The mirror

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The mirror
description newsmagazine
language German
publishing company Spiegel-Verlag Rudolf Augstein GmbH & Co. KG ( Germany )
Headquarters Hamburg
First edition January 4, 1947
founder Rudolf Augstein
Frequency of publication weekly (saturdays)
Sold edition 641,741 copies
( IVW 2/2020)
Widespread edition 647,883 copies
( IVW 2/2020)
Range 4.66 million readers
( MA 2020 I )
Editors-in-chief Steffen Klusmann (Chairman)
Barbara Hans
Clemens Höges
editor Rudolf Augstein (1923-2002)
executive Director Thomas Hass (Chairman)
Stefan Ottlitz
Web link
Article archive 1947 ff.
ISSN (print)
ISSN (online)
The Spiegel building in Hamburg

Der Spiegel (spelling: DER SPIEGEL ) is a German news magazine published by Spiegel-Verlag in Hamburg . The sold circulation is 641,741 copies, a decrease of 39.3 percent since 1998.

The news portal of the same name , which was called Spiegel Online from 1994 to 2020 , is operated by a subsidiary of Spiegel Verlag. The two companies founded a joint editorial team in September 2019 and have been using the same umbrella brand since January 2020.


Der Spiegel and its founder Rudolf Augstein play an important role in the history of the German press . The newspaper, founded in 1947, gained its importance in the struggle for freedom of the press (see Spiegel affair ) and by exposing political affairs . It is a founding member of the European Investigative Collaboration (EIC) initiated in 2016 .

The Spiegel has been published on Saturdays since January 10, 2015 (issue 3/2015). The digital edition will be available on Friday evening at 6 p.m. Previously, the magazine appeared from issue 1/1947 to issue 19/1949 on Saturday, from issue 20/1949 to issue 35/1950 on Thursday, from issue 36/1950 to issue 52/1965 on Wednesday and from from issue 1/1966 to issue 2/2015 on Monday.

Classification as a leading medium

Journalists have long classified the paper as one of the leading German-language media , which has the function of shaping and shaping social communication and the public .

Ranking Journalist survey 1993

Jürgen Wilke

Journalist survey 2005

Siegfried Weischenberg

1 The mirror (66.7%) Süddeutsche Zeitung (35%)
2 Süddeutsche Zeitung (46.6%) The mirror (34%)
3 Star (37.1%) Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (15%)
4th Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (36.2%) The time (11%)
5 The time (34.4%) Image (10%)


Like its direct competitors, Focus and Stern , the Spiegel has lost circulation in recent years . The number of copies sold has fallen by 39.3 percent since 1998. It is currently 641,741 copies. This corresponds to a decrease of 414,932 units. The share of subscriptions in the circulation sold is 57.9 percent. With around 110,000 copies, the digital edition of Spiegel is the highest of any magazine in Germany.

The sold circulation exceeded the million mark for the first time in the third quarter of 1980 and peaked in the first quarter of 1991 with 1.212 million copies.

Development of the number of copies sold
Development of the number of subscribers



The imprint of the first edition
The new building on the Ericusspitze, which we moved into in 2011
The building used by Spiegel-Verlag from 1969 to 2011

Even before the First World War , Lion Feuchtwanger published a magazine in Munich under the name Der Spiegel . This merged with Siegfried Jacobsohn's Schaubühne in November 1908 , but is not connected to today's news magazine Der Spiegel .

The first edition of the paper appeared on January 4, 1947, a Saturday, in Hanover . Under the title This Week , a forerunner had been published in Hanover since November 1946, based on American and British news magazines and initially under the aegis of the British military administration . The three press officers responsible were John Seymour Chaloner , Henry Ormond and Harry Bohrer , the latter as acting editor-in-chief. With the seventh edition, the paper was handed over to German hands.

Rudolf Augstein, who headed the Germany section at This Week , received the publishing license and took over the magazine, which he immediately called Der Spiegel , as publisher and editor-in-chief . The first edition appeared in January 1947, was created in the Anzeiger tower in Hanover and reached a circulation of 15,000 copies - the British paper rationing initially prevented higher circulation.

In 1949 the editors decided on the Spiegel statute :

“All news, information and facts processed and recorded in the Spiegel must absolutely be correct. Every news and every fact is [...] to be checked meticulously. "

The Spiegel archive , which later became known beyond Germany and, with over 80 employees, is the world's largest documentation and research department of a news magazine, was supposed to help realize this claim .

In 1949 Der Spiegel wrote "in a generally insulting tone" about the change of the throne from Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands to Queen Juliana . The British occupation forces banned the mirror for two weeks when the Dutch government complained.


In 1950, the newspaper revealed that members of the Bundestag had been bribed in the election of the federal capital so that they could vote for Bonn instead of Frankfurt am Main . Augstein was questioned as a witness in the so-called Spiegel Committee , but did not disclose the sources for the story and invoked journalistic confidentiality .

The Schmeißer affair followed in 1952 . Hans-Konrad Schmeißer , a former agent in the French secret service , had claimed that Chancellor Adenauer , Ministerialdirektor Blankenhorn and Consul General Reifferscheid had worked for the French secret service and had supplied a French agent with secret messages. In 1958, the debate about the emergency laws began in Spiegel magazine , which later (1960, 1963, 1965) became various draft laws by Interior Minister Gerhard Schröder .

Even in its early days, Der Spiegel gained great importance. The circulation increased massively: in 1961 it was 437,000 copies. With economic success, journalistic power and political influence also increased.

Spiegel Affair

On October 10, 1962, Der Spiegel published the article Conditionally ready for defense , in which the editor in charge, Conrad Ahlers, quoted internal documents of the Bundeswehr and came to the conclusion that NATO and the Federal Republic could not withstand a Soviet attack. On October 26, 1962, the Spiegel publishing house in Hamburg and the editorial office in Bonn were searched. Arrest warrants have been issued on suspicion of treason , treasonous forgery and active bribery . Federal Defense Minister Franz Josef Strauss had Spiegel editor Conrad Ahlers arrested by the police in Spain with false claims and transferred to Germany. Two days later, Rudolf Augstein turned himself in to the police and was taken into custody. Large parts of the public showed solidarity with the news magazine, and students took to the streets for Augstein. Federal Chancellor Konrad Adenauer said in the Bundestag amid violent protests from the ranks of the SPD and the FDP and to applause from the CDU that an "abyss of treason" had opened up at Spiegel . Rudolf Augstein was released from prison after 103 days. In 1963, Strauss said of the paper:

“You are the Gestapo in Germany today. You keep thousands of personal files. When I think of Germany's Nazi past - almost everyone has something to cover up, and that makes blackmail possible ... I was forced to act against them. "

Strauss had to resign after the affair. He had broken German and international law in so many ways, especially when he arranged for Conrad Ahlers to be arrested in Spain, that he could not be stopped politically. Chancellor Adenauer survived the affair relatively unscathed despite his "abyss of treason", especially because his defense minister had misinformed him to a considerable extent and the chancellor claimed that he hardly should have mistrusted his own minister.

On May 13, 1965, the Federal Court of Justice refused to open the main proceedings against Ahlers and Augstein for lack of evidence.

The affair led large circles, especially members of the younger generation and the critical intelligentsia, to commit themselves to the weekly magazine as a guarantor of freedom of expression , and founded the myth of the paper.

Further development in the 1960s

In 1966, in his book Where is the Federal Republic driving , Karl Jaspers sharply criticized the emergency laws , which in the event of an external emergency did not give the population a choice to refuse violence and power. An internal emergency could not occur at all because it ran counter to the idea of ​​a democratic state: "The emergency law robs the people of the legitimate, but then no longer legal means of resistance that were left to them." On August 5, 1966, a constitutional complaint by the Spiegel before the failed Federal Constitutional Court . In 1968 the emergency laws became part of the Basic Law . In 1969, the Spiegel edition was 953,000 copies sold.


At the beginning of the 1970s, the paper had almost 900 employees, including around 400 in the editorial department, 100 in documentation and just under 400 in the commercial and technical departments. Manager Magazin was founded in 1970 and is published by a subsidiary of the Spiegel Group . In 1971/72 a co-determination model and more democracy within the editorial team was decided; also a profit sharing . Ad revenue fell. In 1971 the number of readers was around six million - that corresponds to around twelve percent of all people over the age of 14 living in the Federal Republic of Germany. The share of the international circulation in the total circulation was 10 to 15 percent - since then , Der Spiegel has been a publication with an intensive reception abroad. The circulation was 923,000 copies sold.

In 1974 Willy Brandt called the magazine a “shit sheet”. In 1975 Spiegel correspondents from the GDR were expelled for "malicious violation of their legal provisions". In January 1978, the GDR closed the Spiegel offices in the GDR, including the one in East Berlin , after critical reporting on forced adoptions and the publication of the second part of the manifesto of the Bundestag Democratic Communists , a document of an alleged opposition within the SED . The GDR viewed these publications as interference in the internal affairs of the GDR.

The paper published preprints by and about the dissident Rudolf Bahro , Die Alternative (EVA) and elements of a new policy (Olle & Wolter), Answers to Bahro (Olle & Wolter) and thus made his system-critical approach known to a larger audience.


The paper uncovered various German state and economic affairs , for example the Flick and Neue Heimat affair in 1982 and the Barschel affair in 1987 . The treatment of Barschel affair by the mirror is not without controversy. In 1988, he exposed the co-op affair .

Early 1990s

On January 18, 1993, the first issue of Focus was published , according to the editor-in-chief Helmut Markwort, as a "competitive, not counter-medium to Spiegel ". Then there were clearly noticeable changes. Focus was deliberately conceived as an opposite pole and alternative to the mirror ; This is particularly evident from the political line and the comparatively careful treatment of advertisers. Uli Baur , editor-in-chief of Focus alongside Markwort, clearly summarized the editorial line of Focus with reference to the well-known Augstein quote (“[...] in case of doubt on the left ”): “If Der Spiegel is on the left when in doubt, we are on the right when in doubt . "

The newspaper suffered a circulation loss of more than ten percent and a decline in the number of advertising pages sold by more than twelve percent. In 1995 the number of readers was over seven million. It emerged Spiegel TV and mirror Special which a fifth of the levels generated -Umsatzes of 542 million marks (1996). In the first half of 1996, Der Spiegel was “the German magazine with the highest income from sales and advertising .” Gross income of 330.7 million D-Marks was achieved, which was almost a million more than Stern (2nd place) could and was before Bild am Sonntag (3rd place) and Focus . In January 1997, Der Spiegel celebrated its 50th birthday. By then, 2,649 issues had appeared. The layout was updated and has been in color since then.

Stefan Aust era

Spiegel interview in Berlin with the then US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice

From the end of the 1990s, under the editor-in-chief Stefan Aust and possibly also under the impression of the competition, observers noted that the Spiegel turned to liberal positions. When Helmut Kohl was voted out of office in the 1998 federal election , the first red-green coalition at federal level came about. Much has changed in politics and society. The Internet gained momentum and the dot-com bubble formed. Critics accused the paper of having become tabloid and having lost analytical depth. The articles have not become shorter or less current. In the run-up to the 2005 Bundestag elections , the paper “Wahlhilfe” for the middle-class camp around Angela Merkel was certified. When asked which party they sympathize with, the 2005 Spiegel readers surveyed answered 36 percent CDU / CSU, 28 percent SPD, 18 percent Die Grünen, 7 percent FDP and 5 percent Left Party.PDS.

According to a survey of 1,536 German journalists in spring 2005, the magazine's influence is said to have decreased. 33.8 percent of those surveyed continued to refer to the paper as their leading medium, while 34.6 percent voted for the Süddeutsche Zeitung . In 1993, two-thirds of the journalists surveyed had voted for Spiegel as the leading medium.

Since 1996, the magazine has organized the annual Spiegel competition for school newspapers .

The Spiegel-Shop was founded in 2002, the business purpose of which is the marketing of by-products from Spiegel- Verlag and other media.

Since October 24, 2002, the paper has also been available as a digital edition in Portable Document Format .

Editor Rudolf Augstein died on November 7, 2002. He is also named posthumously as the official editor.

On August 6, 2004, the publisher announced that it was working with Axel Springer AG to return to traditional German spelling . However, this project was not implemented; on January 2, 2006, the reformed spelling was largely adopted in accordance with the recommendations of the German Spelling Council .

Double head Mascolo and Müller from Blumencron

On November 16, 2007 Spiegel-Verlag announced that Stefan Aust's contract, which expired on December 31, 2008, would not be extended. He was released on February 5, 2008 and Georg Mascolo , until then head of the capital city office, and Mathias Müller von Blumencron , until then editor-in-chief of Spiegel Online , were appointed as his successors.

In February 2008, the publisher launched Spiegel Wissen in cooperation with the Wissen Media Group, an Internet platform that summarized the content of the news magazine Der Spiegel , Spiegel Online, Wikipedia and Bertelsmann lexicons and dictionaries. Almost all Spiegel articles published since 1947 except for the two current editions were also offered there free of charge . Since 2009, most of Spiegel Wissen's offerings, especially the magazine archive, have been integrated into Spiegel Online's website. In November 2013, the Spiegel articles in the archive could be read free of charge except for the past twelve months.

The children's magazine Dein Spiegel was launched in September 2009 . In February 2011, responsibilities were redistributed within the two-headed editor-in-chief: Mascolo took over sole responsibility for the news magazine Der Spiegel and Müller von Blumencron was responsible for all digital activities, including Spiegel Online . According to published in March 2012 study "media brands as employers 2012" of the trade magazine Horizont applies Der Spiegel among workers in the media industry as the best employer among all German magazines and newspapers. On April 9, 2013, Mascolo and Müller were recalled by Blumencron "with immediate effect due to differing views on the strategic orientation".

Wolfgang Büchner

After Mascolo and Müller had left Blumencron, the previous dpa editor-in-chief Wolfgang Büchner became editor-in-chief of Spiegel and Spiegel Online on September 1, 2013. In December 2013, he announced that from 2015 the printed issue would no longer appear on Mondays, but on Saturdays.

Büchner's decision to get Nikolaus Blome as deputy editor-in-chief from Bild-Zeitung to Spiegel caused criticism from employee KG, who insisted on their right to have a say in the appointment of deputy editors-in-chief, and from the department heads, who rejected Blome's appointment. Büchner then reached an agreement with the employees KG and the department heads that Blome would become a member of the editor-in-chief and not the deputy editor-in-chief.

In 2014 a “laboratory for multimedia storytelling” was founded, in which employees from all sectors regularly came together to develop structures for multi-format publishing and data journalism . Cordt Schnibben played a key role in the establishment of the company .

In August 2014, the print editors protested against Büchner's reform concept Spiegel 3.0, in which the print and online departments were to be given a joint department head. The publishing house's shareholders supported Büchner's plans, but demanded that Büchner come to an agreement with the print editors.

Klaus Brinkbäumer

Wolfgang Büchner left Spiegel on December 31, 2014. His Spiegel 3.0 reform concept was not implemented. On January 13, 2015, the previous deputy editor-in-chief Klaus Brinkbäumer was appointed editor-in-chief of Spiegel and publisher of Spiegel Online. In May 2015, Nikolaus Blome also left the mirror again.

On July 3, 2015, Der Spiegel filed a complaint with the Federal Prosecutor's Office in Karlsruhe on the grounds of "suspicion of secret service agent activity and violation of telecommunications secrecy" because it was assumed that US intelligence agencies had been bugged.

On December 1, 2015, Spiegel-Verlag announced that 149 of the 727 full-time positions were to be cut by 2018. In the spring of 2016, Spiegel appeared on a test basis in North Rhine-Westphalia with a regional section.

From June 27, 2016, individual articles by Spiegel and Spiegel Online were offered for sale under the Spiegel Plus brand on Spiegel Online, and on May 16, 2017, the digital evening newspaper Spiegel Daily, jointly published by Spiegel and Spiegel Online, was launched . On May 28, 2018, Spiegel Plus, Spiegel Daily and the digital edition of Spiegel were merged to form Spiegel +.

On August 22, 2018, Spiegel-Verlag announced that on January 1, 2019, Klaus Brinkbäumer would be replaced by an editorial team consisting of the previous editor-in-chief of Manager Magazin Steffen Klusmann as chairman, the previous editor-in-chief of Spiegel Online Barbara Hans and the previous Spiegel reporter Ullrich Fichtner will be replaced. The circulation of the Spiegel had previously fallen by 118,000 copies within three years. There were also different views on how the print and online editors should be brought together, and Brinkbäumer was accused of a weak management style. On October 15, 2018, Spiegel-Verlag announced that Brinkbäumer would no longer be editor-in-chief with immediate effect and that his deputies would take over his duties until the end of the year. Fichtner's appointment as editor-in-chief was suspended until the investigation into the forgery scandal surrounding Claas Relotius was concluded . As head of the corporate department, he brought Relotius to Spiegel in 2014 and supervised his work until 2016. On March 20, 2019, Spiegel-Verlag announced that Fichtner would not be editor-in-chief. Instead, Clemens Höges was appointed editor-in-chief on April 16, 2019.


Accusation of endangering democracy

In 1956/57, around ten years after the paper was founded, Hans Magnus Enzensberger wrote a critical analysis of The Language of the Mirror , in which he put forward a series of theses: The German news magazine is basically not a news magazine , as its information content is in the The form of “stories” dress, Der Spiegel does not criticize, but its surrogate, the reader of the Spiegel is not oriented, but disoriented. Even after the Spiegel affair , Enzensberger did not revise this critical attitude ; he continued to see the magazine as a latent threat to German democracy . Nevertheless, in the 1950s he had emphasized that Der Spiegel was indispensable as long as there was no critical body in the Federal Republic that could replace it.

Linguistic style

In 1985, Wolf Schneider called the magazine “the top scoundrel of the German language ”. In his style primers, he often cites negative examples of bad German from Der Spiegel .

Reporting on AIDS

The magazine's coverage of AIDS has been criticized in some cases as "inappropriate". The sexologist Volkmar Sigusch described this form of reporting as “shocking” and “failure of the press that was once liberal ”. Others accused the newspaper of spreading panic through its handling of case numbers and through editorial statements such as "when children first die of AIDS, freshly operated patients, accident victims, hospital patients, without any stigma" or through publication of corresponding letters to the editor, sick people, those affected and Stigmatizing the infected.

However, the “leading medium of the mirror” often served as a showpiece in studies, on which criticism was attached, which could also be found in many other media. In addition, in 1987 Der Spiegel received the first media prize from the German AIDS Foundation for a report , which is awarded for work "that reports competently about HIV / AIDS and thus contributes to solidarity with those affected".

Dealing with the Nazi past in one's own magazine

After the media researcher Lutz Hachmeister was able to prove the activity of former SS officers as Spiegel editors and series authors for the early Spiegel , for example the authorship of the criminal councilor and SS Hauptsturmführer Bernhard Wehner for the 30-part Spiegel , which started on September 29, 1949 - The series “The game is over - Arthur Nebe ”, the magazine came under increasing criticism in 2006 because it did not adequately reflect its own Nazi past. In a full-page article, the Süddeutsche Zeitung and the media-political ver.di magazine M criticized the fact that the role of the former press chief in the Nazi Foreign Ministry and SS-Obersturmbannführer Paul Karl Schmidt alias post-war best-selling author Paul Carell marginalized the magazine's series author that SS-Hauptsturmführer Georg Wolff and Horst Mahnke advanced to lead editors in the 1950s, who had been suppressed from the otherwise Nazi-critical magazine. It was only in 2014 that it became known that the long-time head of the Spiegel service, Johannes Matthiesen, as a former SS-Untersturmführer, and the editor Kurt Blauhorn, as a former Nazi propagandist, were also charged with this.

As early as 2000, the Neue Zürcher Zeitung accused Augstein of deliberately giving former National Socialists the opportunity to become socially acceptable again. In addition, in the case of the Reichstag fire , Augstein is said to have contributed to portraying the controversial single perpetrator thesis as the only valid one. In 2011 Peter-Ferdinand Koch claimed that Rudolf Augstein had entered into a conscious cooperation with the former SS officers:

"A 'glossing over the past' and the 'public rehabilitation' of selected SS figures were, according to Koch, the price for getting the material from the 'conspiratorial Himmler Guard' with which they could be issued."

Reporting on the GSG-9 mission in Bad Kleinen

After the GSG-9 mission in Bad Kleinen in 1993, the Spiegel journalist Hans Leyendecker reported in a cover story that the incapacitated RAF terrorist Wolfgang Grams had been executed at close range by a police officer. He relied on an anonymous informant who was a police officer involved in the operation. Federal Interior Minister Rudolf Seiters resigned and Federal Prosecutor Alexander von Stahl was retired. The prosecution's investigation later revealed that Grams shot himself. The Rostock Higher Regional Court expressed doubts as to whether Leyendecker had contact with a police officer involved in the operation. At the suggestion of Alexander von Stahl, the investigation commission of the forgery scandal surrounding Claas Relotius began an investigation in December 2019 as to whether Leyendecker had contact with a police officer involved in the operation or whether the cover story was based on an anonymous phone call. The investigation committee has the tape record of an anonymous call in which the caller pretended to be a police officer involved in the operation. According to Leyendecker, the caller should not have been the informant from the cover story. An investigation came to the conclusion that the statements of the informant from the cover story and those of the caller are identical. According to Leyendecker, the two are said to have agreed.

Accusation of racism and anti-Semitism

On December 22, 2006, Der Spiegel published a cover story by editor Matthias Schulz with the title Das Testament des Pharao , which relied heavily on theses allegedly put forward by the German Egyptologist Jan Assmann and in which it was alleged, among other things, that the Jews had monotheism from Akhenaten's Amarna religion "copied". Assmann then protested, first in an open letter to the Spiegel editorial team and then in an interview in Die Welt “in all sharpness” against the use of his name in the Spiegel article, which he described as “inedible and anti-Semitic soup”. At the same time, Assmann rejected the core theses of the article. The Jewish educational scientist Micha Brumlik was outraged that “the editor-in-chief of a prestigious magazine brought the republic the most anti-Semitic cover story to date at Christmas of all times”.

The Italian media were outraged when in issue 31 (1977) the title page Holiday Country Italy - Kidnapping, Blackmail, Street Robbery showed a plate of spaghetti together with a revolver. In contrast, the largest Italian daily Corriere della Sera put it into perspective : Der Spiegel only made two mistakes: The cover picture shows a different pistol than claimed and: "The spaghetti is cooked too soft." The magazine's handling of clichés about Italy became an issue again in 2012 in connection with the shipwreck of the Costa Concordia , when Spiegel Online columnist Jan Fleischhauer suggested in a column on Spiegel Online that it was no coincidence that such an accident happened to an Italian skipper happened - in contrast to a German or British.

German press council on the title page "Stop Putin Now!"

The German Press Council disapproved of the title page “Stop Putin Now!” From July 27, 2014, because the victim photos shown on it violate the protection of victims. In addition, they would be politically instrumentalized. Der Spiegel reported neither about the disapproval of the press council nor about further criticism of the cover and the cover story, as media journalist Stefan Niggemeier complained about .

Synchronization of news and advertising

In a 2014 study by TU Dresden , the synchronization of news and advertising was examined. The result was that "the more advertisements these companies place, the more advertisements these companies place, the more often companies are reported on, firstly, more frequently, secondly, friendlier, and thirdly with more product names."

Allegations of manipulation at the 2014 World Cup

During the Football World Cup 2014 , Der Spiegel published the article “Rotten Apples” by editor Rafael Buschmann , whose central claim was that the game changer Wilson Raj Perumal Buschmann had predicted the correct outcome in a Facebook chat hours before a World Cup match. Perumal stated that the chat did not take place until after the game and posted screenshots of the chat. In July 2019, as part of the planned promotion of Buschmann to head of the investigative team, criticism of the article came up again, which is why the planned promotion was postponed until an internal investigation was completed. As a result of the planned promotion, Jürgen Dahlkamp , Gunther Latsch and Jörg Schmitt, the other members of the investigative team, left and switched to other departments. On September 25, 2019, Spiegel-Verlag announced that Buschmann would waive the transport. Buschmann was unable to provide any evidence for his article and testified that his screenshots were lost when his cell phone fell into a puddle. Due to the lack of evidence, the article was removed from the Internet.

Reporting on Jürgen Todenhöfer

In the 3/2016 issue of January 16, 2016, Der Spiegel published a review of the book Inside IS - 10 days in the “Islamic State” by Jürgen Todenhöfer , written by Özlem Gezer , under the title Der Märchenonkel . After the latter then initiated legal action against the article, in August 2016 the Spiegel issued declarations of cease and desist in all 14 places that it had described as untrue and removed the article from the Internet.

Advertising insert

The media journalist Stefan Niggemeier criticized in December 2018 that the health magazine Wohl looked like a journalistic product of the Spiegel, even though it was an advertising supplement created by an agency and published by the Spiegel, and contained uncritical advertising articles on the subject of homeopathy . In May 2019, the supplement was discontinued after two years.

Invented content by the editor Claas Relotius

Cover of number 52 in 2018

On December 19, 2018, Der Spiegel reported that the long-time employee Claas Relotius had invented the essential content of reports and had also admitted this to superiors. Relotius then submitted his resignation. The paper spoke of “a low point in the 70-year history of SPIEGEL” and asked those affected to “use false quotes, invented details of their lives, in fictional scenes, in fictional locations or otherwise in incorrect contexts in articles by Claas Relotius in SPIEGEL may have turned up, for excuse ”. The case had been uncovered by the freelance journalist Juan Moreno , who had become aware of discrepancies while working with Relotius.

The publisher announced the appointment of a commission, consisting of Brigitte Fehrle , Clemens Höges and Stefan Weigel, to investigate and "check the failure of the in-house security systems". The appointment of Ullrich Fichtner as editor-in-chief and Matthias Geyer as journalist , planned for January 1, 2019, has been suspended until the investigation has been completed. As the head of the corporate department, you had supervised the work of Relotius. Geyer remained the head of the corporate department, whose management Relotius should have taken over on January 1, 2019. On March 20, 2019, Spiegel-Verlag announced that Fichtner would not be editor-in-chief and Geyer would not be a journalist. Geyer also handed over the management of the corporate department. As a reporter and editor for special tasks, however, they remained tied to the editor-in-chief. In the final report of the investigation, they were accused of not following up on leads and delaying the investigation. On August 23, 2019, it became known that Spiegel-Verlag Geyer had given notice and that he had sued against the termination. One day before the first day of the negotiations on August 27, 2019, they agreed that Spiegel-Verlag would withdraw the termination and Geyer would sign a termination agreement. In October 2019, the company department was renamed the reporter department and the pages in the magazine were opened to editors from other departments. The previous deputy head of department Özlem Gezer became the new department head .

Anti-Semitic clichés

In the 29/2019 issue of July 12, 2019, an article by the authors Matthias Gebauer, Ann-Katrin Müller, Sven Röbel, Raniah Salloum, Christoph Schult and Christoph Sydow with the title “Targeted Campaign” appeared. This gives the associations a value initiative. Jewish-German positions and Middle East Friendship Forum (NAFFO) accused of having massively influenced members of the Bundestag with aggressive lobbying and donations before the resolution was passed, which condemned the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) campaign as anti-Semitic . The authors speculated that the two associations would be funded by the Israeli Ministry of Strategic Affairs and would act on its behalf. Mossad involvement was also considered possible. The title of the online version was initially "This is how two associations control German Middle East policy" and was changed shortly after publication to "How two associations want to influence German Middle East policy". The article caused severe criticism in numerous media. For example, the article “Wegbereiter des Judenhasse” appeared in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, the article “ Der Spiegel” and the dangerous game with friends of Israel ”appeared in the Welt , and the Neue Zürcher Zeitung published the article“ Where facts are not enough , one makes do with hints: How the «Spiegel» feeds anti-Israeli conspiracy theories »and in the Jüdische Allgemeine the article « The rumor of the Jewish lobby » . The Israeli daily newspapers Jerusalem Post and Haaretz also reported on the article. It was criticized that the article used anti-Semitic clichés such as that of the all-powerful Jewish world conspiracy and that no evidence was given for the alleged connection to the Israeli government. In addition, one would rate the two clubs more strictly than other interest groups. The Spiegel editor-in-chief consisting of Steffen Klusmann , Barbara Hans and Clemens Höges rejected the criticism in a statement. The two associations would be treated like all other interest groups and legal lobbying should be allowed to be criticized. In addition, no anti-Semitic clichés would have been used, only facts listed. The German Press Council decided in December 2019 that Spiegel did not violate the press code with the article . The article would not have any preconceived intent with clearly anti-Semitic tendencies.

Spiegel publishing house


proportion of Shareholders
50.5% Spiegel employees KG
25.5% Gruner + Jahr
24% Heirs of Rudolf Augstein

In 1971, Rudolf Augstein sold 25 percent of the shares in Gruner + Jahr and in 1974 gave employee KG 50 percent of the shares. In his will he decreed that his heirs had to sell 0.5 percent of the shares to the other two shareholders and thus lose their blocking minority .

executive Director

The managing directors alongside Rudolf Augstein were Hans Detlev Becker from January 1, 1962 to December 31, 1983 , Matthias Ginsberg from January 1, 1984 to December 31, 1986 , Adolf Theobald from August 1, 1987 to July 31, 1991, and from January 1, 1984 to December 31, 1986 August 1991 Karl Dietrich Seikel . On January 1, 2007, the former managing director of the Dresden printing and publishing house Mario Frank took over from Seikel. He was followed on September 15, 2008 by the previous Managing Director of the Stern Group, Ove Saffe. Thomas Hass, previously Head of Sales Marketing and Chairman of Employees KG, has been the publisher's managing director since February 11, 2015. On June 22, 2020, Stefan Ottlitz was also appointed to the management board and Thomas Hass was appointed chairman of the management board.

Financial figures

According to the consolidated financial statements for 2006, 2012 and 2018, the sales of the Rudolf Augstein GmbH Group were distributed among the individual business areas:

branch Sales 2018 (€ million) Sales 2012 (€ million) Sales 2006 (€ million)
Print distribution 117 (44.8%) 137 (45.4%) 118 (35.1%)
On-line 55 (21.1%) 35 (11.6%) 20 (5.9%)
Print ads 42 (16.1%) 83 (27.5%) 133 (39.6%)
Film and television production 38 (14.6%) 36 (11.9%) 51 (15.2%)
rest 9 (3.4%) 11 (3.6%) 14 (4.2%)
total 261 (100.0%) 302 (100.0%) 336 (100.0%)

The Spiegel Group's turnover initially rose from EUR 306.5 million in 2003 to EUR 352.5 million in 2008 and then fell to EUR 261 million in 2018. The gross advertising turnover of the print magazine is EUR 184.4 million per year 2003 fell to 88.38 million euros in 2018.

Publishing house

The new building seen from the Oberhafenbrücke at the blue hour
The former building of the Spiegel publishing house. Left the building completed in 1969, right the building acquired by IBM in 1996

From 1947 to 1952 the publishing house was based in the Anzeiger high-rise in Hanover and from 1952 to 1969 it was located in the press building in Hamburg , which also housed the editorial offices of Zeit and Sterns . In 1969 the publishing house moved to Brandstwiete . Werner Kallmorgen erected two buildings on the elongated triangular property between Willy-Brandt-Straße , Dovenfleet and Brandstwiete : A building completed in 1967 with a smooth dark glass facade, which Spiegel-Verlag took over from IBM in 1996 , and the Spiegel-Verlag building, which was completed in 1969 with stressed load-bearing elements, for the construction of which the Dovenhof was demolished in 1967 . In September 2011, the publishing house moved into the Spiegel building Ericusspitze , which was built in HafenCity on the former Ericus Bastion based on designs by the Danish architect Henning Larsen . The former publishing house was renovated and three more buildings were added. The listed Spiegel canteen has been exhibited in the Museum of Art and Commerce in Hamburg since October 2012 .

Coordinates: 53 ° 32 ′ 44.5 ″  N , 10 ° 0 ′ 13.2 ″  E


  • Spiegel history (since 2009)
  • Spiegel Wissen (since 2009)
  • Your mirror (since 2009)
  • New Scientist (2012-2013)
  • Spiegel Job (2013-2014)
  • Spiegel biography (2015-2018)
  • Mirror Classic (2017)
  • Spiegel Fernsehen (2017)
  • Mirror Expedition (2018)


  • Kultur Spiegel (1995-2015)
  • Uni Spiegel (1998-2019)
  • Literature Spiegel (2015-2019)
  • Probably (2017-2019)
  • S-Magazin (since 2017)
  • Spiegel Bestseller (since 2019)
  • Spiegel Geld (since 2020)
  • Spiegel Start (since 2020)




Editors (selection)

Former editors (selection)


SpiegelSansWeb font

The Spiegel font, which was specially developed by LucasFonts for the magazine, is used in the printed version and also on the Internet.



  • Spiegel TV GmbH (Ed.): Say what is. 70 years of Der Spiegel. Hamburg 2017. (running time 67 minutes)

Web links

Commons : Der Spiegel  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. according to IVW ( details on )
  2. Restructuring at “Spiegel”: It will take another ten years until all online users are in employee KG. In: June 19, 2019, accessed June 19, 2019 .
  3. Everything new at "Spiegel" on the web - this is how editor-in-chief Klusmann wants to attract new digital subscribers. In: January 8, 2020, accessed January 8, 2020 .
  4. Almut Kipp: "Der Spiegel": Celebrating successes with scandals on from January 4, 2007
  5. Klaus Brinkbäumer, Florian Harms: On our own behalf: Saturday is now SPIEGEL day. In: Spiegel Online. January 9, 2015, accessed January 11, 2015 .
  6. a b 70 years of DER SPIEGEL - 70 years of investigative journalism: On January 4, 1947, the first issue of the German news magazine appeared
  7. Sonja Pohlmann: Der Spiegel: A leading medium needs a leading figure . In: Der Tagesspiegel , November 17, 2007
  8. a b Veronika Westhoff, Ernst Ulrich Große: The leading media. In: DeuFraMat. 2003, accessed February 27, 2009 .
  9. a b Siegfried Weischenberg, Maja Malik, Armin Scholl: Journalismus in Deutschland 2005 ( Memento of March 9, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) In: Media Perspektiven , No. 7/2006, p. 359. Retrieved on May 11, 2018 (PDF ; 299 kB).
  10. according to IVW , ( details on )
  11. according to IVW , second quarter 2020 ( details and quarterly comparison on )
  12. Historical analysis: Spiegel and stern in the 66-year circulation trend - records with Kennedy and the Iraq war ., February 12, 2016
  13. according to IVW , fourth quarter in each case ( details on )
  14. according to IVW , fourth quarter in each case ( details on )
  15. a b c The history of the Spiegel Group
  16. Craig Silverman: Inside the World's Largest Fact Checking Operation , Columbia Journalism Review, April 9, 2010 (English)
  17. Christine Auerbach, Tobias Krone: German satire provokes not for the first time Puls (Bayerischer Rundfunk), April 11, 2016, accessed on November 25, 2016
  18. Carefully on the phone . In: Der Spiegel . No. 28 , 1952, pp. 5 ( online ).
  19. Conditionally ready for defense . In: Der Spiegel . No. 41 , 1962, pp. 32 ( online ).
  20. Spiegel in-house communication; Re: Franz-Josef Strauss . In: Der Spiegel . No. 28 , 1964, pp. 3 ( online ).
  21. The costs are borne by the Federal Treasury . In: Der Spiegel . No. 22 , 1965, p. 83 ( online ).
  22. ^ Freedom of the press: Poison and Galle on one day of January 8, 2008
  23. Barschel, Pfeiffer, Engholm and “Der Spiegel” , FAZ.NET of September 7, 2007.
  24. Statistics: Who reads / hears / sees what and why? . In: Die Zeit , No. 5/2006, p. 64.
  25. SPIEGEL-Verlag and Axel Springer AG are returning to traditional spelling . Spiegel Online, August 6, 2004.
  26. ^ The end of Stefan Aust at "Spiegel", November 16, 2007
  27. Stefan Aust at "Spiegel" exempted from, February 5, 2008
  28. Finding instead of searching with SPIEGEL WISSEN . ( Memento of July 2, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Spiegel Online, February 13, 2008. At least the cover story and the title page of issue 22/1977 (“The sold Lolitas”) are missing. The cover picture was reprimanded by the German Press Council in 1977 after protests by Emma , Courage , our small newspaper and the child protection association . See rearview mirror . In: Der Spiegel . No. 32 , 1977 ( online ). Re: press council . In: Der Spiegel . No.  50 , 1981 ( online ).
  29. Newcomers for Spiegel: “Dein Spiegel” appears monthly,, October 19, 2009
  30. Lonely at the top, February 21, 2011
  31. Media as an employer: "Spiegel" lists German magazines and newspapers at, March 26, 2012
  32. Short process with the "Spiegel" tip, April 9, 2013
  33. Michael Hanfeld: Wolfgang Büchner becomes editor-in-chief at "Spiegel" . In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , April 29, 2013.
  34. Michael Hanfeld: "Spiegel" on Saturday . In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , December 2, 2013.
  35. Kai-Hinrich Renner: The power struggle at “Spiegel” has only just begun. In: Die Welt , August 25, 2013.
  36. Kai-Hinrich Renner: "Spiegel" department heads reject Blome. In: Die Welt , August 26, 2013.
  37. Kai-Hinrich Renner: Büchner wins power struggle at the "Spiegel". In: Die Welt , August 28, 2013.
  38. Thomas Schuler: Future of Journalism: Laboratory for multimedia storytelling . In: Berliner Zeitung , May 19, 2014
  39. Michael Hanfeld: 225 editors rehearse the uprising . In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , August 21, 2014.
  40. Michael Hanfeld: Partners support Büchner's "Spiegel 3.0" . In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , August 22, 2014.
  41. The power struggle is over, December 4, 2014
  42. ^ Brinkbäumer new "Spiegel" editor-in-chief, January 13, 2015
  43. No future - why Blome goes to “Spiegel”, May 20, 2015
  44. Surveillance: SPIEGEL targeted by US secret services. In: Spiegel Online. Der Spiegel, July 3, 2015, accessed on July 3, 2015 .
  45. "Spiegel" cuts 149 places. In: December 1, 2015, accessed June 16, 2017 .
  46. ^ "Spiegel": NRW part is history again. In: May 2, 2016, accessed June 16, 2017 .
  47. Spiegel-Verlag starts paid offers on "Spiegel Online", June 27, 2016
  48. "Spiegel" launches new "Daily" paid service, May 15, 2017
  49. ^ Moving together on the Dickschiff, May 28, 2018
  50. ^ "Spiegel" boss Brinkbäumer deposed - Steffen Klusmann arrives at, August 22, 2018
  51. There can be no talk of a Brinkbäumer era: Why the current Spiegel editor-in-chief failed, August 22, 2018
  52. Too nice: «Spiegel» editor-in-chief Klaus Brinkbäumer has to go, August 22, 2018
  53. Klaus Brinkbäumer leaves the "Spiegel", October 15, 2018
  54. a b Parts of the designated "Spiegel" management let contracts rest, December 28, 2018
  55. a b Does the mirror have a compliance problem? / Debate about responsibility for Relotius-GAU, December 27, 2018
  56. a b Does print boss Ullrich Fichtner stumble over the Relotius affair? Der Spiegel and the unanswered questions in the fraud scandal , December 27, 2018
  57. a b Consequences of the Relotius affair: designated Spiegel editor-in-chief Ullrich Fichtner does not get a post, March 20, 2019
  58. Fichtner's successor arranged: Clemens Höges will once again be a member of the Spiegel editorial team,, April 16, 2019
  59. Hans Magnus Enzensberger: The language of the mirror . In: Der Spiegel . No. 10 , 1957, pp. 48-51 ( online ).
  60. ^ Wolf Schneider : German for professionals . 2nd edition, Gruner & Jahr, Hamburg 1985.
  61. Wolf Schneider: German for connoisseurs. The new style . 2nd edition, Gruner & Jahr, Hamburg 1997.
  62. Herbert Bock: A linguistic psychological study of reporting on AIDS in print media . Roderer, Regensburg 1992, ISBN 3-89073-603-3 , p. 92.
  63. Herbert Bock: On the linguistic representation of AIDS in print media . In: Bernd Ulrich Biere, Wolf-Andreas Liebert (Ed.): Metaphors, media, science. To convey AIDS research in the press and radio. Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen 1997, ISBN 3-531-12902-3 , pp. 81-101.
  64. Volkmar Sigusch: AIDS as a risk: About how society deals with an illness . Konkret-Literatur-Verlag, Hamburg 1987, ISBN 3-922144-67-5 , p. 8.
  65. a b c Hans-Jürgen Schmidt: Medial interpretation patterns of AIDS. About the consequences of media presentation for prevention and practical AIDS work . Mülheim an der Ruhr 2005, p. 66 ( PDF ).
  66. a b Susanne Köneke: AIDS in the press: The writing dealing with the unknown . Univ., Freiburg im Breisgau 1990, p. 24.
  67. Frank Rühmann: AIDS: A disease and its consequences . Edition Qumran published by Campus-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main / New York 1985, ISBN 3-88655-208-X , p. 75.
  68. ^ Ulrich Clement: Höhenrausch . In: AIDS as a risk: About how society deals with an illness . Konkret-Literatur-Verlag, Hamburg 1987, ISBN 3-922144-67-5 , p. 212.
  69. Gunter Schmidt: Morality and public health . In: AIDS as a risk: About how society deals with an illness . Konkret-Literatur-Verlag, Hamburg 1987, ISBN 3-922144-67-5 , p. 26.
  70. ^ Lutz Hachmeister: A German news magazine. The early “Spiegel” and its Nazi staff . In: Lutz Hachmeister, Friedemann Siering (ed.): The gentlemen journalists. The elite of the German press after 1945 . CH Beck, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-406-47597-3 , pp. 87-120.
  71. Willi Winkler: I had a comrade. A process that Blatt conducts with Bayerischer Rundfunk suddenly sheds light on the news magazine's past . In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , 14./15. June 2006, p. 15. And: belittling in retrospect. To this day, critics miss Spiegel's open approach to its brown past . In: M - Menschen --machen - Medien , issue 9/2006, p. 16.
  72. Lutz Hachmeister: Heidegger's Testament. The philosopher, the mirror and the SS . Propylaea, Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-549-07447-3 , p. 113f.
  73. NZZ attacks Rudolf Augstein ( memento of March 12, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) on of December 8, 2000.
  74. ^ Andreas Förster: Brown past . A book sheds light on how closely the magazine Der Spiegel cooperated with Nazi perpetrators in its early years . In: Berliner Zeitung , April 14, 2011. Peter-Ferdinand Koch: Unmasked. Double agents: names, facts, evidence . Ecowin-Verlag, Salzburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-7110-0008-8 , p. 218.
  75. Enlightenment Commission investigates disclosure from 1993, December 18, 2019
  76. "Spiegel" rolls 26 years of research anew on, December 22, 2019
  77. A murderous story, January 16, 2020
  78. How the lie about the execution of the RAF man Grams got into the media, February 15, 2020
  79. Matthias Schulz: The will of the Pharaoh . In: Der Spiegel . No. 52 , 2006, p. 112 ( online ).
  80. Jan Assmann in conversation. Is a "Spiegel" cover story massively anti-Semitic? in Die Welt on January 13, 2007
  81. Monotheism: Everything just stolen? in Jüdische Allgemeine of January 4, 2007
  82. Marlis Prinzing : Will the revolver stay in the spaghetti plate?, May 25, 2008
  83. ^ Italian-German column dispute escalates, January 30, 2012
  84. Marc Bartl: Press Council disapproves illustration of MH17 victims: "Spiegel" is reprimanded for the "Stop Putin Now!" Title. In: September 10, 2015, accessed November 25, 2015 .
  85. Stefan Niggemeier : What the press council recommends does not matter to the “Spiegel”. In: September 29, 2015, accessed November 25, 2015 .
  86. ^ Lutz M. Hagen, Anne Flämig, AnneMarie In der Au: synchronization of news and advertising. In: Publizistik ISSN  0033-4006 , Volume 59 Number 4 Springer-Verlag 1914.
  87. ^ Wilson Raj Perumal has 'no evidence' for claims Cameroon fixed World Cup matches, July 1, 2014
  88. FIFA's Match-Fixing Problem, August 21, 2014
  89. "Spiegel" sticks to untenable history - and promotes its author, July 24, 2019
  90. Why the promotion of a "Spiegel" editor stockt, August 2, 2019
  91. No receipt, no promotion, September 25, 2019
  92. After 5 years of walls: "Spiegel" admits that it has no evidence of disclosure, September 25, 2019
  93. Jump up ↑ Legal dispute over "abusive article": The "Spiegel" deletes text on Jürgen Todenhöfer, August 30, 2016
  94. "Arrogant and unjournalistic" - Jürgen Todenhöfer wins legal dispute with Spiegel, his son expects, August 30, 2016
  95. ↑ Does he want to be president or does he not want to?, September 9, 2016
  96. A magazine for "Spiegel" readers without the annoying "Spiegel" journalism, December 2, 2018
  97. a b c d “Literatur Spiegel” discontinued: Spiegel boss Hass is expanding the business with the print editors, May 28, 2019
  98. Ullrich Fichtner : SPIEGEL discloses fraud in its own house. In: Spiegel Online . December 19, 2018, accessed December 24, 2018 .
  99. Steffen Klusmann , Dirk Kurbjuweit : The Relotius case: We have a lot of questions for ourselves. In: Spiegel Online. December 20, 2018, accessed December 24, 2018 .
  100. The Relotius case: The answers to the most important questions. In: Spiegel Online. December 19, 2018, accessed December 24, 2018 .
  101. The Relotius case: How the SPIEGEL security system reached its limits. In: Spiegel Online. December 19, 2018, accessed December 24, 2018 .
  102. The Relotius case: Commission of experienced journalists to question routines at SPIEGEL. In: Spiegel Online. December 19, 2018, accessed December 24, 2018 .
  103. Spiegel scandal: How Relotius invented the terminally ill sister, September 17, 2019
  104. The Relotius case, May 25, 2019
  105. "The reactions were slow and poor", May 24, 2019
  106. Why the Relotius report is so devastating for “Spiegel”, May 24, 2019
  107. Relotius supervisor should no longer work at "Spiegel", August 26, 2019
  108. How the Relotius Commission found a bogeyman, August 26, 2019
  109. The "Spiegel" renames its corporate department at, October 2, 2019
  110. Matthias Gebauer, Ann-Katrin Müller, Sven Röbel, Raniah Salloum, Christoph Schult, Christoph Sydow : How two associations want to influence German Middle East policy. In: Der Spiegel. July 12, 2019, accessed July 18, 2019 .
  111. Thomas Thiel : Trailblazer of the hatred of Jews. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . July 17, 2019, accessed July 18, 2019 .
  112. Michael Wolffsohn : “Der Spiegel” and the dangerous game with friends of Israel. In: The world . July 14, 2019, accessed July 18, 2019 .
  113. Hansjörg Friedrich Müller: Where facts are not enough, one makes do with hints: How the «Spiegel» feeds anti-Israeli conspiracy theories. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung . July 16, 2019, accessed July 18, 2019 .
  114. ^ The rumor about the Jewish lobby. In: Jüdische Allgemeine . July 13, 2019, accessed July 18, 2019 .
  115. Benjamin Weinthal: German Magazine Under Fire for promo ting anti-Jewish Conspiracy. In: The Jerusalem Post . July 15, 2019, accessed July 18, 2019 .
  116. ^ Noa Landau, Ofer Aderet: Pro-Israel Groups Promoted anti-BDS Resolution in German Parliament, Der Spiegel Reports. In: Haaretz . July 15, 2019, accessed July 18, 2019 .
  117. Steffen Klusmann , Barbara Hans , Clemens Höges: Comments on our research for the article "Targeted campaign". In: Der Spiegel. July 15, 2019, accessed July 18, 2019 .
  118. Severin Weiland: Press Council rejects anti-Semitism allegations against the Spiegel report. In: Der Spiegel. December 20, 2019, accessed December 20, 2019 .
  119. Frank becomes the new managing director at Spiegel-Verlag, May 15, 2006
  120. Ove Saffe will be coming to "Spiegel" on September 15, 2008 at
  121. ^ The colleague from, February 11, 2015
  122. Spiegel expands tip, June 22, 2020
  123. Consolidated financial statements of the Rudolf Augstein Limited Liability Company for the financial years 2006, 2012 and 2018, available at
  124. Sales of the Spiegel Group from 2003 to 2018 (in million euros)
  125. Advertising sales (gross) of the news magazine Der Spiegel from 2003 to 2018 (in million euros)
  126. ^ Project report: New start on Spiegel-Insel, June 24, 2013
  127. Der Spiegel has moved, September 19, 2011
  128. New neighbors for the old Spiegel high-rise, November 22, 2019
  129. Currywurst and sweet and sour duck, September 15, 2011
  130. Kiosk flop: Spiegel Verlag takes Best Ager magazine Spiegel Classic after only one issue from the market, May 2, 2017
  131. Another kiosk flop: Spiegel Fernsehen failed its market test, June 29, 2017
  132. ↑ End for Spiegel Expedition: Verlag pulls the plug on its historic outdoor magazine, April 29, 2019
  133. Reviews and essays: Culture mirror becomes literature mirror, August 13, 2015
  134. Website relaunch and print supplement: “Bento” moves closer to “Spiegel” ran, October 16, 2019
  135. LucasFonts - About . In: . Retrieved November 19, 2018.