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Krung Thep Maha Nakhon
Bangkok (Thailand)
(13 ° 45 ′ 0 ″ N, 100 ° 31 ′ 0 ″ E)
Coordinates 13 ° 45 '  N , 100 ° 31'  E Coordinates: 13 ° 45 '  N , 100 ° 31'  E
coat of arms
coat of arms
Basic data
Country Thailand
region Central Thailand

Special administrative unit

height 5 m
surface 1,565.2 km²
Metropolitan area 7,761.5 km²
resident 8,249,117 (September 1, 2010)
Metropolitan area 14,565,520 (September 1, 2010)
density 5,270.3  Ew. / km²
Metropolitan area 1,876.6  Ew. / km²
Post Code 10100-10900
governor Aswin Kwanmuang
Bangkok montage 2.jpg

Bangkok ( Thai กรุงเทพมหานคร , Krung Thep Maha Nakhon , [kruŋ tʰêːp máʔhǎː náʔkʰɔːn] , listen to ? / I ; short กรุงเทพฯ , Krung Thep , [kruŋ tʰêːp] ; historical spelling partly also Bankok ) has been the capital of the Kingdom of Thailand since 1782 . It has special administrative status and is ruled by a governor. The capital has 8.249 million inhabitants (2010 census) and is by far the largest city in the country. In the Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR), the largest metropolitan areaAudio file / audio sample Thailand has a total of 14,566 million people (2010 census).

The city is the political, economic and cultural center of Thailand with universities, colleges, palaces and over 400  Wats ( Buddhist temples and monasteries) as well as the country's most important traffic junction. Bangkok is also home to the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP). With more than 17 million foreign tourists, Bangkok was the most visited city in the world in 2013, before it was replaced by London in 2014 and has since ranked second. Since 2016, Bangkok has been the number 1 most visited city in the world with over 20 million tourists annually .

The time to UTC is +7 hours. The time difference to Central Europe is +6 hours in winter and +5 hours in summer, as there is no summer time in Thailand .

name of the city

The official name of Bangkok in Thai and Latin script

The ceremonial name of the city of Bangkok in Thai is in transcribed form Krung Thep Maha Nakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahinthara Yutthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom Udom Ratchaniwet Maha Sathan Amon Phiman Awatan Sathit Sakkathattiya Witsanukam Prasit ( listen ? / I ). It is the old Thai name of the city and with 169 Latin letters it is the longest place name of a capital in the world. Audio file / audio sample

In Thai script the name is (139 characters without spaces):

" กรุงเทพมหานคร อมร รัตนโกสินทร์ ม หิน ท รา ยุ ธ ยา มหา ดิลก ภพ นพรัตน์ราชธานี บุรี รมย์ อุดม ราช นิเวศน์ มหา สถาน อมร พิมาน พิมาน อวตาร สถิต สักกะ ทัต ติ ยะ วิษณุกรรม ประสิทธิ์ "

“City of the Devas , great city [and] residence of the sacred jewel Indras [ Emerald Buddha ], impregnable city of God, great capital of the world, adorned with nine precious gems , rich in enormous royal palaces, which are the heavenly home of the born again God same, city that was given by Indra and built by Vishvakarman . "

Devas ( Thep in Thai ) are a category of 33 divine beings in Hindu mythology who, together with the god Indra, inhabit the sky on top of Mount Meru . Because the Devas are represented as winged beings, Krung Thep is often translated as "City of Angels" in Western texts.

Before the town became the capital in 1782, its name was simply Bang Kok ( บางกอก , listen ? / I ). Bang denotes a place on a waterway, Kok is possibly derived from Makok , the Thai name for the fruit of Spondias pinnata ("yellow balsam plum") or Elaeocarpus hygrophilus . According to other theories, it comes from Ko 'island' or Khok 'hill'. This name first appeared in Europe on a Portuguese map from 1511. Audio file / audio sample

Even after it had been expanded to become the capital and was given a much more sonorous name corresponding to its importance as the royal, religious and cosmological center of the empire ( mandala ) , the city continued to be referred to as Bangkok in European languages.

Thais, on the other hand, usually use the short form Krung Thep . The official name, for example on license plates, is Krung Thep Maha Nakhon .

In 1989 the Thai rock group Asanee-Wasan set the song Krung Thep Mahanakhon to music in their album Fak tong ("Pumpkin") , the lyrics of which consist exclusively of the full ceremonial name of Bangkok. Since then, many Thai people have been using this song to make the long name easier to remember.

Seal and motto

The seal of Bangkok shows the deity Indra on Erawan , the mythological elephant, which in some images can also have three heads. Indra holds a lightning bolt in his hand. The seal is based on a drawing by Prince Narisara Nuwattiwong .

The motto of Bangkok is:

"Help the underprivileged,
End the air pollution,
Solve the big traffic problems,
Everyone in the city is friendly."


Geographical location

Satellite photo

The city is located at the junction of the Indochinese and Malay Peninsula on the Mae Nam Chao Phraya (Chao Phraya River) and north of the Gulf of Thailand an average of five meters above sea ​​level . The Chao Phraya is about 400 meters wide.

The area west of the Chao Phraya is called Thonburi and was an independent city until 1971, while the east part was only a small village more than two hundred years ago, mainly inhabited by Chinese traders. The urban area has an area of ​​1,565.2 square kilometers, the entire metropolitan area a floor area of ​​7,761.5 square kilometers.

The following land use is documented for Bangkok.

Information in km²
Land use 2001 2005 2010 Percentage ownership %
Forest area 2.66 3.09 0.70 0.05
Agriculture 198.78 302.48 285.69 18.25
Unclassified 1,363.78 1,259.65 1,278.84 81.70
total 1,565.22 1,565.22 1,565.22 100.00

City structure

Bangkok boroughs

Bangkok is divided into 50 districts ( khet , sometimes incorrectly called amphoe ) and these are further divided into 169 khwaeng , comparable to the tambon . The khets follow in German transcription and in Thai:
Bang Bon ( บาง บอน ), Bang Kapi ( บางกะปิ ), Bang Khae ( บางแค ), Bang Khen ( บางเขน ), Bang Kho Laem ( บางคอแหลม ), Bang Khun Thian ( บางขุนเทียน ), Bang Na ( บางนา ), Bang Phlat ( บางพลัด ), Bang Rak ( บางรัก ), Bang Sue ( บางซื่อ ), Bangkok Noi ( บางกอกน้อย ), Bangkok Yai ( บางกอกใหญ่ ), Bueng Kum ( บึงกุ่ม ), Chatuchak ( จตุจักร ), Chom Thong ( จอมทอง ), Din Daeng ( ดินแดง ), Don Mueang ( ดอนเมือง ), Dusit ( ดุสิต ), Huai Khwang ( ห้วยขวาง ), Khan Na Yao ( คันนายาว ), Khlong Sam Wa ( คลอง สาม วา ), Khlong San ( คลองสาน ), Khlong Toei ( คลองเตย ), Lak Si ( หลักสี่ ), Lat Krabang ( ลาดกระบัง ), Lat Phrao ( ลาดพร้าว ), Min Buri ( มีนบุรี ), Nong Chok ( หนองจอก ), Nong Khaem ( หนองแขม ), Pathum Wan ( ปทุมวัน ), Phasi Charoen ( ภาษีเจริญ ), Phaya Thai ( พญาไท ), Phra Khanong ( พระโขนง ), Phra Nakhon ( พระนคร ), Pom Prap Sattru Phai ( ป้อมปราบศัตรูพ่าย ), Prawet ( ประเวศ ), Rat Burana ( ราษฎร์บูรณะ ), Ratchathewi ( ราชเทวี ), Samphanthawong ( สัมพันธวงศ์ ), Sai Mai ( สายไหม ), Saphan Sung ( สะพาน สูง ), Sathon ( สาทร ), Suan Luang ( สวนหลวง ), Taling Chan ( ตลิ่งชัน ), Thawi Watthana ( ทวี วัฒนา ), Thonburi ( ธนบุรี ), Thung Khru ( ทุ่ง ครุ ), Watthana ( วัฒนา ), Wang Thonglang ( วังทองหลาง ) and Yan Nawa ( ยานนาวา ).

See also: Districts of Bangkok


Bangkok has neither a clearly defined inner city nor a central business district. Rather, this function is distributed over several districts. The oldest part of the city is the Rattanakosin Island in the Phra Nakhon district , around the Grand Palace , Sanam Luang , Wat Ratchabophit and Sao Ching Cha ("giant swing"). In the second half of the 19th century, the “Chinese Quarter” around Yaowarat and Charoen-Krung Streets (then “New Road”, the first paved street in Bangkok) in the Samphanthawong district developed into the city's central business district. In the 1950s and 1960s, banks and large law firms then settled along Silom , Surawong and Si-Phraya Streets in the Bang Rak district . Since the 1990s, mainly expensive high-rise office buildings have sprung up in the Sathon district and along Witthayu Street ( Pathum Wan district ), and large shopping centers and luxury hotels have sprung up along Rama I and Phloenchit Streets (also Pathum Wan). The establishment of the two mass transport systems Skytrain (BTS) and U-Bahn (MRT) has increased the expansion of the areas with a central business function. Almost all areas that can be reached by one of the two modes of transport are now attractive. This applies in particular to the area around Sukhumvit Road ( Khlong Toei and Watthana districts ) and the central section of Ratchadaphisek Road ( Phaya Thai and Huai Khwang districts ).


Bangkok is located in the tropical climate zone . The annual average temperature is 28.4 ° C, the average annual rainfall is 1,498 millimeters. The main rainy season is during the monsoons between May and October; in individual urban areas, flooding must be expected, especially in September and October . Most of the precipitation falls in September with an average of 344 millimeters, the least in January with an average of nine millimeters.

Average temperatures are between 26.1 ° C and 30.4 ° C all year round. The average daytime temperature is a maximum of 34.9 ° C, a minimum of 20.8 ° C with high humidity. According to the World Meteorological Organization , Bangkok is the hottest city in the world on an annual average.

The warmest month is April with a maximum of 35 ° C and a minimum of 26 ° C mean daytime temperature. The coldest month in the Bangkok area is December with a maximum of 31 ° C and a minimum of 21 ° C daily mean temperature. The dry season runs from December to March. March and April are the hottest months in Bangkok.

Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Long-term mean temperature and precipitation (1961–1990)
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 32.0 32.7 33.7 34.9 34.0 33.1 32.7 32.5 32.3 32.0 31.6 31.3 O 32.7
Min. Temperature (° C) 21.0 23.3 24.9 26.1 25.6 25.4 25.0 24.9 24.6 24.3 23.1 20.8 O 24.1
Precipitation ( mm ) 9 30th 29 65 220 149 155 197 344 242 48 10 Σ 1498
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 8.8 8.8 8.7 8.6 7.0 5.9 5.5 5.2 5.2 6.4 7.8 8.5 O 7.2
Rainy days ( d ) 1 2 2 4th 13th 12th 13th 15th 18th 14th 5 1 Σ 100
Water temperature (° C) 26 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 27 27 27 O 27.4
Humidity ( % ) 73 76 77 77 80 80 81 82 84 83 79 74 O 78.8
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

environmental issues

Typical rush hour traffic in Bangkok (Thanon Ratchadamri)

Bangkok is grappling with significant environmental problems . A dense cloud of exhaust gases lies permanently over the city. Experts have found that air pollution has already reached harmful levels on the main roads . Since the high-rise buildings were built, the streets were no longer ventilated , so the concentration of toxins rose dramatically.

About bronchitis , asthma or exhaustion one in seven residents already complaining. People who are particularly stressed, such as motorcycle messengers, tuk-tuk drivers, traffic policemen and street vendors, often wear protective masks .

Bangkok is also having problems with its water supply . The city does not have a central water supply network. The construction of a sewage system is only just beginning. Until the 1990s, industry and private households directed sewage centrally into the Mae Nam Chao Phraya (Chao Phraya River) without any purification .

The waste pollutes the air and often poisons all life in the waters. Numerous factories in the metropolitan region - including in many residential areas - are allowed to build their own wells for a regulated water supply, which contributes to a continuous drop in the groundwater level.



Historical map (around 1888)

Bangkok was originally just a small fishing village on the eastern bank of the Chao Phraya. It was first recorded on a Portuguese map in 1511. Around 1680 there were only three inhabited places south of the village: a customs house, the trading post called Fort Amsterdam , established by the Dutch in 1622, and the place Ban Vat. During the historical epoch of the Ayutthaya Kingdom , the place developed into a sizable trading port and important stopping point on the water route to the capital.

The origin of today's Bangkok lies in the small town of Thonburi , today part of the capital, on the western bank of the Chao Praya . General Taksin made Thonburi the new capital in 1772 after the capital of the Kingdom of Ayutthaya had been largely destroyed in the war with Burma in 1767 . Ten years later, the new King Rama I , founder of the Chakri dynasty , which is still ruling today, moved the seat of government to the eastern bank and began the area called Rattanakosin , with the village of Bang Kok, then mainly inhabited by Chinese , based on the model of the to expand the former royal seat into the capital.

The official name of the city has been Krung Thep ( กรุงเทพฯ? / I ) in short form since then . However, this is only a short form of the full name, the world's longest city name (see city ​​name above ). Western traders and travelers instead used the name of the village Bangkok, which became the name that is internationally known today. Audio file / audio sample

The city of canals

The old, canal-shaped Bangkok around 1850,
Wat Saket in the background

Rattanakosin was built through a canal, the Khlong Lot , to an artificial island in a bend of the Chao Phraya in the center of which the new royal palace and the royal temple, the Wat Phra Kaeo with the Emerald Buddha (Phra Kaeo) , the national shrine of Thailand, was built became.

At that time the whole city was criss-crossed by a dense network of canals ( khlongs ). Most of the traffic was on these khlongs. Even the markets took place on the water ("floating markets"). There were hardly any roads. Back then, Bangkok was sometimes referred to as the Venice of the East . Most of the khlongs were filled in one after the other from the middle of the 19th century to make room for the steadily increasing traffic and the growing city.

In 1863, the city's first paved road was Thanon Charoen Krung (literally translated as "Road to the Enlargement of the Capital"; Western foreigners called it New Road ) in place of an earlier elephant trail. During the reign of King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) (ruled 1868–1910), a railway line was built connecting Bangkok with the north of the country, tram lines for inner-city traffic, a large number of new streets and the majority of government buildings, often influenced by European styles.

Modern Bangkok

Bangkok Skytrain
Baiyoke Tower II (304 m), the second tallest building in Thailand

At the beginning of the 20th century, the city grew beyond its former borders to the north and east. Another growth spurt, especially for the west of the river town of parts meant the inauguration of the first bridge, the Memorial Bridge , over the Chao Praya in 1932. During the Second World War Bangkok was for some years by Japanese occupying forces and was from 1944 bombed the allies. After the end of the war, the city recovered quickly and continued to grow.

By the middle of the 20th century, most of the khlongs had already been filled in and replaced by boulevards and streets. During this time, highways in all directions, such as Sukhumvit Street, were built . From the 1960s and 1970s, more houses were built and city highways expanded than ever before. In the 1970s, Bangkok was the scene of decisive political events: first the popular uprising against the military dictatorship in October 1973 , then three years later the massacre of left-wing students and demonstrators on the campus of Thammasat University . With the economic boom of the 1980s (see “ Tiger States ”) another new development began, which led to the construction of a large number of high-rise buildings and permanently changed the cityscape. At the same time, the number of residents rose rapidly and ultimately made Bangkok one of the largest metropolises in the world. In May 1992 there were again mass protests against the government of the time in the capital, which were brutally suppressed in the so-called “ Black May ”.

Panoramic picture of Bangkok at night

21st century

At the beginning of the 21st century, over six million people live in Bangkok, and over ten million in the metropolitan area. Economically, the city is recovering noticeably from the collapse at the end of the boom of the 1990s, which is reflected not least in new construction projects. Road traffic is one of the biggest urban problems. The expansion of the public transport network with the Bangkok Metro and Bangkok Skytrain has only minimally eased the situation so far.

After several political crises in the country since 2006 , Bangkok was the scene of bloody unrest in April and May 2010 , which caused an international sensation.

At the end of October 2011, the largest flood disaster in 50 years flooded several districts of Bangkok, and many districts had to be evacuated.

At the end of 2013 and beginning of 2014, Bangkok was again the scene of politically motivated unrest . In January 2014, the opposition movement set the goal of completely paralyzing public life in Bangkok (“Shutdown Bangkok”). The conflict ended in May 2014 with another military coup.


According to the 2000 census data, 99% of Bangkok residents were Thai nationals. 94.5% were Buddhists, 4.1% Muslim and 1% Christian. 37.3% were not born in Bangkok but moved from another province.

Population development

View from Baiyoke Tower II

Bangkok is an example of dynamic but unplanned urban growth. In 1947 the population exceeded the million mark for the first time. In 1960 there were already 2.1 million people in Bangkok. Between 1970 (3.1 million) and 2000 (6.3 million) the population doubled. According to the National Statistics Office (NSO), 8.2 million people lived in the capital in 2010. This corresponds to growth between 2000 and 2010 of 2.6% per year.

The population density was 5,270 inhabitants per square kilometer (in Munich , the most densely populated municipality in Germany , there were 4,275 for comparison). The city is far bigger than any other city in Thailand. In 2009 it already had 18 times as many inhabitants as the next largest city Samut Prakan (446,375 inhabitants), the Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR) even 64 times as many as the next largest metropolitan area Udon Thani (228,738 inhabitants).

Since the capital is many times larger than all other major cities in Thailand and since the important political and economic decisions are made here, Bangkok is a primate city . It is one of the most extreme cases of a primate city in the world: at times it had 40 times as many inhabitants as the second largest city in the country. The per capita gross domestic product in 2006 was ten times higher than in the poorest province of the country (Bangkok: 319,322  baht , Mae Hong Son 33,231 baht). While the capital region developed economically, large parts of the country did not benefit or even saw a decline in gross domestic product. As a result of this primacy, the city has had an immense increase in migration over the past few decades.

In the metropolitan area were in the census in 2000 about 10.2 million people counted. When counting in 2010 there were already 14.6 million. This corresponds to a growth between 2000 and 2010 of 3.7% per year. The population density was 1,877 inhabitants per square kilometer. The BMR includes the city of Bangkok and the surrounding provinces of Nakhon Pathom , Nonthaburi , Pathum Thani , Samut Prakan and Samut Sakhon .

The following overview shows the number of inhabitants according to the respective territorial status. Up to 1910 these are estimates, from 1919 to 2010 census results from the National Statistical Office of Thailand. The population figures refer to the actual city without the suburban belt.

View over the city
Year / date resident
1880 255,000
1910 365,000
April 1, 1919 437.294
July 15, 1929 713.384
May 23, 1937 890.453
April 25, 1947 1,178,881
date resident
April 25, 1960 2,136,435
April 1, 1970 3,077,361
April 1, 1980 4,697,071
April 1, 1990 5,882,411
April 1, 2000 6.320.174
September 1, 2010 8,249,117

Development of the living situation

Slum dwellings under a bridge. 1980

A big problem for the metropolis of Bangkok is to adequately take care of the many people who have moved here in recent years, especially rural refugees. Apartments had to be built for numerous people. The increasing demand for building land increased the prices of apartments and land considerably.

That is why many settlements are being built on the outskirts of the city for the less wage earners. Public facilities (hospitals and schools) are inadequate. Garbage and wastewater are no longer adequately disposed of, and the groundwater level is falling faster and faster due to increased consumption.

The people in the settlements in particular are at risk from infectious diseases such as cholera , diarrhea and typhoid , which are spread through inadequate hygienic conditions. In addition, there are respiratory and skin diseases due to the toxic emissions from numerous industrial companies and car traffic.

Another problem in Bangkok is increasing traffic. The road network is completely overloaded. In addition, with a relatively small subway and elevated railway network , Bangkok has only a few means of mass transport, but it has one of the largest bus networks in the world. The large number of cars causes very high levels of air pollution in the city (high levels of ozone and carbon monoxide ).


Old parliament building

City government

Seat of the city administration
Results of the 2013 gubernatorial election by district: Sukhumbhand Paribatra (DP) in blue, Pongsapat Pongcharoen (PT) in red

Today's Bangkok was created in 1972 from the amalgamation of the old Bangkok Province (officially Phra Nakhon ) and the Thonburi Province, which comprised the districts of today's Bangkok located west of the Chao Phraya.

Bangkok is a special administrative area. Unlike the 76 provinces of Thailand ( Changwat ) , it has a directly elected governor. As a rule, gubernatorial elections take place every four years. The governor heads the capital's local government (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, BMA). This is responsible for local public transport, roads, urban planning, housing construction, waste management, environmental protection and public order.

As of 2009, MR Sukhumbhand Paribatra of the Democratic Party was the governor of Bangkok. He was re-elected in March 2013 with 46.2% compared to Pongsapat Pongcharoen by the Pheu-Thai party with 39.7%. In October 2016, he was deposed by the chairman of the ruling military junta Prayut Chan-o-cha and replaced by Police General Aswin Kwanmuang .

The city administration is controlled by a city council (Bangkok Metropolitan Council). After the local elections in 2010, it has 61 members, including 46 Democratic MPs, 14 from the Pheu Thai Party and one independent.

The city administration (BMA) is only responsible for the actual city of Bangkok and not for the agglomeration Greater Bangkok (Greater Bangkok Area, GBA) or even the even larger metropolitan region of Bangkok (Bangkok Metropolitan Region, BMR).

Town twinning

Bangkok has partnerships with the following cities:

In addition to city ​​partnerships , Bangkok also maintains numerous city ​​friendships and city ​​contacts .

Culture and sights


Wat Phra Sri Mahathat , Bang Khen , North Bangkok

There are over 400 wats ( Buddhist temples) in the city. The most important is the Wat Phra Kaeo (Wat Phra Sri Rattana Satsadaram), which houses the so-called " Emerald Buddha " and is highly revered across the country.

Together with the Grand Palace , Wat Pho (Wat Phra Chetuphon), the oldest and largest temple in Bangkok, and Wat Mahathat , which houses one of the great Buddhist universities ( Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University ) in Southeast Asia, Wat Phra Kaeo on the Rattanakosin - Island the historical center of the city.

Bangkok is also home to the National Museum of Thailand , the National Gallery , the National Library and the National Theater .


Ganesha relief, National Theater, Bangkok

The National Theater in Bangkok is located on the site of the old Wang Na, the palace of the Second King of Thailand (the Uparat ) on Thanon Na Phra That. In front of the east entrance is a statue of Phra Pinklao , who, as the younger brother of King Mongkut, was named the penultimate Uparat by him.

The building was rebuilt in its current form after a fire from 1960 to 1965: the T-shaped building shows a hybrid of Thai and Western architecture. Above the main entrance of the theater there is a relief depicting the patron god of the arts, the Hindu god Ganesha . Performances of classical Thai dance take place in the building. The hall has an original trapezoid shape. Renovation work was carried out in 2006.

Sala Chalermkrung

The royal theater Sala Chalermkrung ( สา ลา - เฉลิม - กรุง ) was a gift from King Prajadhipok (Rama VII) to his people and was opened on July 2, 1933 for the 150th anniversary of  Rattanakosin . It was the first air-conditioned theater in Thailand and also the first cinema in Thailand. Since 2006 the Thai mask dance Khon , which contains scenes from the epic Ramakien , has been performed here on a regular basis .

In the newly built Joe Louis Theater on the grounds of the Suan Lum Night Bazaar, the Ramayana epic is performed as a Thai puppet show. The traditional characters are introduced before the performance. Three artists act with colorful, elaborately embroidered stick puppets that have been made by the head of the family Sakorn Yanghiawsod (Joe Louis) since the 1950s.


Jim Thompson House

The National Museum houses a sizeable collection of artifacts and objets d'art from the Thai Bronze Age to the most recent. The whole complex consists of historical buildings in the Thai style, since until the time of King Chulalongkorn the Wang Na, the palace of Uparat , the so-called Vice-King of Siam , was located here .

The boathouses on Khlong Bangkok Noi , a branch of the National Museum directly behind the Pinklao Bridge, house the royal barges. These elaborately carved and decorated boats are only used in the royal boat procession .

The National Gallery Museum is opposite the National Museum on Thanon Chao Fa. Old and contemporary paintings by important Thai artists are on display there.

Jim Thompson's Thai house on Khlong Saen Saep in Soi Kasemsan 2, a cross alley off Rama I Street (Thanon Phra Ram 1) , is an ensemble of several wooden houses in the old Thai style that are linked to one another. This was created by Jim Thompson (* 1906), the legendary man who revived the Thai silk industry and made it world famous after the end of the Second World War , and who disappeared without a trace in 1967 under mysterious circumstances. Today the complex is a museum that houses Thompson's exquisite collection of Asian art. The Bangkok Art and Culture Center is only about 500 meters away on foot .

The Wang Suan Pakkad (Suan Pakkad Palace) is a complex of eight Thai houses in the middle of a garden on Thanon Si Ayutthaya. Formerly the residence of Prince Chumbhot, it houses an important collection of Asian antiques. Particularly worth seeing is the “lacquer pavilion”, a small wooden pavilion from the time of King Narai of Ayutthaya (1656–1688), which served as a kuti in Wat Ban Kling near Ayutthaya until 1959 . It is decorated with murals in Lai-Rot-Nam-Technique (black gold lacquer) from the late Ayutthaya or early Rattanakosin period.

In the Bangkok Doll Museum (Puppenmuseum) on Soi Ratchataphan behind the Thanon Ratchaprarop, local dolls are exhibited. In the Ban Kamthieng, a 200-year-old Thai house in the Lan-Na- Thai style in the garden of the Siam Society in Thanon Asok Montri, a collection of tools from Thai farmers and fishermen can be seen. The Queen's Gallery on Thanon Ratchadamnoen near the Phan Fa Lilat Bridge regularly shows exhibitions of well-known and lesser-known contemporary Thai artists on four floors. Often times these exhibitions are sponsored by Queen Sirikit .


Grand Palace and Wat Phra Kaeo

Phra Sri Rattana Chedi in Wat Phra Kaeo

This most important landmark of Bangkok on the banks of the Chao Phraya consists of over 100 buildings in different architectural styles. The entire area with an area of ​​more than 200,000 square meters is enclosed by a 1.9 kilometer long crenellated wall.

A special gem of this ensemble is the Wat Phra Kaeo (Temple of the Emerald Buddha), a masterpiece of Thai art. One of its treasures is the Emerald Buddha , the most revered Buddha statue in Thailand.

Other attractions of this great palace are the Amarin Winichai Throne Hall, Dusit Maha Prasat Throne Hall and the Great Chakri Palace. This also includes the “Royal Thai Decorations and Coin Pavilion” with a permanent exhibition of royal insignia , precious objects , medals and coins as well as other means of payment that were in circulation at the beginning of the 11th century.

In front of the Grand Palace is the Sanam Luang (also called Phramen Ground, also known as the “ Phra Meru ” field), a spacious parade ground lined with tamarind trees is also used for other public ceremonies, such as the royal plowing ceremony in May. Several magnificent buildings are grouped around the square: the Fine Arts Department with the Silpakorn Art College , the Thammasat University and the National Museum , the National Theater , the Ministry of Justice and the Lak Müang (city pillar), the spiritual center of the historical city.

More temples

Wat Pho ("Temple of the Reclining Buddha") is an extensive temple complex directly south of the Grand Palace. There is a huge statue of a reclining Buddha covered with gold leaf - 46 meters long and 15 meters high - the soles of the feet are inlaid with mother-of-pearl. Wat Pho was also once the country's first public educational institution. The temple is also famous for its traditional Thai massage .

Wat Arun ("The Temple of Dawn") is an impressive temple building and the symbol of Bangkok on the other bank of the Chao Praya, opposite the Grand Palace. Its pagoda, which rises about 75 meters, is covered with porcelain tiles and sparkles in the sun.

Wat Traimit ("Temple of the Golden Buddha") is a sanctuary at the end of Thanon Yaowarat in " Chinatown ", near Bangkok's Hualampong Central Station . There is a three meter high Buddha made of five and a half tons of solid gold.

Wat Benchamabophit ("marble temple") is located on Thanon Si Ayutthaya, next to the Chitralada Palace , the residence of King Bhumibol Adulyadej . This is one of the newest temples in Bangkok. It was built from white Carrara marble during the reign of King Rama V (1868–1910). Elements of the sacred architecture of Europe are striking, for example stained glass windows. In the colonnade ( Phra Rabieng ) around the Ubosot there is a collection of bronze Buddha statues of the most diverse artistic styles in Thailand.

Wat Suthat on the Thanon Bamrung Mueang is known for its exquisite wall paintings from the 19th century, which were restored on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the city of Bangkok with financial help from the Federal Republic of Germany. The giant swing in front of the temple, called Sao Ching Cha , was used for brahmin rituals a long time ago . Some shops in the area sell Buddhist devotional items.

Wat Saket ("The Golden Mountain"): The most interesting thing about this temple is the so-called "Golden Mountain" from the 19th century. The golden chedi, which crowns an artificial hill with its 87-meter-high gold-plated pagoda, houses Buddha relics. From there, the old town of Bangkok can be visited.

Other important temples in the center of Bangkok are Wat Mahathat on the edge of the Sanam Luang field, which houses the main university of the Mahanikai Buddhist denomination, the Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University , and Wat Ratchanatdaram on the Thanon Ratchadamnoen behind the Rama III Memorial Park his Loha Prasat (a pagoda, which is called "iron palace" because of its building material), Wat Ratchabopit , a temple on Thanon Ban Mo with a mixture of local and European style elements and Wat Intharawihan in Thanon Wisutkasat with a 32 meter high standing Buddha figure.

For a comprehensive overview, see the list of Buddhist temples in Bangkok .

Other structures

Lak Müang (shrine of the city pillar), the Bangkok "city sanctuary", is located on the southeast corner of the Sanam Luang field. It houses the foundation stone of Bangkok laid by King Rama I (1736–1809) - actually a column. This has a reputation for fulfilling wishes. All day long, the believers pay dancers to beguile the local city spirits with their dances and thus treat them health and prosperity.

The Wimanmek Palace (the Heavenly Palace) - it is the largest teak building in the world - lies behind the Parliament. It houses 81 rooms, halls and anteroom on three floors and is furnished with memorabilia from the royal family from the end of the 19th century. The teak is covered with gold leaf in numerous places.

Also worth seeing are the Chao Phraya and the still preserved canals of Bangkok ( Khlongs ), which ran through large parts of the city until the middle of the 20th century. Many of these old traffic routes were filled in to build roads. Together with the Chao Phraya, the “River of Kings”, they clearly show how life and activity on the water has essentially been unchanged for several centuries.

Sights on the Chao Phraya are the Phra Phutthayotfa Bridge (colloquially Thai "Saphan Phut", English "Memorial Bridge"), the first bridge between Bangkok and Thonburi, inaugurated on the 150th anniversary of the founding of Bangkok, and the Rama-VIII. Bridge that was only inaugurated in May 2002.

The Victory Monument has been standing on what is now a very busy square with a roundabout since 1941 .


The Lumpini Park is the largest park in central Bangkok. " Tai-Chi " exercises are practiced there every morning . The park is walled and contains an artificial lake that can be ridden with rentable rowing and pedal boats . The 576,000 square meter Lumphini Park was created in the 1920s by King Vajiravudh (Rama VI) on royal property.

In the Dusit Zoo , Bangkok's oldest zoological garden beside the Royal Plaza, the most known African and Asian mammals and birds and many other animals can be seen. There are cafes and an artificially created lake with areas for relaxation. The area is traversed by two canals, one of which is the venue for a famous raft competition on the occasion of the Loi Krathong Festival in autumn .

Also worth seeing is King Rama IX Park , an approximately 80 hectare park and botanical garden on Soi 103 (Udomsuk) of Thanon Sukhumvit. It was opened in 1987 on the occasion of the 60th birthday of King Bhumibol Adulyadej.

The Rommaninat Park at the Thanon Maha Chai was until the mid-1990s the city jail of Bangkok. The city council moved the prison outside the city gates and turned it into a beautiful park. For many residents, it offers an evening sport and recreational opportunity.


In two large and several small stadiums spread across Bangkok there is the possibility to watch the Thai national sport Muay Thai , better known as Thai boxing, with all its rituals. Some of the best fighters in the country can be seen in both Lumpini and Ratchadamnoen stadiums. The events take place alternately in both stadiums throughout the week. In addition to the fight in the ring, additional entertainment is provided through betting on the outcome of the fight and musical accompaniment played by a traditional ensemble ( pi phat ) based on the pi or “Thai oboe”.

Another popular sport is the traditional “ Sepak Takraw ”. This is a kind of ball game in which a braided rattan ball has to be held in the air with all parts of the body - except with the hands - for as long as possible. Professional teams play against each other on the Sanam Luang field in front of the Grand Palace in Bangkok. Another version of this sport is the net acro, which is played at the National Stadium and the Hua Mak Stadium.

Another traditional sport in Thailand is kite fighting, in which a symbolic battle of the sexes takes place in the air. Here the big "male" dragons, called Chula, fight against the smaller, "female" Pakpao. The giant chulas have to be controlled by a whole team of men. These colorful events take place in March and April on the Sanam Luang field, because then the necessary wind comes up every afternoon.

In addition to the traditional sports typical of Thailand, soccer is also played in Bangkok. In Rajamangala Stadium wearing Thai national football team from almost all your home games. There are also five football clubs that play in the country's highest league, the Thai Premier League .

Horse races are also very popular in Bangkok. Betting on the outcome of the races is legal. There are even two horse racing tracks in Bangkok: the “Royal Bangkok Sports Club” and the “Royal Turf Club of Thailand”.

Regular events

Thien Fa Shrine during Chinese New Year

National holidays and major religious festivals are particularly splendidly celebrated in Bangkok: on the birthday of the queen or king (December 5), parades take place in the decorated streets. At big festivals even the royal boats are launched. The Chinese New Year is also the occasion for three-day celebrations in Chinatown.

Wisakha Bucha , the largest Buddhist festival, is celebrated in Wat Phra Keo and on Sanam Luang. As early as eight o'clock, 30 to 40 lovingly decorated carriages with statues depicting scenes from the life of Buddha pull through the Thanon Rachdamnoen to the royal palace.

During the cool season from mid-February to the end of March, kite competitions take place on the Sanam Luang. Farmers from all over the country flock to Bangkok for the plow ceremony on Sanam Luang in mid-May. During the Songkran celebrations, real water battles are fought in the streets of Bangkok. At this time, numerous barriers lead to traffic chaos, especially in the old town; in Chinatown, however, it is quiet.


Thai seafood curry

There are restaurants in Bangkok for practically every taste. All important European, Middle and Far Eastern flavors are represented in many gourmet restaurants. The areas in which the tourists mainly stay have the highest density of restaurants, above all the Thanon Sukhumvit with its numerous side streets. Travel guides claim that in these areas you are never more than 50 meters from the nearest restaurant.

Nevertheless, there are some special features in Bangkok worth mentioning:

  • Food stalls, street stalls, market stalls: At the numerous food stalls and street stalls that are practically "on every street corner" in Bangkok, you can eat your fill, unbelievably inexpensive by European standards, but you also have to compromise on equipment and hygiene. The food from these open-air kitchens has become an integral part of the daily life of many Thais in the big cities. Housewives cook less and less themselves, they are jokingly called "Plastic Bag Housewives" because they carry the food from the cookshop home in plastic bags. 100 years ago, when Bangkok was still the "Venice of the East", snacks, noodle soups or whole meals were mainly sold from small boats, today these stalls can consist of two rattan baskets that are carried over the shoulder, like handcarts , Motorcycle sidecars or even simple tables on the side of the road.
  • Food courts , food centers: A more or less large number of cookshops in a hygienic environment - mostly in the basement or on the top floor of large shopping centers and supermarkets. Every cookshop makes its own specialty. Payment is not made with cash, but with “coupons” in various denotations that can be bought beforehand at the entrance, and unused coupons can be returned. Rechargeable plastic cards are increasingly being used instead of coupons.
  • Riverside: Many long-established restaurants in Bangkok are located on the banks of the Chao Phraya. Some terraces are right on the bank, others are built on stilts into the river. The food is traditionally Thai.
  • Hotel Dining: The big hotels in the city regularly try to outdo each other by offering special offers or food from the buffet "as much as you can eat". In the daily newspapers there are page-long references to special events or special prices in the hotel restaurants.
    • English afternoon tea: Some hotels, especially the Oriental Hotel in the renovated Author's Wing , also offer English afternoon tea . This is not so much an event to fill up, but rather a social opportunity to bridge the hot afternoon until the next dinner, as the western aristocracy demonstrated 100 years ago.
    • Dinner cruises: Several hotels and restaurants offer tours with restaurant service. The selection ranges from the large “Riverside 2”, a modern river boat almost 100 meters long with restaurants for over 1000 people, to the “Mahora”, an antique, wooden rice barge that has been converted into a floating restaurant for smaller parties. The trip takes about two to three hours, it goes down the river for a while, then back to the starting point. For entertainment, live music is offered, on the large ships with loud disco music to small ensembles that perform traditional music.

see also: Thai cuisine


Bangkok market

Large shopping malls are mainly concentrated in Lower Thanon Sukhumvit (Sukhumvit Street) , Thanon Silom (Silom Street), and especially Siam Square . Here, the MBK, the Siam Discovery Center, Zen, Central World and the Siam Paragon are next to each other, in which there is a huge walk-in aquarium in addition to all imaginable luxury brands such as Ferrari and Lamborghini.

Shops, offices, restaurants, cinemas and department stores are housed in the shopping centers. The shopping palaces, which are among the largest in the world, are located on the arteries outside the center, for example Seacon Square and Seri Center in Thanon Srinagarindra far east of the city center, as well as Future Park in the Rangsit district, north of Don Mueang Airport .

In the metropolis of Bangkok, some markets with a rural character have survived, offering fresh fruit and vegetables, fish and meat. However, the legendary floating markets only exist outside the metropolis. Most of Bangkok's markets mainly sell textiles and drugstore items, but also plants and souvenirs .

In Bangkok silver and niello wares , dolls and masks, wood carvings, rubbings of temple reliefs on thin rice paper, bronze articles, cotton textiles, parasols, fans and much more are offered cheaply . Trading in antiques has been banned in Thailand since 1989. That is why an entire industry lives from the production of counterfeits, some of which are deceptively real.

Economy and Infrastructure

According to a study from 2014, the greater Bangkok area generates a gross domestic product of 307 billion US dollars in purchasing power parity . In the ranking of the economically strongest metropolitan regions worldwide, he came in 35th place. The GDP per capita is US $ 19,705 (PPP). Almost 7 million people were employed in the city.


View over the city
The Chao Phraya

The city is one of the most important economic and transport centers in Southeast Asia . Bangkok is both a transport hub and a port city; 90 percent of foreign trade goes through this city; industry and administration are concentrated there. According to the National Statistics Office (NSO), the city generated 28.0% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) in 2006 ; the Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR) 43.7%. Bangkok's GDP was 2.190 trillion baht (Thailand: 7.816 trillion). It was 261 times the GDP of the economically weakest province of Thailand, Mae Hong Son (2006 GDP: 8.406 billion baht).

The Stock Exchange of Thailand is based in Bangkok. The predecessor was founded in 1962 in the private form of a limited partnership and in 1963 as the Bangkok Stock Exchange to a limited company . The stock exchange has had its current name since January 1, 1991. The city is also home to the headquarters of the United Nations (UN) Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, as well as other UN offices. Numerous global corporations have offices or factories in Bangkok. These include Toyota , Unilever , Procter & Gamble , Philips , Sony , Compaq and Tesco .

Ready meals, wood and textiles are Bangkok's most important export goods. The city is located in a lowlands where mainly rice is grown, which is then processed in the rice mills of Bangkok, one of the most important branches of industry. Other important industrial products include food and motor vehicles as well as textiles, cement, jewelry, solar cells and solar modules . There is also a lively music and film industry here.

There are numerous oil refineries and shipyards in Bangkok. The city is known as a jewelry and jewelery trading center. It is the worldwide center for the processing of inferior stones and the manufacture of synthetic stones. The sapphires and rubies mined in their own country are relatively small, most of them are imported.

Tourism is an important source of income. The Khaosan Road , near the palace complex, is the meeting point for backpackers from around the world. At the other end of the tourist spectrum, Bangkok has luxury hotels, the Hotel Oriental and the Peninsula , which have been among the best in the world for years.

According to the State Tourism Authority (TAT), 36.2 million guests visited Bangkok in 2006. This corresponds to a growth of 3.83% compared to 2005. The tourists included 23.8 million Thais (+5.45%) and 12.4 million foreigners (+0.84%). The number of people who stayed in a hotel, guest house or apartment building and who were reported to the police was 13.9 million in 2006 (+ 3.56%). These included 3.2 million Thais (+11.25%) and 10.7 million foreigners (+1.46%). Most of the foreign tourists in Bangkok came from the following countries: Japan (1,495,912), People's Republic of China (1,357,387), USA (682,083), Singapore (618,853), Great Britain (494,990), Australia (442,982), Hong Kong (442,632) , Taiwan (433,269), Malaysia (370,188), India (361,156), Germany (343,922) and South Korea (305,185).

Although prostitution is officially illegal as in many other countries, the industry is both an important economic factor and a major problem in Bangkok. Sex tourists come mainly from Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, Australia, Europe, the Arab states and the USA to Thailand. The most famous and notorious red light districts in Bangkok are Patpong , Nana Plaza and Soi Cowboy .

Bangkok is also home to many institutes working for the country's economy, such as the Rice Research Institute .

Suvarnabhumi International Airport, Terminal
Suvarnabhumi International Airport


Long-distance transport

The city is the most important junction of the road and rail network in Thailand.

Air travel

Bangkok is the seat of an international airport that is important for Southeast Asia . Until September 2006 this was Bangkok International Airport (Don Mueang) , 22 kilometers north of the city center.

The opening of Suvarnabhumi Airport - the about 30 km east of the capital in the town of Bang Phli province Samut Prakan located and has a passenger capacity of 45 million passengers per year - took place constructional reasons until 28 September, 2006. The new Suvarnabhumi Airport has taken over the airport code "BKK" from the old Don Mueang Airport, which was initially only served by charter flights and private planes. In 2011, the "BKK" airport handled around 47.5 million passengers. The journey from Suvarnabhumi to the city center by taxi usually takes around 30 to 60 minutes, although up to three hours can be allowed for in extreme traffic during rush hour. Since 2010, the Suvarnabhumi Airport Railway Link (SARL) has also provided a rapid transit connection between the city center and the airport.

On March 25, 2007, the old Don Mueang Airport was reopened for domestic flights with the airport code "DMK". Since October 1, 2012, the low-cost airline AirAsia has only been flying to Don Mueang Airport instead of the larger Bangkok Suvarnabhumi Airport.

Hua Lamphong Railway Station (Bangkok Central Railway Station)
Rail transport

Thailand's first railway line from Bangkok to Pak Nam opened on April 11, 1893. On December 21, 1900, an English company completed the railway connection Bangkok- Ayutthaya - Khorat , then the Bangkok- Ratchaburi - Petchaburi line , which was completed on June 19, 1903, was expanded.

Today, most passenger trains run north, northeast, east and south from Hua Lamphong , Bangkok's main train station . After Kabin Buri also trains depart from Makkasan Station. Trains to Kanchanaburi and Mae Nam Khwae ("River Kwai") and some slow trains to the south depart from Bangkok Noi station. Instead of the old station building, the trains start from the New Station, to which a free shuttle takes you in five minutes. For freight traffic, there is the mechanized marshalling and freight yard Bang Sue on the northern outskirts . This is one of the few marshalling yards in the world in meter gauge .

Bus transport

Bangkok has three long-distance bus stations, from which most buses (except for a few AC buses and minibuses) depart: The eastern bus station (towards the east coast) on Thanon Sukhumvit, opposite the confluence of Soi Ekamai (hence also called Ekamai for short ); the very large northern and northeastern bus station ( Mo Chit for short ) on Thanon Kamphaeng Phet 2 in the Chatuchak district and the southern bus station ( Sai Tai for short ), south of national road 338, at the driveway of Thanon Borommaratchachonnani.

Maritime transport
Port facilities

The port of Bangkok is located on the left (eastern) Chao Phraya bank and covers an area of ​​more than 3.6 square kilometers. In everyday life it is called Khlong Toei , but is actually called “Pak Nam” (as much as mouth, literally mouth of water). The seaport is one of the largest in Southeast Asia. In 2004, 15.3 million tons of freight were handled (2003: 14.6 million). By the end of the 19th century there were regular steam connections to Hong Kong , Singapore and Saigon .

Local transport

Road traffic
Tuk Tuk and Taxis on Khaosan Road


Outside the Rattanakosin Island, road traffic in Bangkok is determined by highways along which the city has grown since the abandonment of the traditional waterways, the khlongs . The still numerous waterways, the bridging of which was not always affordable, still lead to a far less network of roads than is usual in comparable large cities.

Many side streets have remained dead ends due to the lack of bridges. This leads to less through traffic in the affected residential areas, but also to higher traffic density on the larger streets. The back roads on which motor vehicle traffic is possible are called soi . Sois all have their own name, which is rarely used in everyday language on smaller side streets. Usually the Soi number is named, for example Sukhumvit Soi 16 . Larger side streets, on the other hand, are often only known by the Soi name, for example Soi Ekkamai ( เอกมัย ) instead of Sukhumvit Soi 63 .

Cycle traffic is increasing somewhat on established cycle paths, it was reported in 2019.

Siam Square (Rama I Street)

Traffic load

In the 1970s, European city planners tried, without much success, to remove the chronic congestion problem on Bangkok's streets with modern bridge constructions. An extensive one-way street system was set up in the 1980s. Buses were given their own bus lane during rush hour , where they can also drive in one-way streets in both directions. Only the construction of numerous toll highways and additional bridges (English fly-over ), as well as the construction of an electric elevated railway, the so-called "Bangkok Skytrain" (BTS), and the metro (MRT) have achieved a certain improvement.

Local public transport

The road-bound local public transport is currently mainly handled by diesel-powered city ​​buses , which form a dense bus network that covers practically every corner of the city. The destinations are generally only given in Thai script . City buses of different classes are used: buses with air conditioning, buses with fans and buses with open windows (mockingly referred to by the Thai as air thammachat , "natural air conditioning"). In 2010, a new bus line ( BRT ) was also introduced, which covers a large part of the route on specially separated bus lanes .

Individual traffic is mainly handled by the numerous taxis , motorcycle taxis and tuk tuks (open motor scooters with bench seats) that transport passengers through the city. The tuk tuks in particular have shaped the cityscape of Bangkok significantly in the past and are still a special tourist attraction. In their function, however, they are now being replaced by motorcycle taxis.

Rail transport

On September 22, 1888, the first horse-drawn tram and on February 1, 1893, the first electric tram ran in Bangkok. Traffic ceased on October 1, 1968. Until the end of the 1990s, Bangkok had no rail-based mass transport. By building a high-speed rail network, one tries to get the traffic chaos under control, after the decades before the focus was more on expanding the road network.

On December 5, 1999, the Bangkok Skytrain , the city's first public high-speed rail project, went into operation. It runs on two lines with a length of 32 kilometers and 30 stations. It was the first electrically operated railway with European standard gauge (1435 millimeters gauge) and currently carries 250,000 passengers per day. Both lines cross at the Siam transfer station in lively Siam Square.

On July 3, 2004, the first section of the Bangkok Metro was opened. It is 21 kilometers long, runs over 18 train stations and has the same electrical and technical equipment as the Skytrain. You can change to the Skytrain in Si Lom / Saladaeng, Sukhumvit / Asok and Chatuchak / Mo Chit. The capacity per direction of travel is around 40,000 passengers per hour. Extensions to the north to Charansanitwongse and Tha Phra, and to the south to Bang Khae, with a possible design as a ring route are planned.

On December 5, 2009, the Suvarnabhumi Airport Rail Link was opened. The elevated railway, which is guided on stilts, is a light rail system in Bangkok's public transport network that connects Bangkok's Suvarnabhumi Airport with downtown Bangkok. The operator is the state railway company of Thailand, the State Railway of Thailand (SRT).

Chao Phraya express boat (left) and Ruea Hang Yao (center) in front of the Rama VIII Bridge

Passenger ferries ( Thai : เรือ ยนต์ ข้าม ฟาก ) - small, relatively high boats with roofs - cross from numerous piers from the Mae Nam Chao Phraya. However, the moorings do not coincide with the piers of the express boats.

The long “express boats ” ( เรือ ด่วน เจ้าพระยา ) with many seats run on the Mae Nam Chao Phraya over 18 kilometers between Nonthaburi (north) and Krung Thep Bridge (south) and upstream via Nonthaburi to Pak Kret .

Ruea Hang Yao ( เรือ หางยาว , literally: long-tailed boats, so-called because they are propelled by an outboard motor on a long rod) - narrow boats with seats for around 15 people. They run regularly on scheduled services on the khlongs from Bangkok and Thonburi. They are mainly used by commuters to get to the suburbs.


Chulalongkorn University

Bangkok is home to various technical institutes, several colleges and technical colleges and six universities, two of which are part of the global research network: Chulalongkorn University and Thammasat University. Near the Wat Phra Kaeo is the art academy, the Silpakorn University founded in 1921 .

The Chulalongkorn University (named after Rama V. Chulalongkorn) is one of the oldest universities in Thailand. She was on March 26, 1917 by King Rama VI. Vajiravudh, having existed as an administrative college from 1899. Right from the start, great importance was attached to student self-administration. Today (2003) about 28,000 students study at the university, the number of academic staff is just under 3,000.

The Thammasat University was founded on June 27, 1934 as the “University of Moral Science and Politics” and is still called the “University of the People” today because it tries particularly hard to secure university access for all people in the country. Since 1934, about 240,000 students have studied at the university, some of whom have become Prime Ministers of Thailand, Presidents of the Supreme Court, Members of Parliament, Senators, and successful businessmen.

The Kasetsart University (named for the purpose of the University) is one of the famous universities and was the first Thai agricultural university. It was founded on February 2, 1943, after having existed as a teacher training college since 1914. Today around 47,000 students study at the university, the number of academic staff is around 5,200.

The Thailand Research Fund in Khet Phaya Thai organizes the country's research and development work.


sons and daughters of the town


Members of the royal family:

Arts and Culture:


  • Phraya Manopakorn Nititada (1884–1948), judicial officer first Prime Minister of Thailand (1932/1933)
  • Phraya Phahon Phonphayuhasena (1887–1947), General, Prime Minister of Thailand (1933–1938)
  • Prince Wan Waithayakon (1891–1976), diplomat, Thai UN ambassador, President of the 11th UN General Assembly, Foreign Minister
  • Thawi Bunyaket (1904–1971), politician; Agriculture Minister and Prime Minister of Thailand (1945)
  • Pote Sarasin (1905–2000), diplomat, Prime Minister of Thailand (1957) and Secretary General of SEATO (1957–1963)
  • Sanya Dharmasakti (1905–2002), lawyer, President of the Supreme Court, Prime Minister (1973–1975)
  • Seni Pramoj (1905–1997), politician, prime minister (1945–1946, 1975/1976)
  • Sarit Thanarat (1908-1963), Prime Minister of Thailand (1959-1963)
  • Rak Panyarachun (1914–2007), Deputy Foreign Minister (1955–1957)
  • Upadit Pachariyangkun (1920–2012), Foreign Minister of Thailand (1976–1980)
  • Kriangsak Chomanan (1917–2003), General, Prime Minister of Thailand (1977–1980)
  • Chatichai Choonhavan (1920–1998), Prime Minister of Thailand (1988–1991)
  • Thanin Kraivichien (* 1927), Prime Minister (1976/1977), member of the Privy Council
  • Anand Panyarachun (* 1932), diplomat and manager, Prime Minister of Thailand (1991/1992)
  • Surayud Chulanont (* 1943), General and Prime Minister of Thailand (2006-2008)






  • Marc Askew: Bangkok. Place, Practice and Representation . Routledge, London / New York 2002, ISBN 0-415-18853-9 .
  • Karl Husa; Helmut Wohlschlägel: Booming Bangkok: A megacity in Southeast Asia caught between metropolitanization and globalization . In: Karl Husa, Erich Pilz, Irene Stacher: Mega-Cities: The metropolises of the south between globalization and fragmentation (historical social studies, 12). Frankfurt / M. 1996, ISBN 3-86099-172-8 .
  • Frauke Kraas : Bangkok. Unplanned megacity development due to economic boom and socio-cultural persistence . In: Geographische Rundschau , 48 (1996), H. 2, pp. 89-96.
  • Peter Nitsch: Bangkok - Urban Identities . Illustrated book. rupa publishing, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-9809430-7-9 .
  • Maryvelma O'Neil: Bangkok. A cultural history . Oxford University Press, New York 2008, ISBN 978-0-19-534251-2 .
  • Steve Van Beek: Bangkok then and now . AB Publications, Bangkok 2001, ISBN 974-87616-2-2 (English version: ISBN 974-87063-9-7 ).
  • William Warren: Bangkok . Reaction Books, London 2002, ISBN 1-86189-129-6 .
  • Roger Willemsen , Ralf Tooten : Bangkok Noir . Fischer, Frankfurt / M. 2009, ISBN 978-3-10-092106-2 .


  • Most of Christopher G. Moore's Vincent Calvino detective series is set in Bangkok. The third novel in the series, Nana Plaza , won the 2004 German Crime Prize in the International category.
  • Chris Burslem: Tales of Old Bangkok: Rich Stories from the Land of the White Elephant . Kindle Edition, Earnshaw Books. 2016, ISBN 9881998425 .

Web links

Commons : Bangkok  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wikivoyage: Bangkok  Travel Guide
Wiktionary: Bangkok  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d National Statistical Office of Thailand: Executive Summary: The 2010 Population and Housing Census ( Memento from June 1, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 773 kB)
  2. See Google book search "bankok"
  3. Most visited cities in the world: London in first place , according to MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index; Article dated June 15, 2015, accessed August 13, 2015
  4. Alexandra Talty: Bangkok Named Most Popular City For International Tourists In 2017 . In: Forbes . ( [accessed March 20, 2018]).
  5. Alexandra Talty: Bangkok Is The Most Visited City In The World. Accessed January 28, 2019 .
  6. Maurizio Peleggi: Thailand. The Worldly Kingdom . Reaction Books, London 2007, p. 219 (fn. 11)
  7. ^ Klaus Wenk: The restoration of Thailand under Rama I, 1782-1809 . Association for Asian Studies / University of Arizona Press, 1968, p. 18.
  8. ^ A b c William Warren: Bangkok . 2002, p. 13
  9. Sujit Wongthes: กรุงเทพฯมา จาก ไหน? ( Memento of May 25, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) [Bangkok: A Historical Background], 3rd edition, Bangkok 2012, ISBN 978-616-7686-00-4 , p. 37
  10. ^ William Warren: Bangkok . 2002, pp. 13/14
  11. National Statistical Office of Thailand: Statistics of Land, Bangkok: 2001-2010 ( Memento from July 31, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  12. Aliwassa Pathnadabutr: The changing face of Bangkok's central business district. Will it shift yet again? In: The Nation , October 18, 2013
  13. ^ World Weather Information Service
  15. Terwiel (1989), p. 54
  16. Key indicators of the population and households, Population and Housing Census 1990 and 2000: Bangkok
  17. Chris Baker , Pasuk Phongpaichit : A History of Thailand. 2nd edition, Cambridge University Press, Melbourne 2009, p. 199.
  18. a b National Statistical Office of Thailand: Gross Provincial Product at current prices by Region and Provinces 2006 ( Memento of March 5, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
  19. Sukhumbhand says goodbye to Bangkokians. Bangkok Post (online), October 19, 2016.
  20. Ira M. Robinson: Emerging Spatial Patterns in ASEAN Mega-Urban Regions: Alternative Strategies . In: The Mega-Urban Regions of Southeast Asia . UBC Press, Vancouver, 1995, pp. 90/91
  21. BMA: City partnerships ( Memento from January 18, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 149 kB)
  22. ^ Chongqing Municipal Government
  23. Cambodia's Phnom Penh, Thailand's Bangkok become sister cities
  24. Royal Theater Sala Chalermkrung: Website of the theater ( Memento of March 20, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) (in Thai and English)
  25. ^ Alan Berube, Jesus Leal Trujillo, Tao Ran, and Joseph Parilla: Global Metro Monitor . In: Brookings . January 22, 2015 ( [accessed July 30, 2018]).
  26. Tourism Authority of Thailand: Domestic Tourism Statistics ( Memento of the original from May 20, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  27. Archive link ( Memento from March 8, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  29. ^ The First Railway in Thailand ( Memento from September 16, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
  30. a b A Timeline of Thai Railways ( Memento from April 11, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
  31. ^ Port Authority of Thailand: Valume of Cargo Via Bangkok Port
  32. Christina Vogler: Measures against a sinking city, March 17, 2019, accessed on March 17, 2019.
  33. UrbanRail.Net: Bangkok