|Big city of Busan|
|Hangul :||부산 광역시|
|Hanja :||釜山 廣域 市|
|Revised Romanization :||Busan Gwangyeoksi|
|McCune-Reischauer :||Pusan Kwangyŏksi|
|Residents:||3,515,439 (as of 2015)|
|Population density :||6,683 inhabitants per km²|
|Structure :||15 districts ( Gu ) and
a county ( Gun )
|Postal code :||600-010 ( Jung-gu ) -
619-963 ( Gijang-gun )
|Administrative headquarters :||Busan|
Busan ( Kor. 부산 , Hanja 釜山 , earlier spellings: Pusan ; Fusan ) is the second largest city in South Korea after the capital Seoul . It is located on the southeast coast of the Korean Peninsula in the southwestern area of the Sea of Japan on the Korea Strait and opposite the island of Tsushima .
Busan belongs to Gyeongsangnam-do Province , but has been a politically independent entity since 1963.
The name Busan means something like "Kesselberg" and alludes to the terrain , which is an amphitheater- like plain on the coast surrounded by a mountain range. The city is located at the mouth of the Nakdonggang and has 4,562,012 inhabitants (2005) in the agglomeration that extends beyond the political borders . The many bays make Busan a good natural harbor . While the east coast has few islands or bays to offer, you will find them all the more if you follow the generous curve of the coast to the southwest to the south coast. In the city there are several hills and mountains between 100 and 400 meters high, the Gudeoksan , the Baegyangsan , the Sanghaksan , the Hwangnyeeongsan , the Gaejwasan and Jangsan , which are mostly developed into parks or recreational forests . The port is divided and protected by the island of Yeongdo , which is just off the coast .
The Geumjeongsan ridge north of Busan, which is up to 700 meters high, is a popular destination and recreational area for the city's residents. Busan also attracts national tourists, especially with Haeundae Beach .
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Busan
Source: KMA, data: 1971–2000; wetterkontor.de
During the industrialization of South Korea, the city's population grew rapidly. The population development has now stagnated or declined slightly.
Population development of the agglomeration according to the UN
Shards and tools found on Yeongdo Island indicate that people have lived in the area for 6,000 years. In the early history of the region, small fishing villages were settled here. From the middle of the first century AD, the area belonged to the Gaya kingdom. The Kingdom of operational brisk trade with Japan of the Yamato period by iron exported.
In the following century, trade between Japan and Korea began to flourish, regulated and formalized by a treaty dating from 1443. Busan was opened as a port to Japanese ships, and a small community of Japanese traders settled in a trading post assigned to them by the Koreans Waegwan ( Kor. 倭 館 , dt. "Japan building") was called. It was here that merchants from the Japanese Tsushima domain traded with Korea.
This coexistence came to an abrupt end in 1592 when the Japanese ruler Toyotomi Hideyoshi tried to conquer Korea after the unification of Japan. On 14 April this year, he landed with more than 200,000 men in Busan and opened the today's North and South Korea called Imjin War . The forts in Busan and Dongnae were overrun, and twenty days later Seoul was captured. Since peace negotiations were unsuccessful, there was a second invasion in January 1597, which was stopped by Chinese and Korean troops. The Imjin War ended when Japanese troops withdrew after Toyotomi Hideyoshi's death in August 1598. Trade with Japan was slowly resumed in the following period, the Waegwan settlement was reopened in 1607 in the area of today's Jwacheon-dong, then in 1678 it was relocated and enlarged in the vicinity of today's Yongdusan Park. This Choryang Waegwan ( 草 梁 倭 館 ) branch also had quasi-diplomatic functions. For example, officials from Tsushima helped prepare Korean embassies that would move to Edo when a new Shogun took office.
Shortly after Japan was forced by Western powers to open up, Japan did so again in Korea: In 1875 they sent a warship that provoked incidents near Busan and Ganghwado west of Seoul. As a result, the Koreans were forced to open the ports of Incheon , W Busnsan and Busan to Japanese traders through the Ganghwado Treaty in 1876 . Other nations also began to establish diplomatic and trade relations. Soon the importance of Busan as a trading point became apparent. In 1867 the Waegwan became unnecessary and dissolved. In 1888 a telegraph connection to Seoul was completed, which was connected with a submarine cable to Nagasaki and thus Japan.
Busan was still quite small when Korea became part of the Japanese Empire in 1910 . Since Japanese was the national language at the time, the city name 釜山 was read in Japanese, Fusan . During this period, up to independence in 1945, Japan expanded the city significantly: From 1911 to 1916 the east port was built, as well as new factories and residential areas. Trade also continued to flourish. In 1935, 45 percent of the city's residents were of Japanese descent.
During the Korean War , Busan, along with Daegu, was the only important city that was never captured by the North Korean troops . South Korean and United Nations forces held the narrow strip of the peninsula now known as the Busan Perimeter . As Seoul was quickly conquered, Busan became the temporary capital of South Korea for several months . Due to refugees from the occupied territories, the population temporarily swelled to four million during this period.
The Bu-Ma citizen protests for democratization took place in 1979. During the 1988 Summer Olympics , which were held in Seoul, the sailing competitions were held in Busan. The Pusan International Film Festival has been held annually since 1996 . In the fall of 2002, Busan hosted the Asian Games and was one of the cities that hosted the 2002 World Cup .
In 2011 the Haeundae I Park Marina was built.
According to a study from 2014, the Busan metropolitan area has a gross domestic product of 297 billion US dollars (KKB). In the ranking of the world's economically strongest metropolitan regions, it was ranked 36th and second in South Korea behind the metropolitan region of Seoul.
The megacity is one of the leading industrial cities in the country: textile and clothing industry, shoe production, food processing, etc. a. Fish and seafood (large fishing port), mechanical engineering, marine engineering, vehicle and shipbuilding, wood industry, chemical and pharmaceutical industry, rubber products, electrical industry (including radio and television sets).
With the G-Star , South Korea's largest video game fair takes place in Busan.
In 2016, the Busan's container port ranked fifth worldwide. Busan is considered the most important transshipment point for South Korea's international trade.
There are currently four subway lines in operation in Busan , see Busan Subway . In the subway there is a subway library (probably unique in the world) , where books can be borrowed from shelves for reading while driving and then returned. There is also an extensive network of city buses .
Busan has a limited international airport with Busan Airport, with connections to Tokyo , Osaka , Nagoya and Fukuoka in Japan , Vladivostok and Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in Russia , Beijing , Shanghai , Xi'an , Shenyang , Qingdao , and Hong Kong in China , Manila in the Philippines , Munich in Germany , Bangkok in Thailand , Taipei in Taiwan , Guam in the USA and Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam . National flights to Seoul , Incheon and Jeju-do are available. Lufthansa connects Busan with Germany with a stopover in Seoul.
There are international ferry routes to Shimonoseki , Fukuoka (Hakata Port) and Tsushima Island in Japan , as well as to Yantai in China . The national ferry routes have been reduced noticeably, but there is still a route to Geojedo Island .
Like most cities in South Korea, Busan is very well connected to almost all cities in the country by many express buses and intercity buses. As the end point of the Gyeongbu route , Busan is very well connected to the rail network (see South Korea # Rail Transport ). The KTX high-speed train runs the 409-kilometer route to Seoul in 160 minutes.
The urban area is divided into 15 districts (Gu) and one district (Gun).
- Gijang-gun ( 기장군 , 機 張 郡 )
- Buk-gu ( 북구 , 北區 )
- Busanjin-gu ( 부산진구 , 釜山 鎭 區 )
- Dong-gu ( 동구 , 東區 )
- Dongnae-gu ( 동래구 , 東萊 區 )
- Gangseo-gu ( 강서구 , 江西 區 )
- Geumjeong-gu ( 금정구 , 金井 區 )
- Haeundae-gu ( 해운대구 , 海 雲臺 區 )
- Jung-gu ( 중구 , 中 區 )
- Nam-gu ( 남구 , 南 區 )
- Saha-gu ( 사하구 , 沙 下 區 )
- Sasang-gu ( 사상구 , 沙 上 區 )
- Seo-gu ( 서구 , 西區 )
- Suyeong-gu ( 수영구 , 水 營 區 )
- Yeongdo-gu ( 영도구 , 影 島 區 )
- Yeonje-gu ( 연제구 , 蓮 堤 區 )
- Busan University : Busan University is in the north of the city. Around the university there are cafes, bars and restaurants as well as entertainment for the students.
- Jalgalchi Market: The Jalgalchi Market near the port is known for its wide range of fresh fish and other seafood. The market is located in an urban area with narrow streets.
- Shinsegae Centum City: Busan is also home to the world's largest department store, Shinsegae Centum City . On June 26, 2009, the department store received the Guinness world record title: “The world's largest department store”.
- Kaohsiung , Taiwan since June 30, 1966
- Los Angeles , USA since December 18, 1967
- Shimonoseki , Japan since October 11, 1976
- Barcelona , Spain since October 25, 1983
- Rio de Janeiro , Brazil since September 23, 1985
- Fukuoka , Japan since October 24, 1989
- Vladivostok , Russia since June 30, 1992
- Shanghai , PR China since August 24, 1993
- Surabaya , Indonesia since August 19, 1994
- Victoria , Australia since October 17, 1994
- Tijuana , Mexico since January 17, 1995
- Ho Chi Minh City , Vietnam since November 3, 1995
- Auckland , New Zealand since April 22, 1996
- Valparaíso , Chile since January 27, 1999
- Western Cape , South Africa since June 5, 2000
- Montreal , Canada since September 19, 2000
- Istanbul , Turkey since June 4, 2002
- Shashi , People's Republic of China since January 1, 2005
- District Jiulongpo the city of Chongqing , People's Republic of China , since July 5, 2012
Sons and daughters:
- Kim Du-bong (* 1886; † between 1957 and 1961?), North Korean politician
- Charles Pedersen (1904–1989), American chemist at DuPont and Nobel Prize winner
- Halla Huhm (1922–1994), dancer and dance teacher
- Kwon Jae-hwa (* 1937), Taekwondo Grand Master
- Chung Mong-joon (* 1951), politician and football official
- Kim Hae-sook (born 1955), actress
- Joseph Son Sam-seok (* 1955), Catholic clergyman, Bishop of Pusan
- Kim Dong-won (* 1965), percussionist and composer
- Park Gok-ji (* 1965), film editor
- Cho Sung-hyung (* 1966), German-Korean film director, film editor and professor
- Daniel Dae Kim (* 1968), American actor
- Kim Hye-soo (born 1970), actress
- Jang Hyuk (born 1976), actor
- Chae Jung-an (* 1977), actress and singer
- Gong Yoo (born 1979), actor
- Park Si-yeon (born 1979), actress
- Gang Dong-won (born 1981), actor
- Yeonju Sarah Kim (* 1981), musician, organist
- Soo Yeon Lee (* 1984), table tennis player, actress and table tennis trainer
- Jung Hye-lim (* 1987), hurdler
- Im Su-hyang (* 1990), actress
- Nam Ji-sung (* 1993), tennis player
- Park Ji-min (born 1995), pop singer
- Jeon Jeong-guk (* 1997), pop singer
- Lee Suji (* 1998), singer
- Ministry of Administration and Interior (MOGAHA, 행정 자치부): Census 2015 ( Memento of the original from March 3, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- In Ernst von Hesse-Wartegg ; Korea: A Summer Journey to the Land of Morning Rest, Dresden, 1894
- Korea in Röll, Freiherr von: Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens, Volume 6. Berlin, Vienna 1914, pp. 407–412.
- Busan. In: Creative Cities Network. Retrieved June 25, 2019 .
- KMA: Climate Information Busan. World Meteorological Organization, accessed July 17, 2012 .
- World Urbanization Prospects - Population Division - United Nations. Retrieved July 23, 2018 .
- Peter H. Lee, Yongho Ch'oe, Hugh HW Kang: Sources of Korean Tradition. Volume One: From Early Times Through the Sixteenth Century . Columbia University Press, 2013, ISBN 978-0-231-51531-3 ( limited preview in Google Book Search).
- Alan Berube, Jesus Leal Trujillo, Tao Ran, and Joseph Parilla: Global Metro Monitor . In: Brookings . January 22, 2015 ( brookings.edu [accessed July 19, 2018]).
- Chongqing Municipal Government