
There is also the idea of dance, which enables people to better understand the diversity of human life and experience. It is also a means of communication ; it deepens the human experience.
People have always tried to call on the gods with dance and thus to influence the course of their lives. Practicing the sequence of steps is the beginning of meditation , including introspection . When dancing, people experience the finiteness of life, its imperfections and fragility.
The Hindu god Shiva playfully dances creation in Tandava and unfolds his divine being in it. In Indian mythology, his dance symbolizes the cycle of the world. When Shiva stops dancing, the world will end.
In Islamic mysticism, the whirling dervishes signify the way to God. In holistic mysticism, people are shaken and overwhelmed - and they feel the lost center of life: God. When dancing, the right hand is open upwards and the left downwards, which symbolizes the reception and transmission of divine grace to living beings. Creation would one day take part in the dance of the dervishes.
Dance also played a role in the Christian-Jewish tradition : as part of the worship service and the procession as well as the pilgrimage. Incidentally, this also includes the fact that dance was banned as a mortal sin. There was also dancing in cemeteries. Dance can also be a form of interreligious encounter that goes beyond verbalization and rationality. Those who dance along can empathize better with the religion of the other. Prayers z. B. could also be danced - by a congregation or parts of it.
In the (Protestant) Kreuzkirche in Marl- Sinsen there has recently been a dancing Jesus on the cross (made by Friedhelm Schmidt, Marl) above the altar, i.e. a symbol for a dynamic Jesus Christ at the center of the service (April 2012).
Dance of the Year ( ADTV )
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- Elf dance
- He danced life , Sylvin Rubinstein
- Rhythm Is It!
- List of dances
- List of eminent dancers
- Leadership (dance)
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