Books in the reading room of the University Library Graz
|lifespan||up to centuries, depending on how carefully they are kept|
According to traditional understanding, a book (Latin liber ) is a collection of printed, written, painted or blank sheets of paper or other suitable materials, which are bound and usually also with a book cover (cover). According to the UNESCO definition, books are (for statistics) non-periodic publications with a length of 49 pages or more.
In addition, individual are plants or large text sections that are self-contained, as a book called, especially when part of a band are. This is especially the case with ancient works that consist of related book collections - examples of this are the Bible and other normative religious sacred scriptures , the Aeneid, and various ancient and medieval histories.
The book is a cultural product that has the overcoming of illiteracy as a prerequisite and takes the development of the written language as a basis. Its use as a means of communication requires writing or printing skills and reading skills .
The word book ( Old High German buoh , Middle High German buoch ) was originally a plural form and probably meant first " rune sign ", then more generally "character" or "letter", later "document". A relationship to beech could be based on the fact that runes were carved into beech or beech wood, but this connection is uncertain (see also letter ). The Brothers Grimm see themselves strengthened in the assumption that the origin of the word book comes from beech.
Papyrus scroll and codex
The oldest forerunners of the book were the papyrus scrolls of the Egyptians , of which the oldest known specimens from the 3rd millennium BC. Come from BC. (See also History of Writing , Ancient Egyptian Literature, and List of Papyri of Ancient Egypt ).
The Greeks and Romans took over the papyrus scrolls until the codex gradually replaced them from the 1st century onwards . The codex consisted of several layers of parchment , which were consecutively described on both sides, folded in the middle and attached to each other with a thread. Only later were the pages bound and given a hard cover. The Codex is the immediate forerunner of our book today.
Age of printing
The books printed by Johannes Gutenberg up to 1500 after the invention of the printing press (approx. 1450) are called incunabula or cradle prints (from the time when printing was still in the cradle). During the book printing revolution , the output of books in Europe multiplied.
In Korea , around 200 years before Johannes Gutenberg's invention, letterpress printing with movable metal letters was developed in Europe, presumably as a further development of Chinese printing technology with clay type, but remained little used.
The rapid spread of the new technology throughout Europe and the constant improvement and further development of book printing and the production of paper made books mass-produced, which was an essential prerequisite for the Reformation and later for the Enlightenment . Knowledge became common property in the West .
Writing and image were a unit in the book of the Middle Ages. In the 20th century, Bauhaus artists created books of a high level of design that can be assigned to the field of printmaking. These artist books appear in small limited editions.
The digital printing allowed with book-on-demand requirements in conventional book mold (paperback, hardcover) from a copy upwards. For a few years now, some online service providers have been offering the creation of photo books, which can then be ordered individually. Since 2009, articles on book-on-demand can be summarized in Wikipedia. The digital book has appeared on the online book market since 2000 . The internet also competes with the classic book.
The Internet company Google estimated (as of August 2010) that there are around 130 million different books in the world, but admitted that this was also a question of definition.
The book as a product
Today the book is primarily an object of daily use. This means that the book is subject to certain conditions of use. The material must correspond to these. It should be durable, tear-proof, flexible, light, aesthetic and much more. Some materials are listed here:
- Paper : Not only the book block , i.e. the actual text part, is made of paper. The entire endpaper is also made of paper - but made of different types of paper than the text part. The text part can also consist of a wide variety of paper types, there are many cheap and expensive variants. The paper determines the price of a book in addition to that of the cover.
- Cardboard : The cover of a book is usually made of sturdy cardboard, historically up to the early modern period also made of wood, which is covered with various cover materials . The slipcase is also usually made of cardboard.
- Cover material, for example with fabric , linen , paper , leather or parchment .
- Fabrics : For the headband or a bookmark ribbon , special ribbons, mostly made of silk, are made and dyed in different colors.
- Color: Not only the book cover can be colored, but also the book cut . These cut decorations serve not only to decorate the book, but also to protect against exposure to light and dirt.
A book has to be flexible, but also stable. There are many processes involved in book production ; the individual parts are usually manufactured separately and then finally put together.
The book block with its printed pages is connected to the book cover by the attachment . There is an attachment on the upper and lower side of the book block. These are connected to the spine of the book by gauze and glue and to the cover by the mirror . The cover material is placed around the book cover . The strip of cover material that sticks to the inner side of the mirror is called an envelope. Together these elements make up the book cover.
The colored ribbon at the top and bottom of the book spine is called the headband , the bookmark - attached to the top of the book spine - is called the bookmark ribbon .
The book design conceives the entire appearance, structure and materials of the book. It is usually carried out by a book designer, artist and / or typographer . In addition to the font , front cover , pagina , type of paper , ribbon bookmark and headband , the cover is also designed - probably the most important task today: the cover must arouse curiosity, be exciting and attract attention. The binding should invite the potential reader to buy or rent.
Economics of the Book
Considered as an economic product, the book has several special features.
- The benefits sometimes only become apparent to the buyer after the purchase and reading. Despite easily available reviews and ratings on the Internet, the reader may come to his own judgment, he may be positively or negatively surprised.
- It is often difficult for the publisher to estimate the expected demand .
- The product life cycle of books can be short or very long.
These peculiarities make the book a speculative economic good with high risks for the producer (publisher). In contrast to other media products, the book is usually only refinanced through one source of revenue, the sales revenue. As an advertising medium , the book only plays a subordinate role.
Differentiation by type of production
- Bag book : Medieval special form. It can be carried like a pouch and attached to a belt.
- Book-on-Demand : digital printing on demand; Book produced in small editions from one copy, additional copies can be printed at any time.
- Paperback : Book block with various types of soft covers, usually perfect-bound.
- E-book (electronic book): in various formats, electronically stored, some only readable on screen, some printable.
- Facsimile : faithful reprint of historical editions.
- Hardcover : Hard cover, perfect bound or with thread stitching.
- Audiobook : Here authors or (more often) a narrator (sometimes several narrators in roles ) read the texts of an existing book. In some cases, radio plays , i.e. versions read in rolls or edited and interpreted as radio plays , are sold under the name of audio books. Audiobooks are sold and distributed on audio CD / music cassettes or as computer audio files . Some of them are also available via podcasts, mostly free of charge on the Internet.
- Codex (plural: Codices): book that can be opened. In the early Middle Ages, this form replaced the scroll that had prevailed until then. The success of the code is closely related to the spread of Christianity. The principle of opening has not changed, but the term codex is usually used for books from antiquity and the Middle Ages.
- Loose-leaf collection : Individual, interchangeable pages in one or more folders (e.g. as a ring binder, this does not mean the colloquial use of loose-leaf collection, which is not a book).
- Miniature Book: Very small book. Mostly the reduced form of a capital book compressed to production size. Can be distinguished from paperback by hardcover binding.
- Paperback : With a soft cover and mostly with adhesive binding, previously also with thread binding.
- Paperback : Small format book, mostly paperback, suitable for transport.
- Special edition: mostly for bibliophiles, a small partial edition of a title with special features (cover, paper, book decorations, illustrations)
Differentiation according to content
- Non-fiction books :
- Fiction (also: fictional literature, formerly: beautiful literature )
- Children's and young people's books and picture books
- Initially mostly single copies:
Content structure of books
The sections of a book include (partially optional, the order can also vary):
- Title page , half-title , imprint
- Preface. Foreword. Conventions
Outline of book pages
- Type area
- Column , columns
- Marginal note , note , footnote , endnote , annotation , glossary
- Header , running title
- Pagina , page number
Statistics and records
Book ownership and reading in Germany
In a study from 2008, 57% of those questioned stated that there were fewer than 50 books in their household. In 23% of the households there were 50–100 books, in 12% 100–250 books and in 6% more than 250 books. According to a Forsa survey from 2017, 27% of Germans read more than 10 books a year, 19% read 6–10 books, 39% read up to 5 books, and 14% read no books at all. One of the most comprehensive studies of reading in Germany had the 2008 Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Reading Foundation commissioned.
Most printed book
The Bible is the most printed and widely distributed book in the world. According to the German Bible Society , translations of the entire Bible are available in 542 languages and partial translations in 2344 other languages (as of January 2015).
Smallest and largest book
The smallest book in the world comes from the Leipzig publishing house Faber & Faber . At 2.4 by 2.9 millimeters, it is comparatively the size of a match head. The 32 pages are printed with letter images in offset and leather-bound by hand.
High priced books
- One of the most valuable books is the Codex Manesse , which had to be insured for 50 million euros during an exhibition in 2006.
- The Gospels of Henry the Lion was December 6, 1983 in London auction house Sotheby's for 32.5 million Deutschmark auctioned.
- A work of John James Audubon's Birds of America , a Subskriptionsausgabe , scored at a Christie's the record-breaking price -Auction in 2000 of more than 8.8 million US dollars.
- A first edition of the book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium from 1543 by Nicolaus Copernicus fetched 2.2 million US dollars during an auction at Christie's in New York in 2008 .
The prefix "Biblio-"
The word formation element Biblio- (or in the case of adjectives biblio- ), which comes from the Greek, means “book” or “books”. Examples:
- Bibliographer : someone who edits or compiles a bibliography
- Bibliography : reference work for references
- Bibliomania : exaggerated, manic bibliophilia (“love of books”), for example in the form of an obsession with collecting
- Bibliometrics : quantitative research into publications
- Bibliophilia : love of books (e.g. preoccupation with particularly beautiful, old or special books)
- Library : collection of books and other forms of publication or library construction (see also library type and librarianship )
- Librarian : Employee in a library
- Bibliotherapy : psychotherapeutic method in which reading books is supposed to contribute to healing; other meaning: recovery of damaged books
Lists of "recommended" books
- List of works on the SWR best list (see also SWR best list )
- Spiegel's bestseller list
- The book of 1000 books
- Fritz J. Raddatz (Ed.): ZEIT library of 100 books. 11th edition. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt / Main 2002, ISBN 3-518-37145-2 (A compilation of aesthetic literature).
- ZEIT library of 100 non-fiction books
- ZDF TV series: Our Best - The Germans' Favorite Books (2004)
- “Best book”: after a survey by the Oslo Nobel Institute of 100 well-known authors, Miguel de Cervantes : Don Quixote was named as the best book in 2002 .
- Joachim Elias Zender (Ed.): Lexicon book, print, paper . Haupt, Bern 2008, ISBN 978-3-258-07370-5 .
- Helmut Hiller, Stephan Füssel: Dictionary of the book . 7th edition. Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main 2006, ISBN 3-465-03495-3 .
- Birgit Althaus: The book dictionary • Reference work for book makers and book lovers , area Verlag, Erftstadt 2004, ISBN 3-89996-256-7 .
- Ursula Rautenberg (Hrsg.): Reclams Sachlexikon des Buches . Reclam, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-15-010520-X .
- Karl Klaus Walther (Ed.): Lexicon of book art and bibliophilia. Munich and (as a licensed edition) Augsburg 1994.
- Book history
- Fritz Funke: Book customer. The historical development of the book from cuneiform to the present . VMA-Verlag, Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN 3-928127-95-0 .
- Hans-Peter Geh: On the history of the book in Germany (1450-1900) and on its documentation . August 25, 1995.
- Marion Janzin, Joachim Güntner: The book from the book. 5000 years of book history . 3. Edition. Schlueter, Hannover 2007, ISBN 978-3-89993-805-0 .
- Renate Schipke: The book in late antiquity. Production, form, equipment and distribution in the western half of the Roman Empire , Reichert, Wiesbaden 2013.
- Future of the book
- Detlef Bluhm (Ed.): Book twilight - About the future of book culture , Lambert Schneider at WBG / Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 2014, ISBN 978-3-650-40003-1 .
- Umberto Eco , Jean-Claude Carrière : The Great Future of the Book - Conversations with Jean-Philippe de Tonnac . 1st edition. Carl Hanser, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-446-23577-9 .
- Steffan Heuer: The end of the book is its future . In: Technology Review (German edition) . June 21, 2007, ISSN 1613-0138 .
- Mike Sandbothe : Hypertextuality in the World Wide Web · A media-philosophical analysis . In: Telepolis . March 20, 1996 (see Hypertext , World Wide Web and Media Philosophy ).
- André Schiffrin: Publishers without publishers. About the future of books . Wagenbach, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-8031-2387-9 (Original title: The business of books . Translated by Gerd Burger).
- Jan-Felix Schrape: The change in the book trade through digitization and the Internet . Discussion Paper University of Stuttgart 2011. ( PDF ; 3.18 MB)
- Michael Hagner : On the matter of the book . Wallstein, Göttingen 2015. ISBN 978-3-8353-1547-1 .
- Book indexing, book use
- Mortimer Adler , Charles Van Doren : How to Read a Book . 3. Edition. Zweiausendeins, Frankfurt am Main 2008, ISBN 3-86150-784-6 .
- Katja Schmid: Read and let them read . In: Telepolis . December 18, 2005 (A Study of Book Use).
- Book making
- Arthur W. Unger: How a book is made. Leipzig and Berlin 1907, 6th edition, ibid. 1927 (= Aus Natur und Geisteswelt , 1002).
- William Blades: Book enemies - On fire and water, gas and heat, dust and neglect, ignorance and bigotry . Hektor Haarkötter (ed., Translation, introduction), WBG (Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft), Darmstadt 2012, ISBN 978-3-534-24928-2 ; and Primus Verlag 2012, ISBN 978-3-86312-323-9
- Ernst Fischer: Book Market , in: European History Online , ed. from the Institute for European History (Mainz) , 2010, accessed June 14, 2012.
- Karl Markus Michel u. a. (Ed.): Kursbuch Heft 133: Das Buch. Rowohlt Verlag, 1998. A “roundabout” in which various authors devote themselves to numerous aspects.
- Sigrid Pohl, Walter Umlauf: Commodity book . 2nd renewed edition. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2007, ISBN 978-3-447-05622-9 .
- Link collection on book history - University of Munich
- Recommendation concerning the International Standardization of Statistics Relating to Book Production and Periodicals. UNESCO , November 19, 1964, accessed on June 28, 2013 (English): “A book is a non-periodical printed publication of at least 49 pages, exclusive of the cover pages, published in the country and made available to the public; "
- Book ( Memento from September 2, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- Karl-Ernst Sommerfeldt , Günter Starke, Dieter Nerius (eds.): Introduction to the grammar and orthography of contemporary German. Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig 1981, p. 23 f.
- Duden online: book
- See. Online Etymology Dictionary on the origin of book (English)
- "Book", in: German Dictionary by Jacob Grimm and Wilhelm Grimm, first edition (1854–1960), digitized version in the Digital Dictionary of the German Language, accessed on April 18, 2018
- Brockhaus will probably only be online in the future. golem.de, accessed on March 8, 2011.
- dts news agency: Google counts around 130 million books worldwide , as of August 5, 2010, accessed on August 5, 2010.
- World Book Day . Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels.
- How many books do you have on the shelf? In: statista. Retrieved January 18, 2018 .
- star survey. March 11, 2015, accessed January 18, 2018 .
- Read in Germany 2008. Retrieved January 18, 2018 .
- Information on the translation of the Bible at weltbibelhilfe.de. The status (January 2015) is given in the diagram.
- The SEK took over at the air base: The Heinrich Gospels came back to Germany 30 years ago. faz.net, December 4, 2013.
- John J. Audubon's Birds of America (English)
- News-Antique.com, Informations, u. a. Via Christie's auction ( Memento of the original from January 17, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Kopernikus: Altes neue Weltbild auctioned , Focus online, June 18, 2008, accessed on November 29, 2013.
- Duden online: biblio-, Biblio- .
- Duden online: Bibliotherapy .
- Review by Dirk Rohmann , in: Historische Zeitschrift 300,3 (2015), p. 767.