|Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg
Friee un Hanseatic City of Hamborg ( Low German )
|Large national coat of arms|
|Official language :||German|
|Form of government :||
parliamentary republic ,
partially sovereign member state of
a federal state
|Telephone prefixes :||040, 04721|
|License plate :||HH|
|Purchasing power index :||109.8% (2018)
(Germany = 100%)
|Purchasing power per inhabitant:||25,242 EUR (2018)
|GDP (nominal):||EUR 117.6 billion ( 9th ) (2017)|
|GDP per inhabitant:||64,957 EUR ( 1st ) (2017)
|Debt :||EUR 32.774 billion (June 30, 2018)|
|Senate address :||
|Community key :||02 0 00 000|
|ISO 3166-2 :||DE-HH|
|UN / LOCODE :||DE HAM|
|Residents :||1,845,017 (April 30, 2020)|
|- of which foreigners :||326,392 (Dec. 30, 2018)|
|- of which with a
migration background :
|631,246 (Dec. 31, 2016)|
|Proportion of foreigners:||17.3% (Dec. 31, 2018)|
|Migration background share:||34% (Dec. 31, 2016)|
|Metropolitan Area Population :||~ 5,380,000 (December 31, 2018)|
|Population density :||2443 inhabitants per km²
(April 30, 2020)
|Unemployment rate :||8.4% (August 2020)|
|geographical location :|
(rank: 15th as a country , 2nd as a municipality )
|City structure:||7 districts, 104 districts|
|First Mayor :||Peter Tschentscher (SPD)|
|Second mayor :||
(Alliance 90 / The Greens)
|Mayor President :||Carola Veit (SPD)|
|Ruling parties :||SPD and Greens|
Distribution of seats in the
|last parliamentary election :||February 23, 2020|
|next parliamentary election :||Early 2025|
|Federal Council voting weight :||3|
|Districts in Hamburg|
Hamburg ( [ hambʊʁk ] ; regional and [ hambʊɪ̯ç ] ), officially Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg ( Low German Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg , country code : HH ) is a city-state , a country of the Federal Republic of Germany . The official name refers to the history of Hamburg as a free imperial city and as a leading member of the Hanseatic League .
Hamburg is the second largest city in Germany with around 1.85 million inhabitants . The urban area is divided into seven districts and 104 districts, including the Neuwerk district , an island group located in the North Sea .
The Port of Hamburg is one of the largest transshipment ports in the world and, together with the international airport, makes Hamburg an important logistics location . Economically and scientifically, the metropolis is particularly important in the field of aerospace technology , life sciences and information technology as well as for the consumer goods industry . Since 1996 Hamburg has also been the seat of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ISGH).
Hamburg is experiencing strong growth in the field of international city tourism and is considered one of the cities with the highest quality of life in the world. The Speicherstadt and the neighboring Kontorhaus district have been part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2015 . Other well-known cultural monuments and landmarks are the Hamburg City Hall and the five main churches . Typical of the cityscape are still many brick facades and the water nearby with numerous rivers, canals and channels. The St. Pauli entertainment district with the Reeperbahn and the Elbphilharmonie concert hall, which opened in 2017, are also internationally known .
Hamburg is located in northern Germany at the mouth of the Bille and Alster in the Lower Elbe , which flows into the North Sea about 100 kilometers further northwest . The Neuwerk district, which consists of three islands, is located near this confluence . On the Elbe , the tidal port extends roughly from the Veddel to Finkenwerder , mainly on the south bank of the Norderelbe , opposite the districts of St. Pauli and Altona . The two banks are connected by the Elbe bridges in the east and by the old and new Elbe tunnels. The land to the south and north of the river is Geest , higher-lying areas that were created by the sand and debris deposits of the glaciers during the ice ages . The northernmost areas of the city belong to the fertile young moraine land . The marshes directly on the river have been crossed by tributaries of the Elbe for centuries on both sides of the Elbe and inundated by the flood waters of the North Sea, with sand and silt being deposited. In the meantime, the Elbe has been diked on both sides , and side arms have been drained, diverted, canalized or sealed off. Old dykes in the outlying areas are reminiscent of the time when entire quarters were flooded during floods. The highest point is the Hasselbrack in a northern foothills of the Harburg mountains .
The Alster in the city center has been dammed into a lake since the Middle Ages . This is divided into the larger Outer Alster and the smaller Inner Alster, enclosed by the historical core of the city . The tributaries of the Alster - like the Alster itself - are partly canalised in the urban area. They are mostly lined with extensive public parks. The numerous canals , rivers and canals of the city are of nearly 2,500 bridges spanning. It is largely unknown that one of the last tideau forests in Europe is located on the largest river island on the Elbe, in Wilhelmsburg .
Hamburg borders Schleswig-Holstein in the north and Lower Saxony in the south . With the exception of a few smaller "area adjustments", such as the acquisition of Neuwerk Island and parcels of land at the Geesthacht dam, the current boundaries of the city of Hamburg have existed since the Greater Hamburg Act , which came into force on April 1, 1937. After Berlin, the city is the second largest city in Germany both in terms of population and area .
The historic center of the city is located south of the Inner Alster. The geographical center of Hamburg in its current political boundaries should be a point on the Kuhmühlenteich in the Uhlenhorst district . The northernmost point of Hamburg is the island of Scharhörn, the easternmost Altengamme, the southernmost the Krauel and the westernmost the island Nigehörn. The largest extension of the city in east-west direction is 39.88 km and in north-south direction 42.31 km.
Running waters in Hamburg
- Elbe ( Lower Elbe ) with Norderelbe, Süderelbe, Köhlbrand, Reiherstieg , Rethe, Dove Elbe and Gose Elbe
- Tributaries of the Elbe: Seevekanal , Bille , Alster, Flottbek and Este
- Tributaries of the Alster : Eilbek ( Wandse ), Osterbek , Goldbek , Isebek , Tarpenbek , Saselbek , Rodenbek , Bredenbek , Ammersbek
Protected areas in Hamburg
Hamburg's state constitution stipulates that districts are to be formed in which district offices are responsible for the independent handling of assigned tasks. The seven districts are divided into a total of 104 districts. Most of the districts are further subdivided into several districts, since January 1, 2011 a total of 181. Some districts in the core area of the districts were administered directly by the relevant district office until 2008, while the other districts of the districts each had their own local office ; a total of 13 local offices were set up. At the beginning of 2008, the boundaries of individual city districts and districts were redrawn through a regional reform. The Wilhelmsburg district fell from the Harburg district to Mitte , and the Sternschanze district in the Altona district and HafenCity in the Hamburg-Mitte district were newly created.
|Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (total)||1,891,810||755.2||100.0||2,505|
Hamburg includes the North Sea islands of Neuwerk , Scharhörn and Nigehörn as well as the Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park , which was added to the North Sea Wadden Sea World Heritage Site in 2011. As the Hamburg-Neuwerk district , they belong to the Hamburg-Mitte district , which is therefore the northernmost and westernmost district of Hamburg.
Neighboring cities and towns
- in Schleswig-Holstein:
- in the Pinneberg district (PI): Wedel , Appen , Pinneberg , Schenefeld , Halstenbek , Rellingen , Ellerbek ( Pinnau office ) and Bönningstedt
- in the Segeberg district (SE): Norderstedt
- in the Stormarn district (OD): Tangstedt (Stormarn) , Jersbek ( Bargteheide-Land Office ), Ammersbek , Ahrensburg , Stapelfeld ( Siek Office ), Barsbüttel , Oststeinbek , Glinde and Reinbek
- in the district of the Duchy of Lauenburg (RZ): Wentorf near Hamburg , Börnsen and Escheburg (both Amt Hohe Elbgeest ) and Geesthacht
- in Niedersachsen:
Hamburg lies in the cool, temperate climate zone and is characterized by a maritime climate . Due to the maritime influences caused by the prevailing westerly winds, the climate is milder in winter and cooler in summer than in the eastern hinterland.
The annual average temperature is 9.4 ° C. The warmest month is July with an average of 18.1 ° C, the coldest is January with 1.6 ° C. Temperatures around 28 ° C are not uncommon in midsummer. A maximum value of 37.3 ° C (August 9, 1992) was measured at the Hamburg-Fuhlsbüttel weather station . The absolute temperature minimum is −29.1 ° C (February 13, 1940). The climate is humid all year round. Over the course of a year, an average of 773 mm of precipitation falls, and fog prevails on an average of 52 days a year. Most of the rain falls in the 31 days around June 29; the least falls around April 16. In the winter months it can be very stormy. The Hamburg weather is literally filthy .
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Hamburg
Source: German Weather Service
The oldest permanent dwellings date back to the 4th century BC. For the place that was called Treva by the ancient scientist Claudius Ptolemy . From the 4th to the 6th century, Saxons settled in the northern Elbe region.
In the 8th century, the Hammaburg was built , in which Charlemagne had a baptistery built in 810 to proselytize the pagan north. In 831, Ludwig the Pious founded a diocese here , which a short time later became an archbishopric . But shortly after the division of Verdun in 843 , Vikings attacked the region, later the Slavic Abodrites , and the archbishop moved his official residence to Bremen .
Count Adolf III. von Schauenburg and Holstein was the founder of a trading and market settlement on the western bank of the Alster in the 12th century. Due to the port rights allegedly granted to this settlement by Emperor Friedrich I. Barbarossa in 1189 and the trading privileges for the entire Lower Elbe , the city developed into a flourishing trading center in the Middle Ages and, with its 600 breweries at times, was known as the “brewery of the Hanseatic League”. In the 14th century, Hamburg developed as one of the first members of the Hanse merchants' association to become the most important German transshipment and stacking point between the North and Baltic Seas. From 1510 Hamburg was finally considered an imperial city . In 1558 the Hamburg stock exchange was one of the first to open in Germany, and in 1678 under the name Opern-Theatrum, the first German opera on Gänsemarkt . During the Reformation , the city-state became evangelical without bloodshed. The city of Hamburg experienced its cultural heyday especially in the 17th and 18th centuries with the establishment of the Hamburg National Theater (1767).
Even after the fall of the Hanseatic League and during the Enlightenment and industrialization , the city remained the most important economic center in northern Germany alongside Berlin. Hamburg was spared the effects of the Thirty Years War and was able to use it to advantage to expand its supremacy in trade. In its eventful history, the city was under the Danish royal crown (but never formally recognized by Hamburg), was part of the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation and capital of the Elbe estuary ( Département des Bouches de l'Elbe ) in the French Empire ( Hamburg's French period ). 1813–1814 Hamburg was besieged by the Russian General Bennigsen . As a free city, it joined the German Confederation in 1815 after the Congress of Vienna . In 1867 it became a member of the North German Confederation , initiated by Otto von Bismarck , and in 1871 remained a member of the federal state that was now renamed the German Empire.
Special events in modern times were the great Hamburg fire in 1842, the cholera epidemic in 1892 , the considerable increase in area and population in 1937/38 as a result of the Greater Hamburg Law , the bombings in World War II in 1943 , the destruction of the Jewish community (→ History of the Jews in Hamburg ), the establishment of the Neuengamme concentration camp and its numerous sub-camps in the city area, the handover to the English troops on May 3, 1945 without a fight, the storm surge in 1962 , the connection to the international road network and air traffic ( Finkenwerder and Fuhlsbüttel ), the change in Hafen and the disputes over Hafenstrasse in the 1980s.
Hamburg's politics have always been geared towards the greatest possible freedom of trade and political independence. Even today, Hamburg is largely independent as a city-state and offers good conditions for trading with Germany's largest seaport.
Hamburg reached its highest level of inhabitants to date with 1.899 million in 2019, before that was the highest level of 1.86 million in 1964. City exodus ( suburbanization ) then led to a population decline by 1986 to around 1.6 million inhabitants. Since then, the population has increased to 1.81 million (December 2016). For the next few years (up to 2030), a further increase in population is predicted for Hamburg, in the mean projection to around 1.9 million inhabitants. Recently (2013) a growth to over two million inhabitants has also been discussed.
In 2010 and 2011, birth surpluses were recorded in Hamburg for the first time in decades. In 2010 women in Hamburg gave birth to 17,377 children, in 2011 the number was 17,125. This contrasted with 17,060 deaths in 2010 and 17,060 in 2011. This resulted in a positive balance of 65 inhabitants in 2011. In addition, 93,466 immigrants and only 81,231 emigrations resulted in a population increase of 12,235 inhabitants compared to 2010.
The average life expectancy in the period 2015/17 was 78.5 years for men and 83.2 years for women. The men and women rank 5th among the German federal states.
At the end of 2013, 550,000 residents had a migration background (legally registered persons with German citizenship and at the same time of foreign origin), which is around 31 percent of all residents of Hamburg. The number of foreigners (legally registered persons without German citizenship) was 238,000 inhabitants at the end of 2012. At the end of 2012, 197,000 people were naturalized and 78,000 were repatriates . The proportion of foreigners at the end of 2013 was 13.2 percent. 183 nationalities were represented.
More than a quarter of all foreigners registered in Hamburg came from member states of the European Union.
In 2014, a total of 1,193,400 people were employed in Hamburg. 339,600 of these were with public and private service providers, 393,100 in trade, transport, hospitality and in the information and communication sector, 304,300 in business services (finance, business services, real estate and housing), 115,900 in manufacturing, 38,200 in construction and 2,400 in the Agriculture, forestry and fishing industry employed.
In 2006, the average gross taxable income was EUR 35,887 per year. In 2010, female employees in Hamburg earned an average of around 20 percent less than their male colleagues. On the rivers and on the wooded periphery of the northeast, three larger areas have established themselves in which the residents have a particularly high income on average: in the Elbe suburbs in the west, in the districts in the northeast, including the forest villages and around the Outer Alster or north of it in the area of the northern city center. Then there is the Marienthal district to the east . The inhabitants of the Elbe suburbs have the highest average incomes. Nienstedten is well ahead with an average of 170,408 euros (2007), followed by Blankenese with 110,108 euros. In the forest villages, the inhabitants of Wohldorf-Ohlstedt achieve the highest incomes with an average of 105,305 euros (2007). In the districts around the Outer Alster , the Harvestehuders have 88,746 euros (2007). Hamburg is the city with the most millionaires in Germany. In 2019, Hamburg also had the highest rate of wealth among the federal states at 10.9% .
The belt of low-income areas stretches from Billstedt in the east to the eastern city center ; the Elbe island Wilhelmsburg with the Veddel and the Harburg south of the Elbe ; the western districts of Altona-Altstadt , Altona-Nord and St. Pauli . In addition, the eastern districts of Dulsberg , Barmbek-Nord and Steilshoop and the western district of Lurup are affected. The inhabitants of the districts of Veddel, Kleiner Grasbrook and Steinwerder on the Elbe island have the lowest average income with 11,756 to 15,491 euros (2007). This is followed by the Rothenburgsort district with 18,850 euros. What all these districts have in common is their proximity to the Port of Hamburg and the industrial and commercial areas. The lowest income district in the central city area is Dulsberg with an average annual income of 18,927 euros. The district has an older, very dense development.
The rate of benefit recipients according to Book II of the Social Code ( SGB II for short ) who receive unemployment benefit II was an average of 10.3 percent across Hamburg in March 2013, which is below the average for the city-state of Berlin and the state of Bremen of 14.5 percent. In the high-income areas, in the northern parts of the city, in the southern outskirts and in most of the Bergedorf district , comparatively few benefit recipients are registered. The rate is sometimes less than one percent. In the low-income, densely populated old building districts of Altona and St. Pauli as well as in districts with high-rise estates such as Steilshoop , Lurup and Hausbruch , the proportion of recipients of help is higher. More than 22 percent of the beneficiaries are the districts that stretch in the east from Jenfeld to the south to Wilhelmsburg and are characterized by industry and / or high-rise estates such as Mümmelmannsberg or Kirchdorf-Süd .
Religions and worldviews
According to the 2011 census , 29.8% of the population were Protestant, 9.8% Roman Catholic and 60.4% were non-denominational or belonged to another religious community. The number of Catholics, and especially Protestants, has fallen since then. At the end of 2019 Hamburg had 1,844,216 inhabitants, 446,802 (24.2%) Protestants , 177,567 (9.6%) Catholics and 66.2% either had a different or no religious affiliation.
Due to its position as an important port city, it has long been open to other denominations. For example, the first German Baptist congregation came into being here in 1834 . The Hamburg Mennonite Congregation, which still exists today, was founded in Altona in 1601 . The Hanseatic city is also an important place for the Apostolic Communities . It was from here that the General Christian Apostolic Mission was separated from the Catholic Apostolic congregations and developed into the New Apostolic Church . Today there are 16 New Apostolic Churches in Hamburg, as well as the seat of the New Apostolic Church in Northern Germany. Hamburg has also been the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hamburg since 1995, with its center in the New Mariendom . Hamburg is also the birthplace of the Jesus Freaks and the Flussschifferkirche , a nave in the inland port . Since 1910 there have also been Jehovah's Witnesses in Hamburg .
The Jewish community in Hamburg has a long tradition, which began at the end of the 16th and beginning of the 17th century with the settlement of European Jews and over the centuries has given rise to various synagogues in the Hamburg area. Most synagogues were destroyed during the November pogroms in 1938 . The Jewish cemetery in Altona , which was founded in 1611 and where both Jews immigrated from the Iberian Peninsula ( Sephardi ) and Central and Eastern European Jews ( Ashkenazim ) were buried, is still evidence of this centuries-old history. Due to its age and the number of valuable gravestones, the cemetery is one of the most important Jewish graves in the world. The Hamburg Jewish Community is today one of the largest Jewish communities in Germany with around 3500 members. The center of Jewish life in the city is located around the Talmud Tora School on Grindel, in the Eimsbüttel district.
There has been a significant proportion of the Muslim population since the 1960s . On June 22, 1957, the Fazle Omar Mosque in Stellingen was the first mosque in Germany to be opened by the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community after the Second World War . Asian religions are also increasingly represented in Hamburg. The following of Buddhism consists of both Asian immigrants and converts of German descent . The Buddhist schools of Zen and Tibetan Buddhism in particular enjoy a certain popularity.
Language and dialects
Until well into the 19th century, Low German was the general colloquial language in the city. Then it was pushed back more and more by Standard German , which had been increasingly used as a written language since the 16th century, and finally largely disappeared from public use around the middle of the 20th century. Against this trend, the citizens' press office published a Low German version of the Hamburg constitution in 1980 . The Low German influence, however, remains omnipresent in High German and manifests itself particularly in the “ Missingsch ”.
The Hamburger Platt is still understood and spoken by many Hamburg residents and cultivated in literature, newspaper columns, etc. It is documented in the Hamburg dictionary as well as in some dialectological dissertations. The best-known place for maintaining dialect in Hamburg is the Ohnsorg Theater , which offers performances in the Low German language.
As a result of the strong immigration since the 1960s, in some parts of the city other languages in addition to German are currently Turkish, Persian, Pashto, Kurdish and Albanian in Altona , St. Georg , Harburg, Veddel and Wilhelmsburg , Portuguese in the port district ( " Portuguese Quarter ") or, above all, through parts of the ethnic German repatriates or late repatriates also Russian and Polish.
According to the 2015 study by the University of Hamburg, around 25,000 Hamburgers, i.e. 1.4%, belong to the Danish minority .
The regional language Low German (according to Part III of the Charter) and the minority language Romani (according to Part II of the Charter) have legal status according to the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in Hamburg .
The long history of Hamburg shows a large number of important people from all areas. The list of personalities of the city of Hamburg can therefore only offer a selection without evaluation and is representative of the countless unnamed people who shaped the city and were shaped by it.
Politics and state
As a city-state, the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg is a state (member state) of the Federal Republic of Germany and, at the same time, as a city, is a unified municipality . Hamburg has a long tradition as a bourgeois city republic and is today, according to the state constitution, a democratic and social constitutional state . There is no separation of municipal and state tasks. The power of the state comes from the people, who elect the state parliament, the Hamburg citizenship , bring in their own decisions through popular legislation and participate in the administration, as in the deputations .
The country's government is the Senate , whose President is the First Mayor . The first mayor since changing the constitution in 1996 directly by the citizenry elected , has since the policy-making power in politics and appoints his deputy (Deputy Mayor) and the other senators who must be confirmed by the citizenry. Each Senator heads one of the Senate authorities as President , comparable to a ministry in other countries headed by a Minister .
At the level of the respective districts in Hamburg , a separate parliament is elected with the district assemblies. Legally, however, these have the status of administrative committees with limited powers.
At the supraregional level, Hamburg has a seat (three votes) in the Bundesrat and is represented in the Bundestag with six direct mandates from the constituencies of Mitte , Altona , Eimsbüttel , Nord , Wandsbek and Bergedorf-Harburg as well as other members of the state list . Hamburg is a member of the German Association of Cities and sends a representative to the Committee of the Regions .
A merger of states - accordingly a merger of Hamburg with other northern German states - has occasionally been discussed for decades under the term northern state . This discussion has resulted in stronger cross-border cooperation in various areas, such as in the Hamburg metropolitan region or joint institutions such as the North Statistics Office .
Election for Hamburg citizenship 2020
The election for the 22nd Hamburg citizenship took place on February 23, 2020.
The incumbent red-green government coalition gained overall approval in the provisional result of the state list and for the first time also has a two-thirds majority . The SPD remained the strongest force, but lost four seats, while the previous government partner Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen increased its mandates from 15 to 33.
The CDU lost around a third of its share of the vote and with 11.2% had to accept its second-worst result in a state election since the party was founded.
The FDP also lost a good third of its share of the vote and, according to the preliminary result, failed with the five percent hurdle with 4.961% . The top candidate Anna-Elisabeth von Treuenfels-Frowein has won a direct mandate in the Blankenese constituency and will therefore be represented in the citizenship.
Representations and consulates
The economic importance of Hamburg for the foreign trade of the Federal Republic of Germany ("Hamburg, the gateway to the world") as well as its importance as an important center of industry, trade and logistics, as the headquarters of foreign companies and with a population of more than 180 different nationalities are represented, has resulted in Hamburg, with 100 consulates (April 2010) , the fourth largest consular location in the world after New York , Frankfurt am Main and Hong Kong . Trade relations with other cities and countries have existed via the port since the Hanseatic era . The first representations were opened by European countries, before countries from North and South America were added in the 18th and 19th centuries. Austria (since 1570) and France (1579) currently operate the longest-established consulates. The American Consulate General on Alsterufer 27/28, which was originally built by Martin Haller as a double villa, is particularly well known . It is often referred to as the “White House on the Alster”.
Foreign representations of Hamburg
Hamburg, for its part, also had foreign representations early on. This ranged from the joint trading offices of the merchants of the Hanseatic era to joint consular representations with the remaining Hanseatic cities of Lübeck and Bremen. Today the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg is represented at the federal level as a state representative in Berlin. As a joint representation of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein consisting Hanse-Office in the European Union in Brussels and in St. Petersburg . Together with the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce and other partners, the Senate also maintains the Hamburg Liaison Office in Shanghai and the Hamburg Representative Office in Dubai . In addition, there is a network of voluntary ambassadors abroad, the Hamburg Ambassadors , who are appointed by the First Mayor and are supposed to promote the city.
|City partnerships in Hamburg:|
|Saint Petersburg in Russia, since 1957|
|Marseille in France, since 1958|
|Shanghai in the PRC since 1986|
|Dresden in Germany, since 1987|
|Osaka in Japan, since 1989|
|León in Nicaragua, since 1990|
|Prague in the Czech Republic, since 1990|
|Chicago in the USA since 1994|
|Dar es Salaam in Tanzania, since 2010|
Hamburg maintains partnerships with nine cities, especially with other port cities.
The first - oral - partnership agreement was signed in 1957 with Leningrad, now Saint Petersburg , Russia . The Hamburg Senate accepted an invitation to the Soviet Union against the will of the Foreign Office . The partnership is the oldest between a German and a then Soviet city. There have been "Hamburg Days" in Leningrad since 1981. The partnership has also included financial support in social matters since 1990. In the crisis winter of 1990/1991, Hamburg citizens helped with 400,000 aid packages against hunger in Saint Petersburg. There is an exchange of students, athletes, scientists and artists.
As part of the Franco-German friendship , the partnership with Marseille was sealed in 1958 . It is characterized by exchanges on an economic level, as well as school and youth exchanges. Hamburg has similar problems as its twin city Marseille. This concerns the port, port expansion, the development of old port areas, the architecture of HafenCity in Hamburg and Euroméditerrané in Marseille as well as the integration of immigrants. There is an institutional partnership between the Hamburg School Authority and the Académie d'Aix-Marseille through cooperation in student exchanges and teacher training. The collaboration will be expanded to include the digitization and emissions reduction project. There is a cooperation agreement between HafenCity GmbH and Euroméditerrannée.
The partnership with Shanghai , People's Republic of China , begun in 1986 , was frozen in 1989 after the massacre in Tiananmen Square . The exchange in cultural and economic areas continued, however. Hamburg and China have had good trade relations for centuries. Every two years in autumn, the three-week series of events “ China Time ” with lectures, concerts and exhibitions takes place in Hamburg . Topics are art, culture, education, economy, law, politics, health, the art of movement and healing knowledge. The city partnership includes in particular the partnership with Shanghai's port city of Lingang New City, which has been under construction since 2003 .
On December 14, 1987 the partnership with the Elbe city of Dresden , at that time the German Democratic Republic , was signed in Dresden and on December 16, 1987 in Hamburg. It was agreed through talks between Dohnanyi and Erich Honecker at the 750th anniversary celebration in East Berlin . After reunification in 1990, a "representative of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg in Dresden and Saxony" was appointed. From 1991 Hamburg helped with the structuring of the Dresden administration. In 2002, Hamburg helped the city of Dresden cope with the consequences of the Elbe flood. The focus is on regular exchange in the art scene and keeping the Elbe clean. Hamburg and Dresden have both had a partnership with Saint Petersburg since the early post-war years .
The partnership with Osaka , Japan , was concluded in 1989 after the Senate abandoned its previous foreign policy position and decided to focus on so-called priority regions. The highlight of the partnership was the opening of the Japanese garden in Planten un Blomen . A partnership with León in Nicaragua has existed since 1990, which is mainly characterized by Hamburg's development aid.
On April 19, 1990 in Hamburg, as part of the east-west rapprochement, a partnership with the then Czechoslovak , now Czech capital, Prague, was concluded between the First Mayor of Hamburg Henning Voscherau and Prague's Primátor Jaroslav Korán . Vltava and Elbe connect Prague and Hamburg. In December 2012, Hamburg helped to cope with the consequences of the Vltava flood. The town twinning focuses on administration, infrastructure, cultural exchanges, student exchanges and business forums.
Another city partnership has existed since 1994 on the initiative of Chicago . The reasons were the large number of descendants of nineteenth-century German emigrants living in Chicago and a great interest in Hamburg schools in a German- American partnership. In June 2010 the twinning with Dar es Salaam in Tanzania was confirmed by the Hamburg city council and sealed on July 1st by the Hamburg mayor and the mayor of Dar es Salaam.
Other contracts or partnerships
The Port of Hamburg has a special position in terms of partnerships. Port partnerships have been established with some of the ports to which the Port of Hamburg is connected for the regular exchange of specialist knowledge. The first partnership with the port of Yokohama (Japan) has existed since 1992 . Port partnerships with Kaohsiung (on Taiwan), the port of Shanghai (China; 2004), Montevideo (Uruguay), Dar es Salaam (Tanzania; 2010), Shenzhen (China), Busan (South Korea; 2010), Halifax (Canada, 2014) and the most recent port partnerships in 2015 were the ports of Gothenburg (Sweden) and Bronka / St. Petersburg (Russia).
The partnership with Dar es Salaam includes climate protection projects, collaboration between clinics, schools, and vocational training and art.
There are also independent district sponsorships. So entertains Hamburg-Mitte official relations with Shanghai's inner city district of Hongkou (since 2007), the district Eimsbüttel to the city of Varna (Bulgaria since 2003) and the District Wandsbek with London district of Waltham Forest (formerly Leyton; since 1949). An assistance and partnership agreement with Wöhrden in today's Dithmarschen district in Schleswig-Holstein dates back to 1281 . This was officially renewed by the Hamburg Senate in July 2007, but is not one of the city partnerships in the modern sense.
Hamburg has been part of the Fab City network since June 2019 , whose members want to manufacture all consumer goods themselves by 2054 . The aim is to replace the urban operating principle of “ product-in , trash-out ” with open documentation and local production .
coat of arms
coat of arms
coat of arms
flag of the Senate
|Country flag||Admiralty coat of arms||Admiralty flag||logo|
Hamburg has three coats of arms , three flags , a coat of arms , a logo and a stander . The national flag and the coat of arms may be used freely by the citizens, the use of the other national emblems is reserved to the state. In the state constitution , the shape of the coat of arms and flag as well as the state colors white-red are regulated. The latter correspond to the traditional colors of the Hanseatic League .
Coat of arms, logo, heraldic sign
The small national coat of arms shows a white (or silver) castle in a red shield and goes back to the city seals of the 12th and 13th centuries. The middle tower, on which there is a cross , is interpreted as a reference to the seat of a bishop and as a representation of the medieval Mariendom , which was consecrated to the patron saint of the city and from which the "Mariensterne" above the side towers are said to have their name. The design of the castle varied considerably over time. The gate was once open, provided with portcullis or closed as an expression of a well-fortified city and independence from other sovereigns. The coat of arms has existed in its current form since 1835 with minor changes. The large national coat of arms with helmet, crest and lion as shield holder used by the Senate and the citizenship was created in the 16th century. Originally, the castle was shown in red and the background in white, according to the brick construction in Hamburg. This was taken up again with the Hamburg logo designed by the designer Peter Schmidt in 1998. The wave symbolizes the dynamism and importance of the port, while the open gate of the red castle indicates Hamburg's cosmopolitanism . With the specially developed Hamburg symbol , the Senate fulfilled the citizens' desire for a coat of arms that could be used by everyone, as an expression of affiliation or attachment to Hamburg.
Flags and Admiralty
The national flag shows the coat of arms castle on a red background. With the oldest law of this kind, Hamburg has regulated the flagging of ships since 1270. Initially, it is a red flag on which the coat of arms is later placed. Due to the increasing inconsistency of colors and castle, the exact design was determined by the Senate in 1751 and again in 1834 with greater success. The design of the castle has been based on the coat of arms since 1860. The state flag is reserved for the Senate. It shows the large coat of arms with a white frame on a red background and was created in 1897. A state flag highlighted in black, red and gold forms the stand, which is carried on the vehicle by the Mayor and the Mayor during state visits.
A coat of arms of the Admiralty , the coat of arms castle with an anchor underneath, has existed since 1642 and is carried by state vessels. They also carry the admiralty flag, which shows the coat of arms on a red background, as a bow flag (Gösch). Otherwise it is used exclusively by authorities that serve maritime shipping.
Anthem, city name, city patron, motto
The state anthem of Hamburg, used on official occasions but not legally stipulated, is City of Hamburg on the Elbe Auen . The song, created in 1828, is also called Hammonia , a neo-Latin form of the city name (actually Hamburgum ). In 1370, the name of the town was incorrectly referred to as the castle or town of Hammon (= Roman god Jupiter ) in a letter . In fact, the name Hamburg - based on the Hammaburg in the 9th century - is derived from the Old Saxon word hamme / ham , for a raised (also wooded) area on the bank of a river or swamp protruding into the marsh. The name Hammonia, as the name of the city's patron goddess, goes back to a cantata created by Barthold Heinrich Brockes in 1710 and is subsequently often depicted as a pictorial allegory , in the form of a woman who represents the city. On the other hand , the city patron saint before the Reformation was Maria , to whom the former Hamburg Cathedral was consecrated.
The Latin inscription above the portal of the town hall : " Libertatem quam peperere maiores digne studeat servare posteritas" (analogously: "The freedom that the ancients acquired, may posterity strive to be worthy of preserving") is also regarded as the motto of the city as such, however, not anchored. It was already to be read at two earlier city gates and in the medieval old town hall and points to the self-confidence of a city-state which, as a free imperial city , has stripped off any princely rule. At the seat of parliament and state government, it is also interpreted today in terms of the liberal democracy achieved and the republican tradition of the city. Since the beginning of the 19th century, the city has officially been known as the Free City , as a formerly completely sovereign state and today's federal state. At the same time, the previously used addition Hanseatic City , as in the two other joint heirs of the Hanseatic League, the sister cities of Bremen and Lübeck, became part of the state title.
The saying "Hamburg - The Gate to the World" or "Germany's Gate to the World" has long been well known, in contrast to other short-term epithets or sayings in city advertising. It appeared for the first time after Hamburg joined the German customs area (1888), a time when Hamburg was developing into one of the world's leading ports. In the preamble to the state constitution passed in 1952, Hamburg describes itself as a “world port city” that “has to fulfill a special task towards the German people, assigned to it by history and location. In the spirit of peace she wants to be a mediator between all continents and peoples of the world. "
Going back to the Hamburg city law of the 13th century, Hanseatic people are not allowed to accept awards from "foreign masters". This tradition is generally adhered to to this day, and it is particularly mandatory for state officials. The Hamburg Senator and Federal Chancellor Helmut Schmidt repeatedly refused to accept the Federal Order of Merit .
Since Hamburg itself does not award any medals, the Senate has honored personalities with honorary citizenship as the most important distinction since 1813 (see: List of Hamburg Honorary Citizens ). There are also a number of other awards, medals, honorary titles and cultural prizes from the city and the award of traditional Portuguese coins (other prizes: Mayor Stolten Medal , Biermann Ratjen Medal , Lessing Prize , Bach Prize , Lichtwark Prize , Fritz Schumacher Prize , Hubert Fichte Prize , Edwin Scharff Prize , Aby M. Warburg Prize , medal for loyal work in the service of the people ). In addition, other Hamburg institutions or foundations award further awards and prizes.
The website of the City of Hamburg (hamburg.de) offers a wide range of hotel offers, event announcements, job information and other information. The city of Hamburg has an 87 percent stake in the portal, Hamburger Sparkasse 10.5 percent and Sparkasse Harburg-Buxtehude 2.5 percent. The website had almost 5.2 million visitors in May 2015.
Service for new residents
The Hamburg New Citizen Service ( Hamburg Welcome Center ) in the building of the Chamber of Commerce on Alten Wall familiarizes new citizens, foreign / foreign companies and their employees as well as qualified foreign specialists and foreign students with the city's infrastructure and authorities.
Culture and sights
Hamburg has over 60 theaters , over 100 music clubs, around 60 museums , around 280 music publishers and 200 sound recording companies. In addition, more than 10,000 independent artists live and work in Hamburg. There are nearly 30 theaters and cinemas . The Hamburg cultural authority counted over 10.3 million visitors in 2006 for publicly funded events alone. The city's theaters attracted 4.2 million visitors in the 2005/2006 season. With 2383 theater-goers per 1000 inhabitants, Hamburg is the leader in Germany and, even after deducting the musical-goers, lies ahead of the following states Bremen (921) and Berlin (907).
In addition, Hamburg is home to some sights of national importance. In a global survey by the German National Tourist Board in 2017, numerous Hamburg attractions were once again voted among the top 100 in Germany, including the Miniatur Wunderland in first place.
Hamburg is - by some distance - the third largest musical location in the world after New York and London and in 2007 had two million musical visitors. The Stage Entertainment maintains the Operettenhaus , the " Neue Flora ", the Theater im Hafen and the Theater an der Elbe four major musical theater with a visitor capacity between 1400 (Operettenhaus) and 2030 (Theater im Hafen) courses as well as in the warehouse district, the "Theater Kehrwieder ”(up to 320 seats) in which, among other things, musicals, variety shows or cabaret are presented. The Stage Entertainment Studios and the Joop van den Ende Academy , which specializes in musical training, are also located in the old warehouse . The Stage School , which has existed since 1985, also trains actors for this area.
There are also numerous smaller stages, such as the St. Pauli Theater , the Delphi Showpalast or Schmidt's Tivoli and Schmidt Theaters , on which primarily self-produced musicals and guest performances are played. Guest performances can also often be seen in numerous other theaters, such as the large state theaters during the summer breaks, or in temporary venues. At the end of 2010, Cats temporarily returned to Hamburg: at the start of a European tour, the musical was a guest for two months in a specially made musical tent on the Heiligengeistfeld .
On March 13, 2013, the fourth major musical theater - after the Operettenhaus, Neuer Flora and Theater im Hafen - celebrated its topping-out ceremony in the Hanseatic city. The Stage Theater on the Elbe was completed in spring 2014 and offers 1,850 seats. In the Hamburg-Hammerbrook district , integrated into the existing Hamburg wholesale market hall, another musical theater opened in March 2015, the Mehr! Theater operated by Mehr! Entertainment . The theater is characterized by a particularly versatile stage, which, in addition to musicals, is to be used for many different events and offers space for up to 3,500 spectators.
A milestone in the development of the musical city was the German premiere of Andrew Lloyd Webber's Cats in 1986 in the converted operetta house, which was played continuously for fifteen years (until 2001). The man who sparked the German musical boom with his "Stella-Theater-Produktion GmbH" in the Hanseatic city of Hamburg was called Friedrich Kurz . Well over 50 million viewers have seen a musical here since the premiere of Cats in April 1986 until today. With star tenor Peter Hoffmann in the lead role, Friedrich Kurz produced the musical Das Phantom der Oper in 1990 . The productions of Das Phantom der Oper , which was played in the Neue Flora for eleven years from 1990, and Buddy , which ran in the Theater im Hafen for six years from 1994, followed in specially built theaters . Other musicals played in the same venues for several years were Tanz der Vampire (December 2003 to January 2006), Dirty Dancing (March 2006 to June 2008), Mamma Mia! (November 2002 to September 2007), I've never been to New York (December 2007 to September 2010), Sister Act , December 2010 to August 2012 at the Operettenhaus, and Tarzan (October 2008 to September 2013).
The current productions of the large theaters include Der König der Löwen - in Theater im Hafen since 2001, Paramour - since 2019 in Neue Flora, Tina - Das Tina Turner Musical - since 2019 in Operettenhaus, and since September 2019 Pretty Woman in Theater an der Elbe .
Opera and ballet
The state-owned Hamburg State Opera was founded in Hamburg on January 2, 1678 as Germany's first public opera house. At that time, art-loving Hamburg citizens campaigned for an “Opera for Everyone” in Hamburg.
Councilor Gerhard Schott, lawyer Peter Lütjens and organist Johann Adam Reincken not only pushed through the establishment of a public opera house in the Senate, but also formed the first board of directors of this privately run opera on Gänsemarkt . Here the Baroque opera flourished, within which Georg Friedrich Handel and Georg Philipp Telemann wrote numerous operas for Hamburg.
Initially built as a simple wooden structure by the Italian architect Sartorio, this house was demolished in the mid-18th century and rebuilt at its current location on Dammtorstrasse by the architect Carl L. Wimmel ; later then - again by Martin Haller - more splendidly redesigned. This building was severely damaged by the air raids of World War II. Today there is a 1950s cube building, the architecture of which is not without controversy.
The Hamburg State Opera is an opera of world renown: Montserrat Caballé began her world career here, Plácido Domingo started his career in Europe from here, and opera stars such as Enrico Caruso, Luciano Pavarotti , Mirella Freni , Birgit Nilsson and Maria Callas have performed here.
Kent Nagano has been General Music Director of the Hamburg State Opera and the Hamburg Philharmonic State Orchestra, founded in 1828, since 2015 . Opera and orchestra director is the Swiss Georges Delnon . In the decade from 2005 to 2015, the Australian conductor Simone Young was artistic director and general music director of the house.
One of the world's best ballet ensembles, the Hamburg Ballet under the direction of John Neumeier (since 1973) has its home at the State Opera. A ballet center with its ballet school was also established under Neumeier .
Until 2017, only one concert hall for classical music was available to Hamburg residents and visitors: the Laeiszhalle , named after the shipowner Carl Laeisz and his wife Sophie Christine, who made the construction of a concert hall possible with a generous amount of money. According to the plans of Martin Haller and Wilhelm Emil Meerwein , the neo-baroque concert hall was built between 1904 and 1908 on today's Johannes-Brahms-Platz. In the meantime, not only classical concerts take place there, but also concerts of modern music styles such as jazz.
In addition to the Laeiszhalle, a second concert hall was opened with a ceremony on January 11, 2017: the Elbphilharmonie in HafenCity . Almost ten years had passed from the idea through planning to completion. This representative building has a glass facade, resembling an iceberg or a sea wave; it was built on the former Kaispeicher A (built in 1963) at the tip of Dalmannkais. The large hall offers 2150 seats, and the small hall has a further 550. The concert hall also houses a 5-star hotel with a view of the harbor and 45 apartments. The building was designed by the Basel architects Herzog & de Meuron .
Hamburg has two state-owned theaters, the Deutsche Schauspielhaus and the Thalia Theater, as well as a large number of privately run theaters. The Ohnsorg Theater is one of the oldest and best-known theaters in Hamburg thanks to its numerous TV programs , where plays are performed in the Low German language. The international Kulturfabrik Kampnagel in Winterhude offers the largest stages for international contemporary dance and theater . ( Other theaters )
Hamburg's largest visitor organization is the Hamburger Volksbühne e. V. It was founded as an association on January 4, 1919 and has over 22,000 members. The TheaterGemeinde Hamburg e. V. was founded in 1984 and has 14,000 members.
In 2015 there were 36 book halls in Hamburg , which are spread over the entire city area. 1,780,906 media (books, Blu-rays , DVDs , magazines, etc.) were in the media inventory and were borrowed 13,730,455 times by 4,735,154 visitors.
Museums and exhibitions
Hamburg is home to around 60 museums. These include seven state museums with additional branches as well as numerous private museums and collections. The Kunsthalle and the Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe are important art museums, and the Deichtorhallen and the Bucerius Kunst Forum present important exhibitions. There are also museums on regional history, such as the Museum of Hamburg History , on the subjects of technology and work, such as the Museum of Work, as well as a number of collections from various areas of science from the ethnological museum to the modern planetarium .
Some exhibitions have a more entertaining character, such as the Miniatur Wunderland with the largest model railway in the world or Germany's oldest wax museum, the Panoptikum . The International Maritime Museum is one of several museums that focus on the topics of shipping, ports and goods handled there. These include various museum ships in the harbor , some of which are still operational, or the Ballin City , which provides information about the emigrants who set out from there earlier.
Some memorial sites, such as the Neuengamme Concentration Camp Memorial , also commemorate the persecution during the Nazi era and the Second World War.
Buildings and urban development
The oldest building in Hamburg stands on Hamburg's exclave, the island of Neuwerk in the mouth of the Elbe . The Neuwerk lighthouse there was built in 1310. The building with an even older history on the soil of Hamburg is the Sinstorf Church in the Sinstorf district , almost 1000 years old, but it was not originally built by Hamburg.
The cityscape is characterized by the towers of the five main churches St. Petri , St. Jacobi , St. Katharinen and St. Michaelis ("Michel", 1648–1673), the symbol of the city, as well as the one that was preserved as a memorial for the Second World War Ruined tower of St. Nikolai . Little known is that the tower is the tallest conventional building in the city and was the tallest in the world from 1874 to 1876.
The sixth tower is the town hall, completed in 1897, with its 647 partly lavishly decorated halls and rooms. On its back is the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce with the Hamburg Stock Exchange . This architectural silhouette should be preserved, which is why there are only a few other tall buildings in the further inner city.
The Hamburg ramparts were built around Hamburg from 1616 to 1625 to protect against the Kingdom of Denmark . With the wall, the Alster was henceforth separated into the Outer and Inner Alster, where the Lombard Bridge and Kennedy Bridge are located today . During the first half of the 19th century, the ramparts were dismantled and converted into green spaces along the Holstenwall, into the Planten un Blomen parks with parts of the Old Botanical Garden and the Wallringpark, with the small and large ramparts, as well as the Old Elbpark , near the St. Pauli Landungsbrücken on the Elbe.
The border between Old and New Town and the southern Old Town is of canals crisscrossed and canals that connect to the Inner Alster Lake, the center with the port and once more elementary than transport routes were part of Hamburg's economy.
Relics of the “old Hamburg” can be seen in the city center in Deichstrasse and on the other bank of the Nikolaifleet in Cremon. The Gängeviertel and the Krameramtswohnungen from 1676 also offer an insight into typical Hamburg buildings before the large-scale redesign of the city in the 19th and 20th centuries.
The Hamburg observatory (1909) in the Bergedorf district, which is operated as a research observatory of the University of Hamburg , was named a national cultural monument in 2008 with its numerous historical buildings and instruments .
At the port and along the Elbe there are numerous sights such as the Speicherstadt , the Landungsbrücken (1839), the Old Elbe Tunnel , which was opened to pedestrians and vehicles in 1911 , the Altona fish market with the fish auction hall (1896) and the Blankeneser stairs district.
The Speicherstadt as the largest coherent warehouse ensemble with its bridges, waterways and roads was built between 1885 and 1927 in three construction phases on a group of islands in the Elbe. Together with the neighboring Kontorhaus district , it was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2015 . Hamburg was the last German state to have its own cultural heritage site. Both quarters stand for the development of Hamburg into a worldwide trading metropolis, in which, in contrast to the former old Hamburg community center, a separation of goods storage, office and residential use became necessary.
As in all of northern Germany, the traditional basic building material in Hamburg is made of brick or clinker. The buildings in the Kontorhausviertel, which were built between 1920 and 1940 predominantly with clinker brick façades typical of the region, formed the first office district on the European continent. The building type of the office building, whose German center and starting point was in Hamburg, reached the height of its development here. The design of the Chilehaus , built in 1924 , with its tip reminiscent of a ship's bow, is an outstanding example of modern architecture and a prime example of brick expressionism .
Other architectural features in downtown Hamburg are the main train station , the Hamburg Dammtor train station and the Curiohaus (1908–1911). The Justice Forum is located on Sievekingplatz and consists of the Hanseatic Higher Regional Court (1912) in the center, the criminal justice building and the civil justice building. Together with the green areas around it and the neighboring Laeiszhalle (1908), the Justice Forum represents an ensemble of historic architecture that is a listed building.
Whole districts of the city were completely destroyed by heavy bombing during the Second World War, and urban development measures in the following decades did the rest, so that today there are relatively few contiguous quarters made up of old buildings in Hamburg. For example, in Eimsbüttel , in the Grindelviertel or in Eppendorf, there are still connected quarters of Wilhelminian style apartment buildings, in Harvestehude and along the banks of the Elbe there are many older villas from the last two centuries.
The three-wing Emporio high-rise (formerly Unilever-Haus) from 1964, the hotel at the congress center from 1973, the building complex at the Berliner Tor from 1962 and 2004 and the three Mundsburg towers are among the most prominent post-war buildings in Hamburg . The tallest structures are the 279.8 meter high Heinrich-Hertz-Turm ("Tele-Michel") television station and a transmission mast of the Billwerder-Moorfleet radio station at 304 m. The most striking structure in the port is the Köhlbrand Bridge , built in 1974 .
Due to the growing demand for office space in Hamburg in the 1960s, especially for the headquarters of large corporations, the City Nord office city was built to relieve the inner-city conurbation north of the Hamburg city park . Around 300 companies with around 29,000 employees have settled on a 117 hectare site.
The biggest urban changes in the city center after the turn of the millennium are the construction of HafenCity with the Elbphilharmonie , which was inaugurated in 2017 , the U4 underground line and the cruise terminal.
With around 2500 bridges, the city is one of the most bridges in Europe. Due this high figure is due to the city's location in the inland delta of the River Elbe and the lowlands of Alster and Bille along with numerous tributaries, canals and channels . Added to this is the expansion of the port and its connection to a dense road and rail network that bridges the many waterways. Another special feature is as elevated railway -developed subway , which runs above ground for the most part and thus many bridges around the city.
The actual number of bridges is not known. Counting bridges is considered difficult because there are different definitions of a bridge. According to the Hamburg State Office for Roads, Bridges and Waters (LSBG), a vehicle bridge that has a clearance of at least two meters and a pedestrian bridge that has a span of at least five meters is considered a vehicle bridge . However, if an overpass is more than 80 meters wide, it is a tunnel . The German railway , however, defines everything that has more than two meter wingspan, as a bridge so that include greater signal arm on track to do so.
According to official statistics, the city of Hamburg had 2496 bridges in 2004, 1256 of which were looked after by the State Office (LSBG), 354 were under the management of the Hamburg Port Authority (HPA), including the bridges of the port railway , and 477 were bridges belong to Deutsche Bahn, 396 to Hamburger Hochbahn and 13 to AKN Eisenbahn . Private bridges, for example in Hagenbeck's zoo or on factory sites, were not included. On the other hand, they include pipe bridges , i.e. the superstructures for district heating and water pipes , or larger sign holders over motorways and the anti-glare structures over the airport bypass in Fuhlsbüttel .
Stumbling blocks have been laid in Hamburg since 2002 by the artist Gunter Demnig and a local support initiative 5897 (as of August 2020) to commemorate the fate of the people who were persecuted, murdered, deported, displaced or in the period of National Socialism committed suicide. The list of stumbling blocks in Hamburg contains a detailed list and further information .
Parks and green spaces
Small parks and green spaces are distributed across the entire urban area, making Hamburg a green city. The Altonaer Volkspark and the Stadtpark are among the largest . Planten un Blomen with the largest Japanese garden in Germany is one of the particularly lavishly designed facilities . The Loki-Schmidt-Garten and the Jenischpark are also known . To the southeast are the extensive fruit-growing areas of the Vier- und Marschlande . Overall, the largest green area is the Ohlsdorf cemetery with 400 hectares , the largest park cemetery in the world. The Alsterpark around the Outer Alster is Hamburg's most popular jogging route.
The Tierpark Hagenbeck also has a park, but it is mainly due to its 210 animal species that it is a sight. The zoo , run by the Carl Hagenbeck family , was pioneering the design of such facilities when it opened as the world's first “gridless zoo” and is constantly being expanded alongside the historical outdoor enclosures. The Hagenbeck Tropical Aquarium was created as an independent attraction in 2007.
Important sports facilities in Hamburg are the Volksparkstadion , the Barclaycard Arena , the Alsterschwimmhalle , the Hamburg sports hall (also known as the “Alsterdorfer Sporthalle”), the Millerntor Stadium and the Jahnkampfbahn in Hamburg's city park . The oldest German sports club comes from Hamburg with the Hamburg Gymnastics Association from 1816 .
Hamburger SV , which emerged from a merger of local sports clubs in 1919, played in the Bundesliga without interruption from 1963 to 2018 . With FC St. Pauli , another club that has played in the first Bundesliga several times comes from Hamburg. In the anniversary year 2010, the club celebrates its fifth promotion to the top division. In hockey , Hamburg clubs such as Der Club an der Alster , Harvestehuder THC , or Uhlenhorster HC are among the dominant clubs nationwide for both men and women. In floorball , ETV Hamburg has been in the men's 1st division since 2003 . In basketball , the Hamburg Towers have been active in the ProA since the 2014/15 season . They made it to the BBL in the 2018/19 season . The baseball Bundesliga team Hamburg Stealers was German champion in 2000. In American football , the Hamburg Huskies play in the top German division of the German Football League . In the Boxing Bundesliga, Hamburg is represented by the Hamburg Giants.
From 2002 the handball players of the HSV Hamburg ( handball Bundesliga , until 2015; 2nd handball Bundesliga since 2018) and the ice hockey team of the Hamburg Freezers ( German ice hockey league , until 2016) were at home in the Barclaycard Arena. The VT Aurubis Hamburg , in the CU Arena played in Hamburg-Neugraben, belonged until 2016 to the first volleyball league of women.
The major annual sporting events in Hamburg include the Hamburg Marathon in the second half of April and the ITU World Triathlon Hamburg , the Ironman Hamburg , the Vattenfall Cyclassics cycle race and the HSH Nordbank Run through the Hafen-City in the summer . All events draw a mass audience on the competition routes through the city. Equestrian sport has a high priority in the Hanseatic city. The Hamburg derbies in horse racing (July) and show jumping (May) are a social event . Also since 1892 the German Open in men's tennis.
Hamburg was one of the official venues of the soccer world championship 1974 and 2006 as well as the handball world championship of men in 2007 and in August 2007 it hosted the ITU World Championships 2007 in triathlon . On May 12, 2010 the final of the Europa League took place in the Volksparkstadion .
The snooker club SC Hamburg plays snooker in the 1st Bundesliga . The squash club Sportwerk Hamburg Walddörfer is active in the 1st squash Bundesliga.
The billiards club BC Queue Hamburg plays in the 2nd Bundesliga pool .
The Hamburg and Lower Elbe section of the German Alpine Club , founded in 1875, is the largest section in northern Germany and the fifth largest section of the German Alpine Club with almost 22,600 members . It operates several alpine huts and what it claims is the largest climbing center in northern Germany. The section is a DAV base for climbing and bouldering .
Hamburg applied to host the Olympic Games in 2024 . The city withdrew its application after the Hamburg population had decided against the application in a referendum with 51.6%. Hamburg had previously applied for the 2012 Olympic Games , but failed in the national selection to Leipzig .
After the relegation of HSV , Hamburg was not represented in any of the five most important men's team sports with a team in the first class in 2018/19, but this changed again with the promotion of the Hamburg Towers to the basketball Bundesliga for the 2019/2020 season.
Hamburg offers events in every season, such as the Hamburg fish market every Sunday and the " Hamburger Dom ", a large annual market, which takes place three times a year . The Port Festival , which is celebrated in May, is next to the Alstervergnügen that around the August Binnenalster takes place, with more than one million visitors the biggest event. The Cruise Days take place every two years in August / September with 200,000 spectators with the departure parade of several cruise ships in the specially illuminated port.
Some film festivals ( Filmfest Hamburg , cinefest - International Festival of German Film Heritage , Lesbian and Gay Film Days Hamburg , Fantasy Filmfest ); the Christopher Street Day (CSD) and the Hamburg Harley-Days , one of the largest German motorcycle meetings, take place here every year. Europe's largest motorcycle church service with up to 40,000 participants is held every summer .
In August, the International Summer Festival takes place on the grounds of the Kampnagel theater factory, the largest festival for contemporary dance, performances, concerts and theater in the Hanseatic city. The altonale , a two-week culture and street festival , has been taking place in the Altona district since 1999 . The international street art festival STAMP takes place in September and the Hamburg Christmas market in winter .
The well-known Hamburg dishes include pears, beans and bacon , Scholle Finkenwerder Art , smelt , kale , Hamburg eel soup , Labskaus , Snuten un Poten , round piece warm , red grits , black sour and Franzbrötchen .
Economy and Infrastructure
Hamburg is of supraregional importance as a trade, transport and service center and is one of the most important industrial locations in Germany. The port is one of the world's leading seaports. The most important branches of industry are logistics , the port and the maritime industry , the aviation industry (third largest location in the world), the consumer goods industry (especially food), chemicals , electrical engineering , machine , vehicle and shipbuilding , the petroleum industry , banks , media and insurance . In addition to the trade and service sector, the areas of tourism , renewable energies and life sciences (medicine and biotechnology) also play an increasingly important role. In the Future Atlas 2016, the city of Hamburg was ranked 18th out of 402 districts and independent cities in Germany, making it one of the places with "very high future prospects".
The economic output in the state of Hamburg, measured in terms of gross domestic product (GDP), was 94.4 billion euros in 2011 (2010: 92.2 billion euros) and thus increased by 1.4 percent compared to the previous year, adjusted for price. The gross value added in the manufacturing industry (2010) was 10.0 billion euros. In a comparison of 272 regions of the European Union (based on figures from 2011), Hamburg is in fourth place after London, Luxembourg and Brussels in the list of regions with the highest gross domestic product per inhabitant and also holds this place in terms of purchasing power standard (PPS = 202 compared to the EU average: EU-28 = 100).
Hamburg also ranks top in Germany in terms of purchasing power (109.8 percent) in the federal states, followed by Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg . As a region in the sense of the NUTS system (level 3) , however, the purchasing power of Hamburg ranks 52nd nationwide, while the northeastern neighboring region, the Stormarn district in Schleswig-Holstein, ranks 12th.
After the change of government in 2001, the Senate endeavored to expand the business location and achieve long-term population growth with the motto “ Metropolis Hamburg - Growing City”. As a starting point, the Senate pursued a combined strategy of activating endogenous potential and strengthening Hamburg's international presence. This also promoted the development of Hamburg into the preferred location for Chinese companies in Germany, of which the city was home to more than 500 in 2013 - more than any other German city. The concept was further developed in terms of content under the CDU-Green Senate in 2010 in “Growing with foresight”. Since the change of government in 2011, the guiding principle of the current SPD Senate has been “We create modern Hamburg”. This concept also develops the focus of economic and urban development in the areas of economy and innovation, ports and shipping, transport and infrastructure. After the 2015 elections, it became the coalition agreement between the SPD and Bündnis90 / Die Grünen with the title “Together we can create modern Hamburg”.
|Hamburg's debt level (in EUR million)|
|Sources: The Statistics Portal and the Federal Statistical Office.|
According to the Federal Statistical Office, the debt level of the Hamburg budget amounted to 24.913 billion euros in June 2013. A lot of outsourcing to other households (public funds, institutions and commercial enterprises, partly also together with other countries) are not taken into account. Including these shadow households, the total debt level in 2013 was 37.40 billion euros. It should also be noted with these figures that there are guarantees that may fail. In 2013, these amounted to over 20 billion euros. The burdens from HSH Nordbank could not yet be estimated in the following years, as loans to rescue this bank were approved at the end of 2015 and the proceeds from the sale of this bank at the beginning of March 2017 were still uncertain.
On September 30, 2017, Hamburg's per capita debt was 17,755 euros, the second highest of all German federal states.
At the end of July 2012, public debt was offset by private assets amounting to 218 billion euros. Statistically, every hamburger had a fortune of over 120,000 euros.
In 2019 Hamburg paid off more debt than ever before. A total of 1.1 billion euros was repaid. Of this sum, around 650 million euros are allocated to the core budget and 450 million euros to a payment to the HSH finance fund, where legacy issues from the time of HSH Nordbank lie.
At least 1 in 30 DAX , 4 out of 50 MDAX and 6 out of 50 SDAX companies have their headquarters in Hamburg (DAX: Beiersdorf AG ; MDAX: alstria office REIT-AG , Aurubis AG, Evotec SE and TAG Immobilien AG; SDAX: Deutsche EuroShop AG, Encavis AG, Fielmann AG, Hamburger Hafen und Logistik AG, Jungheinrich AG and New Work SE ).
According to the number of employees, the three largest employers were in Hamburg in 2018: Airbus (14,700 employees), Asklepios Kliniken Hamburg (14,600 employees) and University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (11,348 employees). City-owned company investments are largely managed by the HGV Hamburger Gesellschaft für Vermögens- und Beteiligungsmanagement mbH .
Hamburg is also a leading media location, see the article Media in Hamburg .
Hamburg is the fastest growing tourist destination in Europe in the past ten years (as of 2017). Between 2008 and 2018, the number of overnight stays increased by 88%. In 2018, 7.2 million guests spent 14.5 million nights in Hamburg's 397 commercial accommodation providers. The average length of stay was 2 nights. Most of the 6.2 million visitors to the city in 2015 were German, while around 1.39 million came from abroad.
In line with the increasing number of overnight stays and guests, the volume of offers (number of beds) has increased steadily since 2008, which in turn speaks for the importance of Hamburg as an attractive location for tourism and the corresponding investments. Despite the large number of new establishments and beds, the bed occupancy rate can be kept at a stable level. The average bed occupancy rate for 2018 was 58.8%.
Hamburg has been collecting a culture and tourism tax since 2013, 100 percent of which is invested in tourism, cultural and sporting projects.
Hamburg is the German city with the most 5-star hotels (as of 2017).
Local public transport (ÖPNV) made up 18% of the choice of transport in Hamburg in 2008 (data from 2008; individual motorized transport 42%, pedestrians 28%, cyclists 12%). In a comparison of the five largest German cities, Hamburg had the lowest share of public transport in the choice of means of transport (Berlin 26%, Frankfurt am Main 24%, Munich and Cologne each 21%) and, together with Cologne, the highest share of motor vehicle traffic. In terms of bicycle traffic, Hamburg was just above the German average. Compared to 2002, there was a significant increase; this was lower than in Berlin or Munich.
Motor vehicle traffic
Hamburg has good long-distance road connections. Several federal motorways touch the urban area: the A 1 (in the Hamburg area also as E 22 European road ), A 7 (in the Hamburg area also as E 45 European road ), A 23 , A 24 (in the Hamburg area also as E 26 ) and A 25 . There are also motorway sections south of the Elbe with a few kilometers, which are designated as A 252 , A 253 and A 255 .
A large bypass around Hamburg is planned with the A 20 , which currently ends at Bad Segeberg when coming from Prenzlau / Rostock . In future, it is to be connected to the A 26 (Hamburg– Stade ), only part of which has been built, via the northern and western environs of Hamburg via a new Elbe tunnel to the west . From there it will connect the A 28 and A 29 through the Weser tunnel . This planning is controversial in Schleswig-Holstein.
The federal highways B 4 , B 5 , B 73 , B 75 , B 207 , B 431 , B 432 , B 433 and B 447 run in the Hamburg area, most of which lead radially to the inner city area. Road traffic is thus concentrated there, which leads to significant traffic problems. Tangential connections to divert through traffic and to develop large-scale urban areas were planned in the 1960s as city highways. The plans were largely abandoned, also due to massive protests from the population, especially in the affected districts.
However, there are three ring roads , which run in a semicircle around the inner ( Ring 1 ) and outer inner city ( Ring 2 ) and as a quarter circle through the northwestern outskirts (Ring 3). There are also a few more four-lane main roads. The “core network” formed in this way is very heavily burdened by car and heavy goods traffic, although it often runs as a city street directly through densely populated districts. In 2013, an average of 54,000 vehicles drove on Fruchtallee in the Eimsbüttel district every working day, of which over 3,000 were heavy goods vehicles.
In total, Hamburg has almost 4,000 kilometers of streets (August 2006) with around 7,000 street names. A large part of these streets is in 30 km / h zones , which were first introduced in Hamburg in 1983. Hamburg is (measured by how many percent longer a trip takes due to a traffic jam) as the most congested city in Germany.
Hamburg has around 1,700 kilometers of bike paths in mostly ailing condition, which often do not comply with the applicable administrative regulations in the construction. In the 2005 ADFC bicycle climate test, a cyclist survey, Hamburg was the worst of all 28 cities involved with over 200,000 inhabitants. Although the Senate decided to implement a cycling strategy in 2008, only 34th place out of 38 cities of this size could be achieved in 2012. The implementation of the StadtRAD bike rental system was given the best rating of all German cities by the cyclists surveyed. In contrast, Hamburg received the worst or second-worst ratings of all 332 participating cities for several other issues, such as parking offenders on cycle paths, their width and surface quality as well as traffic lights.
A special feature are the Hamburg bicycle sheds , which have been in the densely built-up residential areas of the Altona, Eimsbüttel and Hamburg-Nord districts since the early 1990s . Bicycles can be parked in it, for which there are hardly any theft and vandalism-proof parking spaces in the Wilhelminian style buildings and on the heavily used properties .
On a few already-developed sections of cycle routes road journeys are as bikeways reported, such as along the Eilbek canal and since 2012 at Falkensteiner banks during the same cycle path . In autumn 2014, the Senate had Harvestehuder Weg on the west bank of the Outer Alster converted into a bicycle street. This initially sparked discussions because parking spaces had been moved to the lane to slow down car traffic. After almost a year, the parking markings were milled off and parking on the hard shoulder was allowed again.
In Hamburg, around 700 of 900 one-way street sections within 30 km / h streets are free for cyclists in the opposite direction of travel. Since around 2010, as part of the Senate's bus acceleration program, cycle lanes and protective lanes have been used more frequently for road conversions .
Hamburg has a network of bike routes for cycling through the city. For trips to the region or even to other countries, Hamburg is connected to numerous national and international tourist long-distance cycle routes, including a. to the EuroVelo route North Sea Coast Cycle Route , the Elbe Cycle Route and the Hamburg – Bremen long -distance cycle route .
The red-green Senate of the 21st legislative period set the goal of making Hamburg a “bicycle city” by the middle of the 2020s. For this purpose, the 14 cycle routes with a total length of 280 kilometers are to be completed by 2020, 50 kilometers of cycle paths are to be renovated or rededicated every year and the StadtRAD offer is to be expanded and made more attractive with the new tender in 2017. In addition, the planning of one cycle superhighway per district is planned, which will then be implemented by 2025.
The loop in the districts of Wilhelmsburg and Veddel as well as the concert culture tour bicycle wardrobe won the German Bicycle Award in 2014 , once in the category of everyday mobility, once in leisure and tourism.
Rail and public transport
Hamburg is the largest rail hub in Northern Europe. The Hanseatic city can look back on a long railway history, since the first line in 1842 . In long-distance passenger traffic , there are several ICE - lines and IC - lines up to other European countries, for example, after Copenhagen and Basel , individual trains to Wroclaw , Vienna and Prague. Munich, Basel, Zurich and Vienna , among others, can be reached directly from Hamburg by night trains . Most long-distance trains run via the main station and often start and end at Hamburg-Altona station . There are also the long-distance train stations Hamburg Dammtor , Hamburg-Harburg and Hamburg-Bergedorf .
From the Hamburg Central Bus Station (ZOB) at the main train station there are long-distance bus routes to Germany and abroad, especially to Eastern Europe ( Baltic States , Poland ). Buses run to Berlin several times a day.
South of the city limits - in Maschen , Lower Saxony - is the largest marshalling yard in Europe (→ Maschen marshalling yard ). It is important for pan-European rail freight transport. This is where around ten percent of German rail freight traffic begins or ends. The Hamburg port railway owns and maintains the rail network in the port of Hamburg .
City and regional transport
In addition to numerous regional train lines that open up the Hamburg area, there are regional express connections in the direction of Elmshorn - Neumünster - Kiel or Flensburg - Padborg , Lübeck, Schwerin - Rostock and in the direction of Elmshorn - Westerland (Sylt). The metronom trains in the direction of Stade - Cuxhaven , Bremen and Lüneburg - Uelzen (- Hanover - Göttingen ) offer similar services .
Local public transport (ÖPNV) will u. a. served by a rapid transit network, which mainly consists of six S-Bahn and four U-Bahn lines. The network also opens up some suburbs outside of the urban area. There are also regional and RE trains, as well as the AKN express trains in the north of the city from (Neumünster -) Kaltenkirchen and Henstedt-Ulzburg to Hamburg-Eidelstedt and -Norderstedt Mitte.
To develop the HafenCity south of the previously separated Speicherstadt , a new underground line was built from Jungfernstieg station. The line is called U4 and continues in an easterly direction to relieve the U2 to Billstedt . It opened on November 29, 2012.
In addition, there is a well-developed city bus network in terms of area, but tends to be significantly overloaded (including metro buses , express buses , express buses subject to a surcharge ). In addition to bus and train connections, the port is also served by port ferries . On the nights before Saturdays, Sundays and public holidays, the most important bus lines, underground and S-Bahn trains are operated continuously (night transport network), with peripheral areas being served by special night bus lines. For the remaining nights there is a night bus network with 19 lines.
The Hamburg tram was discontinued line by line until 1978. The reintroduction as a light rail has already been the goal of a Hamburg government several times. In 2001 and 2011 the preparations had progressed up to the planning approval procedure. Both times this extensive work was stopped by the Senate immediately after a change of government.
Can all the modes of regional and local transport (all regional trains, even of private operators, S, U, A-track as well as buses and Hafenfähren) in and around Hamburg with tickets of hamburger verkehrsverbund (HVV), in 1965 the first traffic group of World was founded. In addition, the state tickets Schleswig-Holstein-Ticket , Niedersachsen-Ticket and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern-Ticket are also valid for all means of transport of the HVV in the "Greater Hamburg area" (express buses with surcharge).
The Niederelbe connects Hamburg directly with the open sea, the North Sea . Seagoing ships can reach the Port of Hamburg from there and from the Baltic Sea via the Kiel Canal downstream . Cruise ships dock at the three cruise terminals . Upstream of the Elbe there are further waterways for inland shipping , which connect Hamburg via the Elbe (towards Magdeburg, Dresden to the Czech Republic) and branching canals with the wider hinterland and the inland waterway network. Thus, over a short distance of the upper Unterelbe and the upper same of branching Elbe-Lübeck channel (connection to Lübeck and the Baltic Sea) and the same-side channel (connection to the central land channel ) to reach.
In the city area, six HADAG shipping lines and ferries operate on the Elbe and especially in the port area at the HVV network tariff. Lines 62 and 64 (ferry from Teufelsbrück ) serve to connect the Finkenwerder district. There is also a ferry from Blankenese to Cranz. As a tourist and excursion route, there is a connection between St. Pauli-Landungsbrücken- Blankenese-Wittenbergen- Schulau - Lühe- Stadersand.
The Alsterschifffahrt tourist and scheduled services begin at Jungfernstieg. Until 1984, Alsterdampfer took over tasks in public transport as an integral part of the transport association. Today there is a "cruise line" and Alster tours, some museum ships are used.
Hamburg International Airport (HAM) - own name Hamburg Airport (since 2016 with the nickname Helmut Schmidt ) - is the fifth largest airport in Germany and the oldest still in operation in terms of passenger numbers. It was opened in Fuhlsbüttel near Hamburg in 1911 and is located about 11 km north of the city center. Around 60 airlines serve 125 destination airports, including the long-haul destinations Dubai , New York City and Tehran . Following a comprehensive expansion program that ran until 2008/2009, the airport is one of the most modern in Europe and has since been connected to the city center with the S1 S-Bahn line . It can also be reached via some of the Hamburg Transport Association's bus routes and long-distance bus routes . In addition, the number of parking spaces for visitors was increased to 12,000 and the restaurants and shops were expanded. The Lufthansa Technik base is also located at the airport . Due to the noise in the relatively densely populated approach lanes , night flights are prohibited . As a replacement for Fuhlsbüttel Airport, the construction of a new large airport near Kaltenkirchen has been under discussion since the 1960s , which has not yet been implemented.
The company airport Hamburg-Finkenwerder is located on the premises of Airbus Operations GmbH (a division of the Airbus Group , formerly EADS) - approx. 10 km south-west of Hamburg city center . In addition to the finally assembled aircraft of the Airbus A320 family and the Airbus A380 transferred from Toulouse for painting and interior fitting of the cabin , only aircraft for in-house supply, such as the Airbus Beluga and commercial aircraft that bring workers to and from Toulouse, land there.
The Lubeck Airport (LBC) is accessible by bus from Hamburg. Although it is around 70 km from Hamburg, around 40 percent of passengers come from Hamburg, according to the airport. It was referred to as "Hamburg-Lübeck" by the low-cost airline Ryanair , which flew to the airport from 2005 to 2014.
The drinking water supply Hamburg is ensured by the 17 waterworks Baur Berg, mountain village, Bill Brook, Bostelbek, Curslack, Glindemann, Großensee, Großhansdorf, Haseldorfer march, long horn, Lohbruegge, house break, North Heide, Schnelsen, Stellingen, Süder Elbmarsch and Walddörfer that the organized group Hamburg water operated become. Depending on the season, between 250,000 and 400,000 m³ of drinking water are provided daily.
In the 1990s, the gas, electricity and district heating supply for the city of Hamburg was privatized in the form of HeinGas Hamburger Gaswerke GmbH and Hamburgische Electricitäts-Werke AG. From 1974 to 2001, a power plant was operated in the Moorburg district , which was designed for the combustion of gas and oil. This power plant was replaced by the coal-fired power plant Moorburg , which went into operation in 2015.
With the Airbus plant in the Finkenwerder district, Hamburg is the largest German, second largest European (after Toulouse) and third largest worldwide (after Seattle and Toulouse) aircraft manufacturing location. Some suppliers such as Diehl Aerosystems are also active in Hamburg. The Hamburg shipyard includes the larger companies Blohm & Voss and J. J. Sietas with their subsidiaries Norderwerft and Neuenfelder Maschinenfabrik , one of the world's leading manufacturers of ship cranes. Shipbuilding suppliers such as Muehlhan are also based in the Hanseatic city. The Beiersdorf AG not only has its headquarters in Hamburg, but there also produces the brands products Nivea and Tesa . The Mercedes-Benz plant in Hamburg of Daimler AG in the district Heimfeld produces axles and components for cars. It emerged from the Vidal & Sohn Tempo factory founded in 1928 , which u. a. produced the Harburger Transporter in the 1960s . The German subsidiary of the Dutch Philips group, Philips Deutschland GmbH, is located in Hamburg, where, among other things, medical devices are manufactured. NXP Semiconductors , which has been spun off from the Philips Group, produces semiconductors in the Hausbruch district. In the area of raw materials processing, Aurubis AG auf der Peute (Europe's largest copper smelter), Trimet Aluminum and the ArcelorMittal steelworks should be mentioned. There are oil refineries from Holborn , H&R Ölwerke Schindler and Nynas . The Sasol Wax GmbH operates two plants in the port of Hamburg. The mechanical engineering company Körber AG is based in Hamburg. The group includes Hauni Maschinenbau , the world market leader in machines and systems for the tobacco industry and thus one of several so-called hidden champions in the Hanseatic city. They also include the machine builders Harburg-Freudenberger and BW Papersystems Hamburg (founded as ECH Will in Hamburg, now production in Wedel). The Hamburg companies Jungheinrich (however, they produce in neighboring Norderstedt and in Lüneburg) and Still manufacture (floor) conveyor vehicles. The piano and grand piano manufacturer Steinway & Sons produces in the Bahrenfeld district, the writing instrument manufacturer Montblanc in neighboring Eidelstedt. Watches leave the manufacture of the manufacturer Wempe Chronometerwerke . The saw manufacturer Dolmar produces in Jenfeld. The agricultural products group Archer Daniels Midland owns the Hamburg oil mill on Nippoldstrasse and the palm oil mill of the former Noblee & Thoerl GmbH in Harburg. Nestlé , Cargill and Ingredion also have production sites in Hamburg. The Holsten brewery brews beers in Altona-Nord.
The food manufacturers Unilever (Germany headquarters) and Carl Kühne KG as well as the wind turbine manufacturers Senvion and Nordex are only represented with the administration, but not with production sites in Hamburg .
Among other things, Der Spiegel , Stern and Die Zeit are produced in Hamburg. Numerous publishers, including the major publishers Gruner + Jahr as well as the Bauer Verlagsgruppe , the Milchstrasse publishing group (now part of the Burda Verlag) and the Jahreszeiten Verlag , have their headquarters here. Axel-Springer also originally comes from Hamburg, but has had its own since 1966 Headquarters in Berlin . Overall, a good half of all national press products in Germany are produced in Hamburg. Two important gravure printing plants are located in the greater Hamburg area. These are Gruner Druck , Itzehoe, and Axel Springer Tiefdruckerei , Ahrensburg, which belong to prinovis . The German Press Agency (dpa) is also based in the Hanseatic city. The ARD editorial office for news and current affairs ARD-aktuell produces on the NDR site in Lokstedt, among other things, the Tagesschau , the Tagesthemen , the Nachtmagazin and Tagesschau24 , the information program within the broadcasting family of the ARD.
Hamburg is traditionally the seat of numerous companies from the music industry, above all the German headquarters of Warner Music and Edel Music . Nevertheless, in the summer of 2002 the city lost Universal Music and the German Phono Association to Berlin. The decisive reason, the subsidization of the move through Berlin, drew criticism from Hamburg, as Berlin supports its budget with the help of the state financial equalization , into which Hamburg, among other things, paid - Hamburg would have paid for the emigration itself in a certain way.
Hamburg is also the headquarters of Norddeutscher Rundfunk (NDR) and its subsidiary Studio Hamburg (via NDR Media GmbH) , which either produces, synchronizes or provides its capacities for numerous television programs and films . Hamburg is also the seat of a ZDF , RTL and Sat.1 state studio as well as the regional television station Hamburg 1 .
The Hamburg Schleswig-Holstein Film Funding takes care of the local, national and international film industry .
The offices of numerous internationally renowned advertising agencies such as Scholz & Friends , Jung von Matt , TBWA , Zum golden Hirschen, Kolle Rebbe, Grabarz & Partner and design agencies, including Peter Schmidt Group , Landor Associates and Factor Design, make Hamburg a supraregional location for the advertising and design industry .
The information and telecommunications sector (IT sector) is one of the industries that characterize Hamburg as a business location. The number of companies has more than doubled since 1996 to almost 8,000, and the industry employs around 45,000 people (as of 2nd half of 2006). Hamburg is one of the central IT locations in Germany.
The branch structure of the Hamburg IT companies is divided into the sectors of multimedia, equipment manufacturing, telecommunications, hardware and software consulting and data processing services. In terms of proportion, the largest increases in the IT sector in recent years have been recorded in the multimedia sector. The number of companies belonging to it has grown by over 50 percent to 2,227 companies since 2000 (as of 2nd half of 2006). The best-known internet service providers in the Elbe metropolis include SinnerSchrader , Immonet and Tipp24 .
Since the turn of the millennium, more and more social media companies have settled in Hamburg . XING , ElitePartner and Parship, among others, have their headquarters in Hamburg. Companies such as Google , Facebook , Twitter , Yelp and Dropbox have offices in Hamburg. With the Freenet Group , a large German telecommunications service and Internet provider is also located in Hamburg. Further comprises the multimedia industry online marketers such as Bauer Media and Quality Channel and internationally known search engines such as Google Germany GmbH and Yahoo ! Marketplace / Kelkoo Germany GmbH.
Another area of the multimedia industry is the games industry. Numerous publishers have settled here (for example dtp entertainment , Codemasters , EIDOS , Bigpoint , InnoGames , Goodgame Studios ). In addition, providers of mobile entertainment content ( e.g. Fishlabs Entertainment) are based in the Hanseatic city.
With 1,900 companies, the software companies are the second largest in Hamburg's IT industry (as of 2nd half of 2006). Some of the largest international and German software companies are located in Hamburg, including IBM , Lufthansa Systems , Oracle , Adobe Inc. , Logica and SAP .
Hamburg's role as a media city suits the IT industry and enables synergies with the various media types. Hamburg institutions such as the Authority for Economics, Transport and Innovation, the Hamburgische Gesellschaft für Wirtschaftsförderung mbH and companies in the IT and media sector have joined forces in the Hamburg @ work initiative to support cooperation between the two sectors and give newcomers an industry To give an overview.
Hamburg is the most important banking center in northern Germany. One of the nine main administrative offices of the Deutsche Bundesbank is located on Willy-Brandt-Strasse (formerly Ost-West-Strasse) in Hamburg. It is responsible for the federal states of Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Schleswig-Holstein. In addition, the oldest German mint, the Hamburg Mint with the mint mark “J” is located in Hamburg.
The public banking sector includes HSH Nordbank AG (formerly: Hamburgische Landesbank), which has one of its two headquarters in the Hanseatic city, as well as the largest German savings bank, Hamburger Sparkasse (HASPA). Another, much smaller institute, Sparkasse Harburg-Buxtehude, is based in Hamburg. The umbrella association for Hamburg and Bremen, the Hanseatic Savings Banks and Giro Association, is also located in Hamburg.
The cooperative banking group is represented in Hamburg by the national DZ Hyp AG (formerly DG HYP) and the regional institutes Hamburger Volksbank and Sparda-Bank Hamburg . Other cooperative banks based in Hamburg are MKB Mittelstandskreditbank AG, Edekabank AG and NetBank AG .
Even major banks have roots in Hamburg, the German bank with the North German bank that Unicredit Bank / HypoVereinsbank with the club and the West Bank and UBS with Bankhaus Schröder, Münchmeyer, Hengst & Co. The Commerzbank had in the early days as Commerzbank and Disconto -Bank even has its headquarters in Hamburg.
Major private banks are traditionally based in Hamburg. With the M. M. Warburg Bank , one of the largest private banks in Germany is based in Hamburg. Other Hamburg private banks are Joh.Berenberg, Gossler & Co. KG , Bankhaus Wölbern & Co. , Donner & Reuschel (to the Signal-Iduna Group ), Bankhaus Marcard, Stein & Co , Otto M. Schröder Bank AG, Goyer & Göppel and Max Heinr. Sutor oHG .
In addition, the Otto-Versand bank , the Hanseatic Bank , is based in Hamburg. Due to Hamburg's international importance as a trading center, numerous foreign banks are represented with a branch in Hamburg. In a ranking of the most important financial centers worldwide, Hamburg was in 29th place and second in Germany (as of 2018).
With 21,850 employees, Hamburg is the third largest insurance location in Germany after Munich and Cologne. With around 300 insurance companies , the insurance center is characterized in particular by medium-sized insurance companies , insurance brokers and intermediaries , such as the Signal Iduna Group including Deutsches Ring , the HanseMerkur insurance group , the neue leben , the Hamburg pension fund from 1905 , and the largest German insurance broker Aon Jauch & Hübener and the largest German owner-managed insurance broker Funk Gruppe .
Large insurance groups are not represented with their headquarters, but with important group parts in Hamburg. The Allianz insurance group with the credit insurer Euler Hermes , Munich Re with Ergo Lebensversicherung (formerly Hamburg-Mannheimer), the Generali Group with Volksfürsorge and Advocard legal protection insurance , R + V Versicherung with Condor and KRAVAG and Bâloise with the Deutscher Ring insurance group .
Hamburg is the seat of Techniker Krankenkasse , the largest health insurance company within statutory health insurance , as well as DAK-Gesundheit , HEK - Hanseatische Krankenkasse and Continentale company health insurance .
The very long tradition of the insurance industry in Hamburg is underlined by the oldest insurance company in the world, the Hamburger Feuerkasse , founded in 1676, and one of only three insurance exchanges worldwide that has been part of the stock exchange business with the brokerage and conclusion of insurance contracts since the Hamburg Exchange was founded in 1558.
The Hamburg insurance location is managed by the headquarters of GDV Dienstleistungs-GmbH of the General Association of the German Insurance Industry , the Association of German Insurance Brokers , the Association of Insured Persons, founded in Hamburg in 1982 and now located in the surrounding area, and the exchange-like policy trade (trade in existing life and pension insurance policies) of BÖAG stock exchanges in Hamburg rounded off.
The Port of Hamburg, also known as “Germany's Gateway to the World”, is the largest seaport in Germany and the third largest in Europe (after Rotterdam and Antwerp , as of 2016). The port of Hamburg ranks 15th worldwide. For some special goods , such as carpets , it is the largest transshipment port in the world.
The port makes the largest turnover with container handling. With the companies Hamburger Hafen und Logistik AG (HHLA) and the Bremen company Eurogate GmbH & Co. KGaA, there are two main container terminal operators in Hamburg. The port area covers around 7,399 hectares (6480 ha usable), of which 4,331 hectares (3412 ha usable) are land. In addition, there are 919 hectares, some of which have been earmarked for the port expansion in urban planning for decades.
The port is also of great importance for Hamburg tourism. Offered harbor cruises with different ship types, from simple barges to large paddle steamers with gastronomy. Viewpoints around the Elbe (including the Altona balcony ) or the old Elbe tunnel are also attractive .
In view of the design considerations for container ship sizes with a maximum draft of more than 16 m, Hamburg has applied to the federal government to adjust the fairway of the Lower Elbe. The city of Hamburg is calling for the Lower Elbe to be deepened by 1.50 m. This project is currently being examined. After the change of government in 2001, the city of Hamburg withdrew from the cooperation with Lower Saxony and Bremen to build the new container port JadeWeserPort because the upcoming investment projects in the port of Hamburg are of prime importance.
The new HafenCity district is being built in direct connection to the Speicherstadt and the inner city area . The HafenCity project is intended to enable living, working and entertainment on an area of 155 hectares. HafenCity has been a separate district of Hamburg since March 1st, 2008. Immediately between the historic Speicherstadt and the Elbe, 13 sub-districts are being built from north to south and west to east, which will enlarge the inner city of Hamburg by 40 percent.
The Hamburg Stock Exchange was founded in 1558 as the first stock exchange in Germany and the fourth in Europe. Today it no longer has any significant significance for share trading, but was able to develop its own profile as BÖAG and has specialized in trading fund shares since the beginning of the 21st century.
Trade fairs and congresses
Hamburg is counted among the leading congress locations worldwide. The Congress Center Hamburg (CCH) was opened in 1973 as Germany's first congress and conference center together with a hotel tower, Hamburg's tallest building , next to the Dammtorbahnhof . With an expansion to 23 halls with 12,500 seats and a multifunctional exhibition hall with 7000 square meters, which was completed in 2008, the city hopes to be among the world's first ten congress venues. Around 400 congresses, events and concerts take place there every year.
The Hamburg exhibition center is located near the CCH and can be reached via a covered walkway through the Planten un Blomen park . By 2008, Hamburg Messe was expanded to include eleven exhibition halls with an area of 87,000 square meters. The 45 trade fairs and other events attract over a million visitors each year. Including internationally important trade fairs such as the traditional Internorga (hotel and catering trade fair) or the world's leading trade fair for the shipping industry SMM (Shipbuilding, Machinery & Marine technology), the popular boat exhibition hanseboot , which took place for the 50th time in 2009.
In 2008, Hamburg Messe was the leader in Germany in terms of occupancy of the exhibition space. Including the space of the CCH, a total of 107,000 square meters of exhibition space is available, which is marketed by the city of Hamburg Messe und Congress GmbH.
In addition to foreign trade with imports and exports as well as wholesale, retail is important. The shops for mass consumption are on Spitalerstraße and Mönckebergstraße . Very different shops can be found in the street Neuer Wall . Because of the wet weather in Hamburg, a network of shopping malls was built. They lead from the shopping arcade at Mönckebergbrunnen to the Europa Passage , the merchant's house, the Hanseviertel to the Gänsemarktpassage and other weatherproof passages.
Institutions, public institutions and foundations
The most important institution of the United Nations in Germany, the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea , resides in Hamburg. It was established in 1982. The UN judges have been officiating in their building on the famous Elbchaussee since 1996.
Hamburg is also the seat of the following institutions:
- Hanseatic Higher Regional Court (HansOLG)
- Hamburg District Court
- Federal Research Center for Fisheries (BFAFi)
- Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH) (formerly: German Hydrographic Institute (DHI))
- German Weather Service (DWD; Maritime Weather Office )
- Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine (BNI)
- Heinrich Pette Institute, Leibniz Institute for Experimental Virology (HPI)
- German Electron Synchrotron (DESY)
- Food-Enjoyment-Restaurants Union (NGG)
- Greenpeace Germany
- Foundation for Shipping Germany
In addition, there are three main customs offices in Hamburg (Hamburg-Hafen, Hamburg-Jonas and Hamburg-Stadt), two federal police inspections (1. Hamburg with the federal police stations Hamburg-Hauptbahnhof, Hamburg-Altona and Hamburg-Harburg as well as 2. Hamburg Airport), one of the headquarters of General Customs Directorate , a federal examination office, a water and shipping office and a customs investigation office as well as three of the nine professional associations .
With the leadership academy and the Helmut Schmidt University / University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg, there are also two important departments of the Federal Armed Forces in Hamburg.
In the old Hamburg tradition, some of the wealthy citizens give back some of their wealth as patrons of their city, so that there are more than 1400 foundations in Hamburg that support life in all areas of life in the city - this is also a record in Germany.
Education, research, health
In addition to its general and vocational schools, Hamburg offers special schools such as language schools and 19 universities . In 2012 there were 222,700 students registered at 218 primary and 297 secondary schools in Hamburg , plus 19,300 students at 95 private schools . The universities and technical colleges attended 75,514 students.
In 2010, 64,044 students were taught at 178 vocational schools. In 2012 the city of Hamburg employed 12,256 teachers. The average age in 2011 was 46.02 and will continue to decrease over the next few years due to the large number of new hires. At that time, Hamburg was the only German state with a growing school system. In the rest of Germany, the number of pupils fell and with it the need for teachers. The Senate therefore made an additional two billion euros available for renovations, new buildings and renovations from 2013 to 2019. In 2012, more than 10,000 children were taught in over 400 containers.
The European X-ray laser European XFEL was created on the border between Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein . The German Electron Synchrotron Research Center (DESY) built the 1.7 km long particle accelerator based on superconductor technology for the international research facility. The free-electron laser for X-ray light (XFEL stands for X-ray free-electron laser) accelerates electrons to very high energies and then stimulates them to emit high-intensity X-ray laser flashes. The unique X-ray laser flashes of the XFEL open up completely new experimental possibilities in structural biology, chemistry, physics and materials research. Construction began in 2009 and was commissioned in 2016.
At the end of 2014 there were 12,197 doctors, 1,906 dentists (2013) and 1,445 pharmacists (2013) working in Hamburg. In 2015, 52 (2013) Hamburg hospitals had 12,407 beds and around 502,000 inpatients were treated. The bed occupancy rate was 83.7% and the average length of stay fell from 7.7 days in 2014 to 7.5 days (2015). In 2013, a total of 28,761 people were employed in the Hamburg clinics.
In a comparison of the federal states, Hamburg was the state in 2017 that had the highest suicide rate among women nationwide.
The environmental situation is and was often the subject of heated debates in Hamburg. The exposure to noise from road, rail and air traffic, which is a health hazard for many residents, is a regular issue. Hamburg has no environmental zone , unlike most other German metropolitan areas , despite the high proportion of motor vehicles on the journeys of the residents and a high number of commuters, a significant proportion of which is also done by cars . In the case of air pollution, in addition to the loads typical of large cities from heating , power generation, three waste incineration plants and car traffic, there are additional loads from port-related shipping and industry, here also with odor nuisance.
Hamburg has had an authority since 1978 that has “Environment” in its name. She successfully applied for the title of European Green Capital , which Hamburg was allowed to use in 2011, which was critically assessed by environmental associations.
There were debates at the beginning of the 2000s about the expansion at Airbus and, in connection with this, the partial filling of the Mühlenberger Loch and, until 2008, about the construction of the new coal-fired power plant in Moorburg . Become known nationwide are environmental scandals such as the dioxin -Verseuchung of Boehringer -Geländes in Billbrook and the poison Mountain with dioxin and parathion in Georgswerder the early 1980s and the problems with contaminated or toxic Elbschlick , including in Altenwerder . In addition, the deepening of the Elbe is a point of contention in Hamburg politics.
Up to the year 2000 the air pollution with NO 2 steadily decreased. This was attributed to the mandatory introduction of the catalytic converter and the renewal of the vehicle fleet. Since then, the load has remained at the same level or has increased again at some stations. Because the NO 2 limit values were exceeded, a clean air plan was adopted for the first time in 2004 , which included measures designed to ensure compliance with the NO 2 limit values in the long term.
However, the persistence of exceeding the NO 2 limit values made it necessary to update the Hamburg clean air plan in 2012. In addition, the number of 35 exceedances of the daily mean limit value for fine dust ( PM 10 ) permitted per calendar year could not be complied with for the first time in 2005 and 2006. The 1st update of the Hamburg Clean Air Plan therefore contains various measures to reduce the pollutants NO 2 and fine dust.
Due to the ongoing exceeding of the limit values for nitrogen dioxide, the city was obliged by a judgment of the Hamburg Administrative Court of November 5, 2014 (9 K 1280/13) to “change the currently valid air pollution control plan in such a way that it takes the necessary measures to comply with the over a Contains a mean immission value for NO 2 of 40 μg / m³ in the calendar year . ”The 2nd update of the clean air plan (which came into force on June 30, 2017) also serves in particular to implement this judgment.
In 2016 there were 73,394 animals in the Hamburg dog register. Since 2007, dogs outside of private property and the approximately 122 dog exercise zones have been subject to a general leash requirement in Hamburg . So-called dangerous dogs must also be kept on a leash within the dog exercise zones. Dogs that have successfully passed an obedience test are exempt from the obligation to leash in the city area . Fenced and non-fenced exercise zones for dogs can be found, for example, in the Alster foreland and Höltigbaum , at the copper pond , on the Horner racecourse and in Öjendorfer Park . The total area of the dog exercise zones of different sizes is more than 239 hectares. Outside of dog exercise zones, leash is always mandatory in public green and recreational areas; Approved paths, paths and lawns for obedient dogs are excluded. Dogs - with the exception of guide dogs - are generally not allowed into some Hamburg parks . It is also not permitted to take dogs to Hamburg's weekly markets and folk festivals (e.g. the DOM ) or to port birthday parties . According to the Hamburg dog law , a chip , registration and insurance requirement applies in the Hanseatic city .
Hamburg was the first venue for the German Greyhound Derby in 1954 . The race has been taking place on the Höltigbaum dog race track since 2001. The organizer is the North German Greyhound Racing Club .
At least 3800 horses were kept in Hamburg in 2013.
In addition to the state's legally unofficial anthem (“ City of Hamburg on the Elbe Auen ”) there are many songs related to Hamburg, such as “On the Reeperbahn at half past twelve” (sung by Hans Albers, among others ) or “In Hamburg says man bye ”(sung by Heidi Kabel, among others ) and the shanty “ Ick heff 'mol een Hamborger Veermaster seh'n ”. Until the 1950s, pieces of music with a local appeal were often played by pankok bands on the street. Before the Second World War, “ An de Eck steiht'n Jung mit'n Tüdelband ” by the Wolf brothers was very popular, while “Hamburg, my pearl” by Lotto King Karl is newer .
With the bands Blumfeld , Die Sterne and Tocotronic , the term Hamburg School entered pop culture as an independent genre of German-language music from around 1990 . The alternative music associated with Hamburg is now being expanded by Kettcar and Tomte . The German-speaking hip-hop band Absolute Beginner also describes their attitude towards life in their hometown in “City Blues”; Samy Deluxe in "Hamburg Anthem".
The hip-hoppers from Fettes Brot , who originally come from the Pinneberg district and call themselves “Hamburg's hip-hop dinosaurs”, are now considered veterans . In 1995 they wrote “Nordisch by Nature”, a song of praise for northern Germany in general and the Hanseatic city in particular. Also known is Udo Lindenberg , whose roots are in the Hamburg scene .
The Hamburg greeting "Hummel, Hummel" answered with "Mors, Mors", according to legend, comes from the water carrier Johann Wilhelm Bentz , who was nicknamed "Hummel" and lived in Hamburg until his death in 1854. When he came by, the children would mockingly call him "Hummel, Hummel". He angrily replied with “Mors, Mors” ( short for “Klei mi an'n Mors”, the Low German equivalent of the Götz quote ). This is the subject of the Hummel fountain in the Neustadt (Rademachergang / Breiter Gang), which represents the water carrier . On the façades of the house on the opposite side, there are children's sculptures that show him their bare bottom.
The Hamburg greeting is more likely to be used outside of Hamburg as a distinguishing mark or, as in football, as a battle cry. For example, the more common greeting in parts of northern Germany is “ Moin ” or “ Tschüs ” to say goodbye.
There are a number of traditional characters that appear in Hamburg jokes, in particular the dock workers Hein and Fiete and the brat Klein Erna with her relatives and the neighborhood (collected by Vera Möller ). The jokes about these characters tend to have rather laconic and often quite suggestive punchlines . Likewise, the variety of the helm has developed in relation to the harbor tour .
Hamburger eel soup
The particularly rich Hamburg eel soup, which contains baked fruit and thus has a sweet and sour note, is known nationwide. It is served as a main course.
The combustion railcar 877 (later DB class VT 04.0) was the first diesel express railcar of the Deutsche Reichsbahn and at the same time the first streamlined train in scheduled use. From 1933 it was used to establish the world's fastest train connection between Berlin and Hamburg. He was known as the "Flying Hamburger".
Until 1868 the city of Hamburg and the city of Bergedorf , which was temporarily ruled by the state of Hamburg , were entitled to issue their own postage stamps . There are also some examples of Hamburg motifs on postage stamps.
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- Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg: Connected to Hamburg - Hamburg Handbook 2012/2013.
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- Werner Jochmann, Hans-Dieter Loose: Hamburg, history of the city and its inhabitants. Volume 2: From the Empire to the Present. Hoffmann and Campe, Hamburg 1986, ISBN 3-455-08255-6 .
- Hella Kemper, Kerstin Schmidtfrerick, Eva-Christiane Wetterer: Hummelbuch, Hamburg Breviary. Murmann, Hamburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-86774-009-8 .
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- Eckart Kleßmann : History of the city of Hamburg. The Hanse / Groenewold / Europäische Verlagsanstalt, Hamburg 2002, ISBN 3-434-52596-3 .
- Franklin Kopitzsch , Daniel Tilgner (Ed.): Hamburg Lexikon. 4th, updated and expanded special edition. Ellert & Richter, Hamburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-8319-0373-3 .
- Martin Krieger : Little History of Hamburg , Beck, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-406-66193-8 .
- Ralf Lange: Hamburg - Reconstruction and new planning 1943–1963. Koenigstein i. Ts. 1994, ISBN 3-7845-4610-2 .
- Hans-Helmut Poppendieck u. a. (Ed.): The Hamburg Plant Atlas from A to Z. Dölling and Galitz, Munich and Hamburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-937904-93-1 .
- Hermann Rauhe : Hamburg, the city of music. A sounding chronicle. Ellert & Richter, Hamburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-8319-0314-6 .
- Hermann Schnabel: Hamburg: 99 × number one. 10th edition. DV Printing & Design, 2004.
- Rolf Stephan: Hamburg, then, yesterday and today. Steinkopf, Stuttgart 1985, ISBN 3-7984-0633-2 .
- Daniel Tilgner (Ed.): Hamburg from Altona to Zollenspieker. The Haspa manual for all districts of the Hanseatic city. Hoffmann and Campe, Hamburg 2002, ISBN 3-455-11333-8 .
- Erik Verg, Martin Verg: The adventure that Hamburg is called. The long way to the cosmopolitan city. Ellert & Richter, Hamburg 1997, ISBN 3-8319-0137-6 .
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