A place name , also a settlement name , technically oikonym ( ancient Greek οἶκος oíkos , house and anonymous ), is the name of a settlement . This can be a village or a town , a single farm (see house name ) or a wasteland , a group , a hamlet or a desert . The names of the settlements also include the names of the elements of the settlements, such as buildings and other infrastructure parts of the facility (oikodonyms, building names ) . A place without a settlement, on the other hand, is given a field name . With the study of place names, the addresses Toponomastik .
Origin of place names in the German-speaking area
The naming of a place, like all other names, helps people orientate themselves in their environment. Place names were necessary so that one or more properties could be clearly named or identified. Only in connection with the place names owned in the past could Lehnsrechte , court rights , Tenth , patronage , body characteristics , duties or other levies be allocated accurately.
The origin of the place names was always based on a naming motif. That was a characteristic that adhered to this particular place and that related to the first settler, founder (name), geographical or topographical conditions and peculiarities (such as water, river, ford , mountain, castle , church, monastery ) or possibly to mythological ones Reasons. Place names are mentioned in writing for the first time if their establishment is documented or if legal transactions associated with the place have been made and recorded in documents. However, documents are only incidental receipts. Most place names were therefore in use before they were first mentioned in writing.
Place names can have different origins:
- Stately names: this type comes from the former possessions of noble or ecclesiastical landowners.
- Particularly during the early medieval settlement expansion, places were named after the founder's clan who settled there. B. all ‑hausen , -heim , -hofen , -ing -, -weil / -wil names ("at the houses, the home, the courtyards, the people, the homestead of ...").
- Church references in particular are often seen as an independent or integrated part of the place name. They mostly designate buildings ( parish, church, monastery, cell etc.), as these laid the foundation for the development of the village. Derivation of the name from the church patron of the place: Sankt .
- According to a donor during the settlement, e.g. Karlstift , or religiously Pfaffenschlag , or as a dedication e.g. Theresienstadt (after the mother of the founder).
- Naming a place after the inhabitants or their historical rule:
- Members of a tribe, religion or denomination: Dürkheim (946 Thuringeheim , resettled by Charlemagne), Sachsenhausen , Windischgarsten (reference to Slavic parts of the population in contrast to Garsten near Steyr), Judenburg , also more recent: Deutsch-Wagram (Germans in Burgenland - Croatian area); Catholic Willenroth as an example of a denomination.
- A large number of people of the same profession or the same family name settled on the spot, e. B. Fisherman's Town
- With reference to features of the (natural) environment - many place names are derived from field names or have an independently developed name:
- The place name comes from a river that flows through the place, for example very often at the mouth, like Ybbs , but not at Fischamende like Fisch-am-Ende, but Fisch-Allmende, i.e. communal agricultural area on the Fischa.
- To nearby mountains, forests, lakes: Nuremberg ("Felsberg" to dialectical Nörr, Nürn "Fels"), Finsterwalde , Westensee ("west of the lake").
- After heaped plants or animals in the area, z. B. Eschede ("Eschenort"), Exten ("near the magpies", in Westphalian Eekster "Elster"). Compound names can also arise like Eichstätt , Moorenweis ("Moorwiese") or Biberach ("Biberwasser").
- But there is also the emergence of a conversion from a foreign language of the original inhabitants, such as Cologne from Latin Colonia ("colony", "branch") or Leobersdorf from Slavic Ljubac . Older names of settlements from antiquity and the Middle Ages have often changed so much over time that today's place names can no longer be used to directly identify their original meaning and origin.
- The simple derivation as an extension of an original name, such as Neu-Isenburg or Kleinochsenfurt . Often the subsidiary settlements are simply called Neudorf , Neustadt or Neusiedl , which can also be given an explanatory suffix, such as Wiener Neustadt . The same applies to places that name emigrants or displaced persons or resettlers after their hometown. An example for the first group is New Orleans , for the second Neugablonz , where many displaced persons from Gablonz in northern Bohemia settled together after the Second World War , for the third Neu-Lohn (see Displaced City ).
Components of place names (in German-speaking countries)
Place names in German speaking countries (like most place names Celtic- Germanic origin) generally consist of a base word (originally dating ), which usually preceded by a modifier is adequately qualified. This pattern has mainly been used since the later Migration Period and probably goes back to Roman models such as Castra Regina ('Kastell am Regen '> Regensburg ) (where the basic word is at the beginning). An older pattern is the formation of a determiner and a suffix (which also applies to most place names of Slavic origin).
- Since the basic words have often been blurred beyond recognition in the course of history (e.g. -heim to -em, -en, -um ), they are separated from suffixes e.g. Sometimes no longer distinguishable, so that in many cases only the oldest documentary evidence allows a reliable assignment.
Additional elements can be added to the names to distinguish between the same (or similar) place names in the vicinity. This can be a preceding addition such as mountain or forest or a subsequent addition such as at / am XY . Adjacent daughter settlements (or scheduled extensions of existing settlements) are usually by names additives such as new or small distinguished from the original settlement, the same function as additives meet -Neustadt etc. In most modern origin other nickname and additional indicators ( s u.. ); they are often only used in official traffic and ignored in the local colloquial language, for example Bad Münder am Deister .
Basic words describe the reason for naming a place or a settlement, for example the presence of buildings ( ‑hausen , -kirchen) or special geographical features ( -berg, -wald ). The basic words are also called endings because they are usually at the end of Germanic place names. However, this designation blurs the difference to the place name suffixes , which, in contrast to the basic words, have no independent meaning.
Place names basic words may also be available (simplex) and partly as determiners serve are thus combined.
- -ach , -a , Low German -aa, -ah: settlement on a watercourse, an Ache , Westphalia. Aa ( -ach can also go back to the Gallo-Roman suffix -acum in Rhenish place names ).
- -au , -aue , Niederdt. -oog (e), -ohe, -oie or Danish “-aa”: Settlements on islands or by the water (both as floodplain ), from Middle High German ouwa etc. ( -au often stands for older -a, -aa in Low German names, in formerly Slavic areas for -ow ). Examples of -oog: Langeoog , Minsener Oog , Norderoog , Schiermonnikoog , Spiekeroog , Süderoog , Wangerooge .
- -bach , Niederdt. -bek (en), -beck, -bke etc .: (settlement on a) watercourse.
- -berg , -bergen , Niederdt. -barg, -bargen: Settlement on a hill or on a mountain, e.g. B. Bamberg , Bergrath , Nothberg .
- -beuern, -beuren, -beuron, -birn , Niederdt. -büren, -bur (en) etc .: from old high German bur "small house" etc., central Netherlands. buur "apartment", cf. Farmer (bird cage) .
- -born , -bronn etc., fountain, source, z. B. Paderborn , Eschborn , Quickborn , also Heilbronn , Born , Brunn .
- -bruch , -broich , Niederdt. -brook, brock, -brauk means quarry or swamp landscape (see alder forests in Brandenburg ), z. B. Broich , Bärbroich , Grevenbroich "Bruchlandschaft der Grafen", Broichweiden , Korschenbroich .
- -bruck, -brück , Niederdt. -bruges often refer to a settlement with a water crossing , often (but not exclusively) a bridge. But it can also be derived from the Old Saxon “bruggi” mountain ridge.
- -bühl, -bühel, -bihl, -beuel , Bavarian -bichel, -pichl: settlement on or on a hill.
- -büll: home, settlement (corresponds to Danish -bøl from Old Norse bu 'living'), e.g. B. Niebüll .
- -burg , Niederdt., Swedish. and Danish. -borg: hill, fortified settlement, in early medieval names also: city (see below), e.g. B. Dahlenburg , Duisburg , Gothenburg , Hamburg , Regensburg .
- -büttel , derived from Old Saxon "(gi) butli" settlement; z. B. Brunsbüttel , Hamburg-Fuhlsbüttel , Oeschebüttel, Wolfenbüttel .
- -by from Danish, village, e.g. B. Barkelsby , Karby ; related to Old High German bur, Old Norse -bu, swedish -bo and norwegian. -bu - on the middle Elbe : place at the river bend , z. B. Barby .
- -damm : ending, in the Netherlands -dam , in Belgium also -damme , tracedbackto dam
- -donk : small hill in the lowlands (Lower Rhine and Dutch).
- -donn: settlement on a dune , e.g. B. Sankt Michaelisdonn .
- -dorf , -torf, -troff, -druf , Niederdt. -dorp, -dbody, -torp, -trop, -trup , dan. -torf, -torp, -trup , cf. engl. -thorp: (rural) settlement in general. During the German colonization of the formerly Slavic areas east of the Elbe (see Deutsche Ostsiedlung ), newly founded settlements were often named after the village chief. B. Hartmannsdorf (= village of Hartmann).
- -eck, -egg: actually corner, protruding hill, rock, often also in the name of castles, palaces, fortified structures.
- -feld, -felde: (originally) unwooded area, e.g. B. Bielefeld .
- -fels: a place on or on a rock, e.g. B. Fels am Wagram , especially a high medieval rock castle , z. B. Fiels .
- -fehn: from the Low German Fehn / Veen , Moor; here so-called bog colonies with canals in northwestern Lower Saxony (East Frisia and Oldenburgerland), z. B. Großefehn , Augustfehn.
- -fleth : Niederdt., to Mitteliederdt . vlēt , flowing water, e.g. B. Bahrenfleth , Beidenfleth , Borsfleth , Dammfleth , Elsfleth , Wewelsfleth .
- -furt, -furth, -fürth , Niederdt. -ford, -fort, -vörde etc .: settlement at a ford , e.g. B. Bremervörde , Erfurt , Frankfurt , Klagenfurt , Ochsenfurt , Schweinfurt , Steinfurt .
- -gast : east of the Elbe and Saale mostly from Slavic -goszcz , z. B. Wolgast .
- - court: (historical) place of jurisdiction (cf. for example free court or lentil court ; the latter meaning can also be traced back to a " linden court ")
- -gmund, -gmünd: at the mouth of a stream or river, e.g. B. Gmund , Georgensgmünd ; see. also -münde .
- -graben: settlement on an artificial watercourse.
- -groden, -grode: Low German for newly flooded land (especially on the sea side of the dike ).
- -hafen, -haven: port , e.g. B. Bremerhaven , Cuxhaven , Copenhagen (Danish: København), Wilhelmshaven .
- -hag (en) , -haag, -hain , -han, -hahn etc .: ahd. hagan , mhd. hagen means a protected area, for example with a wall and a thorn hedge / hornbeam hedge also for land hedge / landwehr / city guard / village guard / Castle weir / farm fortification in use.
- -hall: controversial (see Halle (Saale) #origin of the name ); perhaps derived from the Germanic word for salt .
- -hardt , -hard, -haard (t), -hart (h) etc .: "mountain forest", "wooded slope", e.g. B. Murrhardt , Spessart ("Spechtswald"), Rothaargebirge > cleared forest mountains .
- -hau: von Hauen ( clearing ).
- ‑Hausen , house for (residential) houses, or in the singular (modest) individual settlement. Likewise -husen, -huse, -sen, -huus from Old Norse hus house or husa to build houses with low. Settlement.
- -haven: see under -hafen .
- -heim (-en) , -ham, -am , Niederdt. -hem, -em, -um: settlement, place of residence (see home ), e.g. B. Ingelheim am Rhein , Pilsum .
- -hof or (originally dative plural form) -hofen, -hoven, -höfen: settlement laid out as a single courtyard or group of homesteads , e.g. B. Adelshofen , Hülshof , Schophoven .
- -holm: Low German, Danish, Swedish island or peninsula , e.g. B. Stapelholm , Stockholm .
- -holt : settlement on or in the wood (forest).
- -horn, -hörn: pointed piece of terrain, e.g. B. Nordhorn , Scharhörn .
- -horst (-host, -ost), -hurst: a slightly elevated point in a swamp, bog or a damp lowland.
- -hoven: see under -hof .
- -hude: wood storage area / stacking area at a water connection, ferry station, landing area, e.g. B. Buxtehude , Fischerhude , Flemhude , Harvestehude , Hude , Ritterhude , Steinhude , Winterhude , see also: Hude-Orte .
- -husen: see under -hausen .
- -inghausen (-iehausen, -kausen), -ingheim (-igheim, -ingem), -inghoven (-ikofen, -ikon / -iken), -ingerode (-igerode): combinations of the suffix -ing (en) and the respective place name base words, e.g. B. Bönnigheim , Lüdinghausen , Harlingerode , Wernigerode , Zollikofen , Zollikon .
- -kapell (s), -kappeln: a chapel , e.g. B. Westerkappeln .
- - kietz : formerly Slavic fishing settlement in the Mark Brandenburg and adjacent areas
- -kirch, -kirchen , Niederdt. -kark, -kerk (en): church location .
- -lar: from Old High German * hlār (i) "Hurdle, laths, scaffolding", e.g. B. Fritzlar , Goslar , Wetzlar , also as Simplex: Lahr / Black Forest .
- -leben (-lagen) (-lehen) , (Old Saxon-Thuringian, Bavarian): fiefdom , property lent by the landlord (e.g. Schönleben, Niederlehen), legacy, place left behind, e.g. B. Aschersleben , Eisleben , Gardelegen (corresponds to Danish -lev , Swedish -löv ).
- -leiten, -leithen: (settlement on) slope, mountain slope.
- -ley : (on) the rock.
- -loh , -lah, -loch, -loy: forest , grove, light wood, e.g. B. Wechloy .
- -mar: standing water, swampy headwaters , e.g. B. Geismar , Horstmar .
- -mund, -münde , Niederdt. -tired (n) , Dutch. -muid (e): at the mouth of a stream or river, e.g. B. IJmuiden , Müden , Peenemünde , Swinemünde ; see. also -gmünd .
- -münster: monastery (from Latin 'monasterium'), e.g. B. Kremsmünster .
- -oog (e): see under -au .
- -rod, -roda , -rodt, -rode , -raht, -rath, -rade, -rüti, -reut (h) , -reute, -ried, -ruit, -ray: from " clearing ", i.e. a settlement in the (former) forest, e.g. B. Bayreuth , Bergrath , Eurode , Hastenrath , Neuenrade , Reutte in Tirol, Röhe , Roetgen , Röthgen ; but not: Walsrode .
- -rotte: from rotting together , see hamlet
- -rest: a ruler's place of retreat, e.g. B. Karlsruhe , Wilhelmsruh .
- -salt, selt: probably olddt. salida, selida or old Saxon selitha , old English seld "house, apartment, home, accommodation".
- -scheid: from border, divorce, part of many field names
- - cut : customs cut, barrier, border, or from cutting (forestry, forest cutting, clearing).
- -schwand , -schwende , -swende: from Schwenden (a special kind of clearing of trees), z. B. Alberschwende , Wolpertswende .
- -siefen, -seifen , Niederdt. - siepen : Middle High German (or Middle Low German ) for narrow, damp brook valley, see Siepen .
- -siel: from " Siel ", a dike lock, z. B. Bensersiel , Greetsiel , Dornumersiel , Hooksiel , Horumersiel .
- -stade: Low German for shore, shore , naturally created landing area for smaller ships, e.g. B. Stade , Warstade , see also: Stade locations .
- -stadt, -statt, -stätt, -stetten , Niederdt. -städt, -stedt, -stede (n):, in northern Germany from old north. “Stada” in place names handed down from the Middle Ages (initially) only place, place (e.g. Eichstätt place, where many oaks grow ), it was not until the 12th century that the meaning of settlement with market rights developed for Middle High German stat , High German “-stadt” and self-administration (for that, formerly burg ); also often used in the 20th century when municipalities were amalgamated , e.g. B. Diemelstadt , Erftstadt .
- -stein: a place on or on a rock, e.g. B. Warstein , in particular to a castle, e.g. B. Aggstein , Bieberstein , Kufstein .
- -stift: a nunnery.
- -sund : a strait, e.g. B. Stralsund .
- -tal, -thal , Niederdt., Danish -dal: settlement in the valley; also often used in the 20th century when municipalities were amalgamated , e.g. B. Extertal , Lippetal , Nettetal , Niddatal , Schwalmtal , Wuppertal .
- -peat: from the Danish settlement in the bog where peat is cut, e.g. B. Rostorf, Nortorf, Gettorf .
- -trop, -trup: see under -dorf .
- -um: Frisian , Lower Saxony for -heim z. B. Beckum , Büsum , Husum , Keitum , Pogum , Rantum .
- -up: from Danish -torp , village, e.g. B. Hurup .
- -walchen: settlement of Romanesque (Welschen) origin.
- -wald, -walde , Niederdt., Danish. -wohld, -well, -wold etc .: settlement on or in the forest.
- -warden: settlement on a Wurt , z. B. Breddewarden, Eckwarden , Einswarden , Fedderwarden , Golzwarden, Hammelwarden, Langwarden , Sengwarden .
- -weg: located on the way, Baumschulenweg .
- -weide: located on or near a willow (where the tree or the green area can be meant), Niederschöneweide , Oberschöneweide .
- -weiler , -wei (h) er, -wil, -wy (h) l, -viller: a housing estate that consists of a few buildings (cf. Weiler ), from Romanesque villāre "homestead" and thus ultimately to Latin villa "Country house", z. B. Mönchweiler.
- -werder, -werth , Low German, Fries . -warder, -wort (h) , -ort , southern German -wört (h): peninsula or island-like hill in the lowlands (cf. Wurt ).
- -wied , -know: located on or near a meadow, z. B. Dürwiss .
- -wik , -wig: Old Norse trading center, Low German settlement (from Old Norse vík ), e.g. B. Schleswig .
- -winkel: something indefinite that can be described with the terms small, narrow, somewhere, far away, inferior , e.g. B. Vosswinkel in connection with an animal (here: Low German Voss for fox ), but also with reference to an angular terrain.
- - know: see under - instructed .
- -zell: refers to a monastery cell, e.g. B. Zell , Kirchzell .
Place name suffixes can take the place of basic words (especially in ancient place names) . Since they do not have a meaning of their own, they are even more exposed than the basic words to abrasion (and mutual adjustment). In addition, the German place names were originally dative forms (used as locative ) and therefore often end in -e ( singular ) or - (e) n ( plural ), e.g. B. -walde "im / am ... wald (e)", -hausen ( Old High German -husun, husum, -husin, -huson ) "at the ... houses" - these case suffixes are largely assimilated.
- -ach , -ich (-ig), -icht (-igt) , Upper German -at, -et, -it , Hessian -es, -is: collective suffix that forms tree names from tree names, e.g. B. Haslach ("Haselwald"), Birkig , Buchet, Meiches ( 1342 to the oak ).
- -ate , -te, -nit and -net: of Celtic origin, e.g. B. Adnet (Salzburg).
- -ede , -de , -da, -te, -ta, -t: collective suffix that forms settlement names based on local conditions, e.g. B. Eschede , Apolda ( place where apples grow / apple trees are cf. Latin arboretum “Baumgarten” for arbor “tree”), Ebnet / Ebnit / Ebnat (for Old High German ëbanôti “level”); but also nouns from verbs, e.g. B. joy to look forward , building to building .
- -ich , -ach in Rhenish place names: from Gallo-Romanic - (i) acum , z. B. Jülich , Andernach .
- -in (-en) (if the ending is stressed): Slavic, e.g. B. Berlin , Schwerin , Fehrbellin Weidenort .
- -ing , -ingen, -ung, -ungen , Frisian -ens : forms settlement names (actually residents ' names ) mainly from personal names (e.g. Villingen-Schwenningen, Süpplingen , Gauting , Esens , Grauingen ), but also from job titles (e.g. B. Wildungen with the people in the wilderness ).
- -itz , -itsch , -witz , - (sch) ütz : from Slavic -ic- or -ov-ic- , e.g. B. Rochlitz , Delitzsch , Doberschütz ( 1349 Doberschwicz for the Old Sorbian first name Dobrš ).
- -ow ( -au ) : from Slavic -ov , e.g. B. Malchow , Lüchow .
- -s (-z): genitive ending in elliptical place names; these only consist of a defining word (mostly a personal name) in the genitive; the basic word has been left out or has been omitted, e.g. B. in Sterbfritz from Starcfrides [Huson] (cf. family names such as Frings from Severins [son] ); Merkenfritz from [ze de] m Erkenfredis shows that these place names were originally dative forms .
They indicate certain geographical (mountain, valley, water) or geological (ore, hal, stone) conditions, refer to the natural environment (deer, hare, bird, oak, book -) or groups of people (Frank-, Sachsen-, Schiffer-, Graf-) or refer to buildings (Burg-, Kirch-, Mühl-) .
Founding designations : Neu- z. B. Neustadt , Alt (en) - / Old (en) - etc. (if not additional , see below)
- Persons (mostly donors ): King (s) -, Duke (s) -, Count (s) -, Schulz (en) -, Schult (s) -, industrialists (see Leverkusen ) etc .; Also personal names (mostly male first names, for example in the Bavarian -ing settlements)
- Coats of arms such as beaver, falcon, griffin, horn, lau, (lion)
- Legal status : Free, - city , z. B. Freistadt , also - market , -bad ( health resort ) and -stift (for the epithet see also below)
- Clearance names : Rod, Schlag, Sang, Brand , (G) schwend, -scheid or -ried, -reith, -reuth, -roth, -rath from ahd. Riuti = "make arable"
Flurnamen : Au, Bach, Oh, lake, mountain, field, forest, forest, heather, moss, Trath
- Soil type : stone, sand, rock, gravel, bog
- Economic characteristics, partly also as the founding name of a settlement for an existing property:
- Main or central building : church, castle, minster (church) or monastery, palace, palace, courtyard, house
- Trade : Mills, mills, mills or mineral resources or their processing: iron, ore, copper, gold, tin etc., salt deposits: hal, salt, Sa (a) l- , Sol- ( table salt , halogens )
- Fountain : -brunn , -quell , Pütz- z. B. Pützlohn ; So (o) the one for salty springs ( Bad Sooden-Allendorf , Bad Soden )
- Trading places : buying, market , Saturday , harbor, harbor
- Traffic routes : Straß, Weg, -bruck, -furt
- Borders : Mark- or Hof (as a demarcation), border , also enclosures such as Kamp, Gatter, Hag
- Cultivated land : meadow, field, alpine pasture, arable land or fallow land such as heather, Trath
- Ideology : temporary renaming such as Leningrad , Stalingrad or Karl-Marx-Stadt . As a re-establishment, Wolfsburg was named as the city of the KdF car near Fallersleben in 1938 under the Nazi regime .
- Location designations (if not additional , see below):
- Names of rivers : Oder, Rhine, Saar, Weser
- Exposure: stone, rock, corner, angle
- Qualities: beautiful (e), loud, dull , also sun, light (s), dark
Additions to names
They are differentiated from nearby places with the same name (upper / lower case, old / new, upper / upper / lower) and are usually placed in front of the other destination words. The distinction to the destination words is more functional than content, so that elements of the upper and lower lists z. T. can be exchanged, for example Markranstädt (next to Altranstädt ) and Oldenburg (without a nearby counterpart).
- There are distinctions after
- Age: Alt (en) -, Alde (n) -, Old (en) -, Ohlen-, Star- (Slavic "old"); New (en) -, Nau (en) -, no-, never (n) - (Nin-, nominal-), Nova- (Slavic "new")
- Size: Groß (en) -, Groß (en) -, Grot (en) -, Groot-, Michel (n) -, Mecklen-; Klein-, Lütz (el) -, Lütten-, Lütjen- (Lütgen-), Lixen-
- Height: Hoch-, Hohen-, Hogen-, Ober-, Over- (Aver-), Auf-, Up- (Op-); Nieder-, Neder- (Neer-), Unter-, Boiling- etc.
- Region: Hann. (Oversch) -, Neckar-, Swabian-, Hess. (Isch) -
- Direction: Nord (er) - (Noord-); Süd (er) - (Sund-, Sont-, Sud-, Sauer-); East (er) - / West (er) -; Back / front, inside / outside,
- Settlers: German (en) -; Bohemian-; Welsch (en) -, Wendisch- (Windisch-, few-)
The addition of small can also indicate a Slavic settlement next to a German settlement ( large ). This is explained by a translation chain with the Latin used in medieval documents : Few was used as the name for Wenden, this translated to Latin minor , which later came back into German as Klein . Along the German-Slavic settlement border of the early and high Middle Ages, there are places with small as well as the original little . Examples of this are Jena and Wenigenjena on the opposite bank of the Saale, Wenigensummer and Großensummer (today's Sömmerda ) or Wenigentaft and Großentaft in the Rhön. In between there are also places like Kleinbrembach and Großbrembach with the back-translated Klein- as a name addition.
Sankt , San, São, Saint, Sint, Santa, Sta., St.
- The official designation of such places usually contains either the written word (e.g. Sankt ) or the abbreviation (e.g. St. ). Colloquially and even in official correspondence and on place-name signs, the other, unofficial version is often used.
- Maria . Especially in the Catholic areas there are Marian shrines where the place name Maria is prefixed.
- Bad (health resort) , a functional designation
Last names and nicknames
A number of city names appeared and appear several times in the German-speaking area, for example Mühlhausen / Mülhausen or Rotenburg / Rothenburg . The city name Neustadt appears several dozen times. In order to be able to distinguish the cities from one another in a time without official country codes or postcodes, they were given toponyms as surnames, with which the additional names of rivers ( Marburg an der Drau ), islands ( castle on Fehmarn ), country names ( Münster in Westphalia ) , Mountains ( Neustadt am Rübenberge ) or landscapes ( Herzberg am Harz ) a distinction should be made possible.
In some countries, some cities have an additional officially used nickname in addition to their place name . (see also: List of cities and municipalities with names added in North Rhine-Westphalia )
- Federal capital for Berlin , Vienna , federal city for Bonn (FRG) and Bern ; 1870-1945 was Berlin the title of imperial capital , Vienna 1804-1918 entitled kk / imperial residence city
- State capital for the capital of a member state , e.g. B. Munich or St. Pölten
A distinction must be made between name additions to avoid misunderstandings (e.g. City of Haag , New York City ), officially used additions (as in Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg ) and surnames or nicknames that are only used for characterization with regard to tourism relevance and serve the "sound", thus the meaning or history of a place, as in:
- Bangkok - Venice of the East, because of the numerous waterways
- Bautzen - Saxon Nuremberg
- Beirut - Paris of the Middle East
- Berlin - Spree-Athens
- Byzantium - Second Rome or Rome of the East
- Chicago - The Windy City, Chi-City, Chi-Town
- Detroit - Motown, Motor City
- Dresden - Florence on the Elbe
- Edinburgh - Athens of the North
- Frankfurt am Main - Mainhattan or Bankfurt
- Graz - city of popular uprising ( National Socialism )
- Hamburg - high in the north or the light of the north
- Havana - pearl of the Caribbean
- Bad Honnef - Rhenish Nice
- Heringsdorf - Kaiserbad
- Husum - the gray city by the sea
- Istanbul , Skopje - The gateway to the Orient
- Kiev - mother of the Russian cities (capital of the Kievan Rus , the nucleus of today's Russia)
- Krakow - Slavic Rome
- Las Vegas - Sin City or The Entertainment Capital of the World
- Leipzig - Little Paris
- Linz - Stahlstadt , adopted under the name Steel City Rollers
- Mainz - Goldenes Mainz ( lat.Aurea Moguntia )
- Moscow - Third Rome
- Munich - The northernmost city in Italy (sometimes also used for Cologne ), describing a cosmopolitan city with a heart , a million-dollar village and, from the Nazi era, the capital of the movement
- Neubrandenburg - City of the Four Gates , formerly also Rothenburg of the North
- New York - Big Apple
- New Orleans - The Big Easy (or The Crescent City, The City That Care Forgot, NOLA )
- Neisse - Nysa - Silesian Athens
- Prague - Golden City (Zlatá Praha), city of a hundred spiers
- Paris - city of love, Paname, city of lights
- Ravenna - Byzantium of the West because of the many mosaics based on the Byzantine model
- Riga - Paris of the North (also of the East, see below)
- Rome - Eternal City and City of the Seven Hills
- Saigon - Paris of the East, pearl of the Far East
- Vilnius - Vilnius - Jerusalem of the North
- Wolfsburg - City of the KdF car (National Socialism)
- Worms - Little Jerusalem
Some surnames or nicknames are common for several cities:
- (Old) imperial city : Aachen (was the palace of Charlemagne ), Vienna (was the headquarters of the Roman-German emperors and the Austrian emperors ), Beijing (seat of the emperor of China ), Huế (residence of the emperors of Vietnam )
- Venice of the North : z. E.g .: Saint Petersburg , Stockholm , Hamburg , Bruges , Amsterdam , Emden , Arendal , Friedrichstadt , Stralsund , Edinburgh , Nikolaiken , Giethoorn , Papenburg
- Paris of the East : Budapest , Warsaw (until 1945), Riga , Bucharest , Irkutsk , Saint Petersburg and Saigon
- European city : z. B. Aachen , Brussels , Frankfurt am Main , Strasbourg
- Festival city for Bayreuth and Salzburg , the cities of classical festivals, recently also Baden-Baden , Bad Hersfeld , Willich , Wittenberge , Worms for marketing reasons
- City of Mozart : after the composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
- Trade fair city : with reference to high-ranking trade fairs (e.g. for Leipzig )
- … Rothenburg : Many places with a historical city center underline the (alleged) similarity with Rothenburg ob der Tauber (e.g. Westphalian Rothenburg ).
In addition, smaller towns are also adorned with sonorous epithets, which are usually derived from regional advantages, economic focuses or famous personalities, e.g. B. Barlachstadt Güstrow , fishing town Lassan , Handel town Halle , asparagus town Beelitz , Reuterstadt Stavenhagen , marzipan town Lübeck , Nibelungen town Worms , Eulenspiegel town Mölln , Volkswagen town Wolfsburg , Babenberger town Mödling , boot town Döbeln . The examples can be expanded at will, because hardly a place fails to emphasize its specialty. Also Kyritz falls on the Knatter under this heading, where a carnival song with a similar name alludes to this city.
Official place names
The formation or change of place names is the responsibility of the federal states with similar regulations. The change of a parish name is decided by the parish council. Official place names have to be approved by the respective state authorities (mostly interior ministries but also state middle authority as the supervisory authority).
Officially approved but also unapproved epithets and markings are, for example:
- Bad , regulated by law and then part of the official name. It is only awarded to spas if certain minimum requirements are met. The title can be granted and refused again. The city of Aachen renounces the legally entitled bathroom in the name, in order to keep its first place in alphabetical lists. In the name of the city of Baden-Baden , this title is interwoven so as not to be called (Bad) Baden in Baden .
- Hanseatic city , places for which a member of the Hanseatic League were
- University city , e.g. B. Tübingen , Göttingen or Heidelberg
- Federal city for Bonn , which was the federal capital from 1949 to 1990 and is still the seat of many federal institutions and parts of ministries
- Luther cities Eisleben , Wittenberg and Worms after Martin Luther
- Olympic city for former and current Olympic Games venues
- Science city for Straubing , Darmstadt , Fürth and Burghausen
- documenta city for Kassel , after the art exhibition
- Osnabrück , city of peace , after the Peace of Westphalia , which ended the Thirty Years War
- Sickingenstadt Landstuhl , based on the Sickinger family ( Franz von Sickingen )
- Theodor-Mommsen-Stadt for Garding
- National park town of Schwedt / Oder
For general geographical names, the place directory (OVZ) of the Austrian Central Statistical Office (STAT, formerly ÖSTAT), the Austrian map 1: 50,000 (ÖK50) and the database GEONAM of the Federal Office for Metrology and Surveying (BEV) are available. Their data are determined in the context of population censuses (STAT) and through inquiries with the municipalities (BEV).
Official place name
A distinction must be made between the place name of a municipality , the locality , a settlement (place in the general sense) and a cadastral municipality :
- the municipality name - as a regional authority and legal entity - is the responsibility of the local government itself, and is determined by the mayor in a local council resolution and must be confirmed by the respective state government . The definition of the community names also includes the spelling, which can be different for abbreviations (such as Sankt or St.) or changes in spelling reforms (ß or ss) can be essential. Municipalities have a five-digit municipality code (GKZ) in official statistics - there are around 2,100 municipalities.
- the name of the place - as a city planning region - is legally recorded by the official statistics of Statistics Austria (STAT), they have a five-digit locality code (OKZ) within the community code, - there are around 17,230 registered localities
- Settlement names in the true sense - a closed settlement area / local area , they can also Weiler / Stamp (up to ten houses), wastes (up to three dwellings) up to represent individual buildings - are of the database GEONAM detected
- the cadastral municipality is a subject of the land register or the real estate cadastre , in which it is irrevocably written. They have a five-digit cadastral community number (KGNR) and are kept by the land surveying office ( BEV ).
- City districts ( city districts , city districts ) are an urban planning element, the division of which is subject to the respective city administration: They can be completely different from the cadastral structures.
- In addition, there are two administrative divisions in Austria, those of the judicial districts and their districts, and the electoral district , which can lead to further deviating names of the locations.
Therefore, where the main town is registered as a locality and cadastral municipality in a municipality , the official names may differ:
- For example, in the municipality of Rußbach am Pass Gschütt, the only cadastral municipality is called Rußbach, the main town located there, Rußbachsaag . There is no such thing as a “place” called Russbach.
The cadastral parishes may be relocated in the case of incorporations and re- municipalities - of course not the localities: If cadastral parishes are divided in this process, they often keep the name and are then numbered in Roman :
- The two main places of the amalgamated municipality of Wals-Siezenheim near Salzburg are called Wals and Siezenheim , the local cadastral communities were not amalgamated and are called Wals I and Siezenheim I , the cadastral communities Wals II and Siezenheim II are the respective combined plots of land that were separated from the municipality, and now belong to the city of Salzburg .
When municipalities are amalgamated or incorporated, in most cases the original cadastral municipalities continue to exist, even in the larger cities: There, the element of the city quarter is added as an urban planning element: the city of Linz, for example, is divided into 13 cadastral municipalities, but 9 districts (all of them also named as KG) and 36 statistical districts . In Vienna , which is also subdivided into municipal districts - an administrative structure that only exists here - the names of the localities are even more complex.
In recent years, the community names, and increasingly also the places, have been changed so that they are unambiguous within Austria without exception, often (in analogy to traditional names such as Zell am See and Zell am Moos in the State of Salzburg) also beyond the national borders Addition of a characteristic epithet such as Neumarkt im Hausruckkreis (Upper Austria), Neumarkt in Steiermark , some also to distinguish it from places in other countries (mostly the German-speaking neighboring regions of South Tyrol, Eastern Switzerland, Bavaria).
As of 2018 there are only three cases with the same named municipalities (with municipality code ):
- 32315 Krumbach (Lower Austria) and 80221 Krumbach (Vorarlberg)
- 20624 Mühldorf (Carinthia) and 31330 Mühldorf (Lower Austria)
- 31843 Warth (Lower Austria) and 80239 Warth (Vorarlberg)
In addition, numerous municipalities have given themselves epithets that do not serve to delimit the place, but rather to define the landscape more closely, such as the Carinthian state capital Klagenfurt am Wörthersee , or the Attersee municipalities , which have all joined together on the Attersee , including the municipality of Attersee am Attersee .
The names of the cadastral communities (land register), as well as the labeling of the place-name signs (according to StVO , which refer to the locality term as local area) have in part not participated in this development, and the different legal references are also the cause of the Carinthian place- name sign dispute over the Slovenian name .
In the course of this , the municipality names were standardized on Sankt in some federal states , the cadastral and locality names may still be abbreviated to St. (e.g. municipality: Sankt Georgen bei Salzburg , KG: St. Georgen , Ortschaft: St. Georgen near Salzburg ).
The usages of the official use of the abbreviation vary according to the federal state: St. Christoph am Arlberg can only be found in the GEONAM database (and online at AMAP ), but only entered in the Tiroler Landesserver Tiris under Sankt Christoph am Arlberg (addresses: St. Christoph ).
The only officially bracketed municipality name in Austria is Sankt Josef (Weststeiermark) , otherwise one only finds linguistic forms (in, im, bei) .
Nicknames of places
In Austria , like Sankt , the addition Bad is part of the official name given by the respective state government. It is awarded to medicinal baths, thermal baths, climatic health resorts, etc. Aflenz Kurort is called as a community name, otherwise there is also the right to use recreation village as an additional name.
Occasionally there is a city as part of the name ( city of Haag ), or village ( Dorfgastein ). Vienna is called the federal capital , St. Pölten , the new capital of Lower Austria, expressly the state capital . As the city administration, Salzburg calls itself the city of Salzburg to differentiate itself from the state government of the federal state of the same name ( Land Salzburg ) . The statutory cities of Burgenland (an old city-law term) Eisenstadt and Rust have traditionally been known as Freistadt (not to be confused with Freistadt Upper Austria) since Hungarian times .
Regarding the spelling of the municipality names of Sankt it should be noted that in Austria this varies from federal state to federal state, whether the addition Sankt St. is used as the official spelling. This does not have to apply to place or settlement names.
Long and short place names
The longest place name has a New Zealand hill called Taumatawhakatangihangakoauauotamateaturipukakapikimaungahoronukupokaiwhenuakitanatahu (83 characters), outbid by officially understandably rarely used name of Bangkok, Bangkok Amon Rattanakosin Mahinthara Ayuthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom Udomratchaniwet Mahasathan Amon Piman Awatan Sathit Sakkathattiya Witsanukam Prasit (168 characters without spaces , 21 words). Europe's longest place name bears the Welsh village Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch (58 characters), which is twinned with the Dutch village of Ee and the French village of Y entered.
The longest name of a municipality in Germany is Hellschen-Heringsand-Unterschaar (32 letters), the longest municipality name in Germany in one word is Gschlachtenbretzingen (21), Michelbach an der Bilz-Gschlachtenbretzingen (40) is longer in connection with the name of the main town than any other place name in Germany. The names of districts are Schmedeswurtherwesterdeich (26), district of the municipality of Schmedeswurth in the district of Dithmarschen and Gotthelffriedrichsgrund (23), the name of a district of the municipality of Reinsberg in central Saxony .
The shortest place names:
One-letter place names are very rare:
- In France there is a village called Y .
- There are places called Å in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Denmark has another one-letter place name, Ø ("island").
- In the Caroline Islands there the place U .
- The Japanese city of Aioi ( 相 生 ) was also called Ō (in Japanese, however, there are two letters in both spelling and reading).
- In China there are a large number of place names that consist of only one character, the pinyin reading of many characters has only two letters.
- The name of place 6 in West Virginia, USA is officially written as the word Six .
Two-letter place names are less rare:
- Probably the most famous city in the world with only two letters is Ur in Mesopotamia.
- In the German-speaking area have two letters: Au (many), Ay , Ed (several), Ob , Öd (several) and Oy .
- In Switzerland you can find the places Gy and Lü .
- In Burkina Faso a city is called Pô .
- In Denmark there are the places Ho and Ry .
- In Estonia one of the villages is called Aa .
- The city of Ba can be found in the Republic of Fiji .
- In Finland there is the city of Ii .
- In France there are 15 municipalities with two letters: Ay , Bû , By , Eu , Fa , Gy , Oô , Oz , Py , Ri , Ry , Sy , Ur , Us and Uz .
- The cities of Ho and Wa are located in Ghana .
- In Ireland one city is called Ta .
- In Italy, four municipalities have a two-letter place name: Ne , Re , Ro and Vo .
- In Luxembourg there is the locality On (dt. Ahn ).
- In the Netherlands a village is called Ee .
- In Norway the municipalities of Bø (Nordland) and Bø (Telemark) as well as Hå are known .
- In Portugal there is the municipality of Pó .
- in Russia is the city of Ob .
- The city of Ae and the Oa peninsula are known in Scotland .
- In Sweden a place is called Ed .
- in Serbia , the municipality is Ub in the Kolubara District .
- The city of Bo is located in Sierra Leone .
- In Hungary there is the municipality of Bő .
- In the Turkish province of Trabzon , a city is called Of .
Common place names
The most common place names in the German-speaking world include Hausen , Neukirchen , Neustadt and Mühlhausen ; The most common place names in Austria include Berg , Hof , Bach , St. Georgen and St. Peter as well as Neusiedl .
Numbers as place names
- Italian place names
- List of lists of German-language names for non-German-speaking places
- List of Latin place names
- Rhenish place names
- UNGEGN (United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names)
- Dwelling name - the anthroponyms related to settlement names
- Local names (Switzerland)
- Building address
- Mailing address
- Onomatology, general: see literature for the article name research
- Toponymy, general: see literature for the article Toponomastik
- Place names in the entire German-speaking area
- Manfred Niemeyer (ed.): German book of place names. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 2012, ISBN 978-3-11-018908-7 .
- Place names in Germany
- Heinrich Wesche : Our Lower Saxony place names. o. O. 1957.
- Wolf-Armin von Reitzenstein : Lexicon of Bavarian place names. Beck, Munich 1986; revised new edition with subtitle origin and meaning; Oberbayern , Niederbayern , Oberpfalz Beck, Munich 2006, ISBN 978-3-406-55206-9 .
- Ernst Eichler , Hans Walther: City name book of the GDR. Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig 2nd edition 1988, ISBN 3-323-00007-2 .
- Place names in Austria
- Josef Breu: Geographical Name Book Austria. Verlag der ÖAW, Vienna 1975, ISBN 978-3-7001-0114-7 .
- Place names in Switzerland
- Lexicon of Swiss municipality names . Edited by the Center de Dialectologie at the University of Neuchâtel under Andres Kristol. Huber, Frauenfeld / Payot, Lausanne 2005, ISBN 3-7193-1308-5 .
- Thomas Franz Schneider: place and field names. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
- Paul Zinsli : place names. Structures and layers in the names of settlements and fields in German-speaking Switzerland. Huber, Frauenfeld 1971, 2nd edition 1975 (Writings of the German-Swiss Language Association 7).
- Place names in South Tyrol
- Egon Kühebacher : The place names of South Tyrol and their history , 3 volumes, Athesia, Bozen 1991–2000. ISBN 88-7014-634-0 (1: The historically grown names of the municipalities, fractions and hamlets ), ISBN 88-7014-827-0 (2: The historically grown names of the valleys, rivers, streams and lakes ) and ISBN 88 -8266-018-4 (3: The names of the mountain ranges, groups of peaks and individual peaks in South Tyrol. Complete index ).
- Short name studies and explanation of some place names from the home of the ancestors
- Swiss place name research
- Noms de lieux de Suisse romande, Savoie et environs
- Toponymic guidelines for map and other editors (PDF; 2.8 MB) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (Engl.)
- Place Name Etymology (English)
- A visualization of placename patterns
- Map of Germany 32/2017 "The shortest place names" by ZEITmagazin, August 5, 2017
- Etymological Dictionary of the German Language, Berlin 1967, p. 280 f.
- David Stifter: Hallstatt - In Iron Age Tradition? (PDF; 352 kB) . In: Interpreted Iron Ages. Case studies, methods, theory. Conference contributions from the 1st Linz Discussions on Interpretative Iron Age Archeology . Ed. Raimund Karl, Jutta Leskovar (= studies on the cultural history of Upper Austria 18), Linz: Upper Austrian State Museum 2005, pp. 229–240.
- Jürgen Udolph : onenological studies on the German problem. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1994 (Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde, supplementary volumes, volume 9), ISBN 3-11-014138-8 , pp. 460–472 (based on: books.google.de ); ndr.de , ndr.de ; Retrieved July 21, 2011.
- German book of place names. Edited by Manfred Niemeyer. De Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 2012, p. 352.
- Duden. The dictionary of origin. Etymology of the German language. Duden, Volume 7. 2nd edition 1989, keyword Gestade .
- Ernst Förstemann: The German place names . Nordhausen 1863, p. 224 (online here) .
- See for example Ulrich Hussong: Marburg “an der Lahn”. The nicknames of the city of Marburg, online
- Helmut Konrad, Andrea Strutz: Graz - "City of the popular uprising" . Retrieved August 25, 2018.
- Tour through the Westphalian Rothenburg . In: Westfälische Rundschau from May 4, 2008.
- ÖROK recommendation for the standardization of geographical names . Round-trip decision. Recommendation No. 46. May 15, 1998 ( pdf , oerok.gv.at [accessed on March 19, 2010]).
- Statistics Austria (ed.): Municipalities with localities and postcodes . (469 pages, statistik.at [PDF] updated versions, csv ). statistik.at ( Memento of the original from November 14, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- The official spelling is fixed or represented alphabetically in Styrian municipalities , on the website of the Styrian state government, accessed on April 16, 2017; on Statistics Austria: A look at the municipality and (no longer up-to-date) on the table of municipal structural reform Styria 2015
Sources: Guinness Book of Records . 1992.
Russell Ash: 1001 facts, numbers and records (original title: Factastic Book of 1001 Lists ). S. 89.
Lexicon of superlatives . Edition 2000, p. 98.
- The Guinness Book of Records therefore gave the title to the New Zealand location on the grounds that it was referred to by this name more often than Bangkok.
- also in the official version Pfaffenschlag bei Waidhofen adThaya (37 characters), and also without spaces (35), then follow St. Georgen bei Obernberg am Inn (as the second municipality also with six words) and St. Marienkirchen an der Polsenz (each 32 with spaces), Hohenwarth-Mühlbach am Manhartsberg would have 35, but is officially written Hohenwarth-Mühlbach aM (24).
- Feature Detail Report for: Six . US Geological Survey. June 27, 1980.
- and in Brittany the mythical city of Ys .