Place name

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bilingual place name sign for Aurich , high German and East Frisian flat
Bilingual place-name sign for Großwarasdorf / Veliki Borištof , German / Croatian
Bilingual place-name sign for Lubowitz / Łubowice , Polish / German
Bilingual place-name sign for Schweinsteg / Passo in South Tyrol, German / Italian

A place name , also a settlement name , technically oikonym ( ancient Greek οἶκος oíkos , house and anonymous ), is the name of a settlement . This can be a village or a town , a single farm (see house name ) or a wasteland , a group , a hamlet or a desert . The names of the settlements also include the names of the elements of the settlements, such as buildings and other infrastructure parts of the facility (oikodonyms, building names ) . A place without a settlement, on the other hand, is given a field name . With the study of place names, the addresses Toponomastik .

Origin of place names in the German-speaking area

The naming of a place, like all other names, helps people orientate themselves in their environment. Place names were necessary so that one or more properties could be clearly named or identified. Only in connection with the place names owned in the past could Lehnsrechte , court rights , Tenth , patronage , body characteristics , duties or other levies be allocated accurately.

The origin of the place names was always based on a naming motif. That was a characteristic that adhered to this particular place and that related to the first settler, founder (name), geographical or topographical conditions and peculiarities (such as water, river, ford , mountain, castle , church, monastery ) or possibly to mythological ones Reasons. Place names are mentioned in writing for the first time if their establishment is documented or if legal transactions associated with the place have been made and recorded in documents. However, documents are only incidental receipts. Most place names were therefore in use before they were first mentioned in writing.

Place names can have different origins:

  • Stately names: this type comes from the former possessions of noble or ecclesiastical landowners.
    • Particularly during the early medieval settlement expansion, places were named after the founder's clan who settled there. B. all ‑hausen , -heim , -hofen , -ing -, -weil / -wil names ("at the houses, the home, the courtyards, the people, the homestead of ...").
    • Church references in particular are often seen as an independent or integrated part of the place name. They mostly designate buildings ( parish, church, monastery, cell etc.), as these laid the foundation for the development of the village. Derivation of the name from the church patron of the place: Sankt .
    • According to a donor during the settlement, e.g. Karlstift , or religiously Pfaffenschlag , or as a dedication e.g. Theresienstadt (after the mother of the founder).
  • Naming a place after the inhabitants or their historical rule:
  • With reference to features of the (natural) environment - many place names are derived from field names or have an independently developed name:
    • The place name comes from a river that flows through the place, for example very often at the mouth, like Ybbs , but not at Fischamende like Fisch-am-Ende, but Fisch-Allmende, i.e. communal agricultural area on the Fischa.
    • To nearby mountains, forests, lakes: Nuremberg ("Felsberg" to dialectical Nörr, Nürn "Fels"), Finsterwalde , Westensee ("west of the lake").
    • After heaped plants or animals in the area, z. B. Eschede ("Eschenort"), Exten ("near the magpies", in Westphalian Eekster "Elster"). Compound names can also arise like Eichstätt , Moorenweis ("Moorwiese") or Biberach ("Biberwasser").
  • But there is also the emergence of a conversion from a foreign language of the original inhabitants, such as Cologne from Latin Colonia ("colony", "branch") or Leobersdorf from Slavic Ljubac . Older names of settlements from antiquity and the Middle Ages have often changed so much over time that today's place names can no longer be used to directly identify their original meaning and origin.
  • The simple derivation as an extension of an original name, such as Neu-Isenburg or Kleinochsenfurt . Often the subsidiary settlements are simply called Neudorf , Neustadt or Neusiedl , which can also be given an explanatory suffix, such as Wiener Neustadt . The same applies to places that name emigrants or displaced persons or resettlers after their hometown. An example for the first group is New Orleans , for the second Neugablonz , where many displaced persons from Gablonz in northern Bohemia settled together after the Second World War , for the third Neu-Lohn (see  Displaced City ).

Components of place names (in German-speaking countries)

Place names in German speaking countries (like most place names Celtic- Germanic origin) generally consist of a base word (originally dating ), which usually preceded by a modifier is adequately qualified. This pattern has mainly been used since the later Migration Period and probably goes back to Roman models such as Castra Regina ('Kastell am Regen '> Regensburg ) (where the basic word is at the beginning). An older pattern is the formation of a determiner and a suffix (which also applies to most place names of Slavic origin).

Since the basic words have often been blurred beyond recognition in the course of history (e.g. -heim to -em, -en, -um ), they are separated from suffixes e.g. Sometimes no longer distinguishable, so that in many cases only the oldest documentary evidence allows a reliable assignment.

Additional elements can be added to the names to distinguish between the same (or similar) place names in the vicinity. This can be a preceding addition such as mountain or forest or a subsequent addition such as at / am XY . Adjacent daughter settlements (or scheduled extensions of existing settlements) are usually by names additives such as new or small distinguished from the original settlement, the same function as additives meet -Neustadt etc. In most modern origin other nickname and additional indicators ( s u.. ); they are often only used in official traffic and ignored in the local colloquial language, for example Bad Münder am Deister .

Basic words

Basic words describe the reason for naming a place or a settlement, for example the presence of buildings ( ‑hausen , -kirchen) or special geographical features ( -berg, -wald ). The basic words are also called endings because they are usually at the end of Germanic place names. However, this designation blurs the difference to the place name suffixes , which, in contrast to the basic words, have no independent meaning.

Place names basic words may also be available (simplex) and partly as determiners serve are thus combined.

Examples are:


Place name suffixes can take the place of basic words (especially in ancient place names) . Since they do not have a meaning of their own, they are even more exposed than the basic words to abrasion (and mutual adjustment). In addition, the German place names were originally dative forms (used as locative ) and therefore often end in -e ( singular ) or - (e) n ( plural ), e.g. B. -walde "im / am ... wald (e)", -hausen ( Old High German -husun, husum, -husin, -huson ) "at the ... houses" - these case suffixes are largely assimilated.

  • -ach , -ich (-ig), -icht (-igt) , Upper German -at, -et, -it , Hessian -es, -is: collective suffix that forms tree names from tree names, e.g. B. Haslach ("Haselwald"), Birkig , Buchet, Meiches ( 1342 to the oak ).
  • -ate , -te, -nit and -net: of Celtic origin, e.g. B. Adnet (Salzburg).
  • -ede , -de , -da, -te, -ta, -t: collective suffix that forms settlement names based on local conditions, e.g. B. Eschede , Apolda ( place where apples grow / apple trees are cf. Latin arboretum “Baumgarten” for arbor “tree”), Ebnet / Ebnit / Ebnat (for Old High German ëbanôti “level”); but also nouns from verbs, e.g. B. joy to look forward , building to building .
  • -ich , -ach in Rhenish place names: from Gallo-Romanic - (i) acum , z. B. Jülich , Andernach .
  • -in (-en) (if the ending is stressed): Slavic, e.g. B. Berlin , Schwerin , Fehrbellin Weidenort .
  • -ing , -ingen, -ung, -ungen , Frisian -ens : forms settlement names (actually residents ' names ) mainly from personal names (e.g. Villingen-Schwenningen, Süpplingen , Gauting , Esens , Grauingen ), but also from job titles (e.g. B. Wildungen with the people in the wilderness ).
  • -itz , -itsch , -witz , - (sch) ütz : from Slavic -ic- or -ov-ic- , e.g. B. Rochlitz , Delitzsch , Doberschütz ( 1349 Doberschwicz for the Old Sorbian first name Dobrš ).
  • -ow ( -au ) : from Slavic -ov , e.g. B. Malchow , Lüchow .
  • -s (-z): genitive ending in elliptical place names; these only consist of a defining word (mostly a personal name) in the genitive; the basic word has been left out or has been omitted, e.g. B. in Sterbfritz from Starcfrides [Huson] (cf. family names such as Frings from Severins [son] ); Merkenfritz from [ze de] m Erkenfredis shows that these place names were originally dative forms .


They indicate certain geographical (mountain, valley, water) or geological (ore, hal, stone) conditions, refer to the natural environment (deer, hare, bird, oak, book -) or groups of people (Frank-, Sachsen-, Schiffer-, Graf-) or refer to buildings (Burg-, Kirch-, Mühl-) .


Additions to names

They are differentiated from nearby places with the same name (upper / lower case, old / new, upper / upper / lower) and are usually placed in front of the other destination words. The distinction to the destination words is more functional than content, so that elements of the upper and lower lists z. T. can be exchanged, for example Markranstädt (next to Altranstädt ) and Oldenburg (without a nearby counterpart).

There are distinctions after
  • Age: Alt (en) -, Alde (n) -, Old (en) -, Ohlen-, Star- (Slavic "old"); New (en) -, Nau (en) -, no-, never (n) - (Nin-, nominal-), Nova- (Slavic "new")
  • Size: Groß (en) -, Groß (en) -, Grot (en) -, Groot-, Michel (n) -, Mecklen-; Klein-, Lütz (el) -, Lütten-, Lütjen- (Lütgen-), Lixen-
  • Height: Hoch-, Hohen-, Hogen-, Ober-, Over- (Aver-), Auf-, Up- (Op-); Nieder-, Neder- (Neer-), Unter-, Boiling- etc.
  • Region: Hann. (Oversch) -, Neckar-, Swabian-, Hess. (Isch) -
  • Direction: Nord (er) - (Noord-); Süd (er) - (Sund-, Sont-, Sud-, Sauer-); East (er) - / West (er) -; Back / front, inside / outside,
  • Settlers: German (en) -; Bohemian-; Welsch (en) -, Wendisch- (Windisch-, few-)

The addition of small can also indicate a Slavic settlement next to a German settlement ( large ). This is explained by a translation chain with the Latin used in medieval documents : Few was used as the name for Wenden, this translated to Latin minor , which later came back into German as Klein . Along the German-Slavic settlement border of the early and high Middle Ages, there are places with small as well as the original little . Examples of this are Jena and Wenigenjena on the opposite bank of the Saale, Wenigensummer and Großensummer (today's Sömmerda ) or Wenigentaft and Großentaft in the Rhön. In between there are also places like Kleinbrembach and Großbrembach with the back-translated Klein- as a name addition.

Additional designations

  • Sankt , San, São, Saint, Sint, Santa, Sta., St.
    • The official designation of such places usually contains either the written word (e.g. Sankt ) or the abbreviation (e.g. St. ). Colloquially and even in official correspondence and on place-name signs, the other, unofficial version is often used.
  • Maria . Especially in the Catholic areas there are Marian shrines where the place name Maria is prefixed.
  • Bad (health resort) , a functional designation

Last names and nicknames

A number of city names appeared and appear several times in the German-speaking area, for example Mühlhausen / Mülhausen or Rotenburg / Rothenburg . The city name Neustadt appears several dozen times. In order to be able to distinguish the cities from one another in a time without official country codes or postcodes, they were given toponyms as surnames, with which the additional names of rivers ( Marburg an der Drau ), islands ( castle on Fehmarn ), country names ( Münster in Westphalia ) , Mountains ( Neustadt am Rübenberge ) or landscapes ( Herzberg am Harz ) a distinction should be made possible.

In some countries, some cities have an additional officially used nickname in addition to their place name . (see also: List of cities and municipalities with names added in North Rhine-Westphalia )

A distinction must be made between name additions to avoid misunderstandings (e.g. City of Haag , New York City ), officially used additions (as in Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg ) and surnames or nicknames that are only used for characterization with regard to tourism relevance and serve the "sound", thus the meaning or history of a place, as in:

Some surnames or nicknames are common for several cities:

In addition, smaller towns are also adorned with sonorous epithets, which are usually derived from regional advantages, economic focuses or famous personalities, e.g. B. Barlachstadt Güstrow , fishing town Lassan , Handel town Halle , asparagus town Beelitz , Reuterstadt Stavenhagen , marzipan town Lübeck , Nibelungen town Worms , Eulenspiegel town Mölln , Volkswagen town Wolfsburg , Babenberger town Mödling , boot town Döbeln . The examples can be expanded at will, because hardly a place fails to emphasize its specialty. Also Kyritz falls on the Knatter under this heading, where a carnival song with a similar name alludes to this city.

Official place names


The formation or change of place names is the responsibility of the federal states with similar regulations. The change of a parish name is decided by the parish council. Official place names have to be approved by the respective state authorities (mostly interior ministries but also state middle authority as the supervisory authority).

Name suffixes are permitted if they a. serve to differentiate as in Neustadt in Holstein , Neustadt an der Weinstrasse , Neustadt (Saxony) etc.

Some municipalities have abbreviations, slashes or brackets in their names such as Hann. Münden , Nienburg / Weser or Oldenburg (Oldb)

Officially approved but also unapproved epithets and markings are, for example:


For general geographical names, the place directory (OVZ) of the Austrian Central Statistical Office (STAT, formerly ÖSTAT), the Austrian map 1: 50,000 (ÖK50) and the database GEONAM of the Federal Office for Metrology and Surveying (BEV) are available. Their data are determined in the context of population censuses (STAT) and through inquiries with the municipalities (BEV).

Official place name

A distinction must be made between the place name of a municipality , the locality , a settlement (place in the general sense) and a cadastral municipality :

  • the municipality name - as a regional authority and legal entity - is the responsibility of the local government itself, and is determined by the mayor in a local council resolution and must be confirmed by the respective state government . The definition of the community names also includes the spelling, which can be different for abbreviations (such as Sankt or St.) or changes in spelling reforms (ß or ss) can be essential. Municipalities have a five-digit municipality code (GKZ) in official statistics - there are around 2,100 municipalities.
  • the name of the place - as a city planning region - is legally recorded by the official statistics of Statistics Austria (STAT), they have a five-digit locality code (OKZ) within the community code, - there are around 17,230 registered localities
  • Settlement names in the true sense - a closed settlement area / local area , they can also Weiler / Stamp (up to ten houses), wastes (up to three dwellings) up to represent individual buildings - are of the database GEONAM detected
  • the cadastral municipality is a subject of the land register or the real estate cadastre , in which it is irrevocably written. They have a five-digit cadastral community number (KGNR) and are kept by the land surveying office ( BEV ).
  • City districts ( city ​​districts , city ​​districts ) are an urban planning element, the division of which is subject to the respective city administration: They can be completely different from the cadastral structures.
  • In addition, there are two administrative divisions in Austria, those of the judicial districts and their districts, and the electoral district , which can lead to further deviating names of the locations.

Therefore, where the main town is registered as a locality and cadastral municipality in a municipality , the official names may differ:

  • For example, in the municipality of Rußbach am Pass Gschütt, the only cadastral municipality is called Rußbach, the main town located there, Rußbachsaag . There is no such thing as a “place” called Russbach.

The cadastral parishes may be relocated in the case of incorporations and re- municipalities - of course not the localities: If cadastral parishes are divided in this process, they often keep the name and are then numbered in Roman :

  • The two main places of the amalgamated municipality of Wals-Siezenheim near Salzburg are called Wals and Siezenheim , the local cadastral communities were not amalgamated and are called Wals I and Siezenheim I , the cadastral communities Wals II and Siezenheim II are the respective combined plots of land that were separated from the municipality, and now belong to the city of Salzburg .

When municipalities are amalgamated or incorporated, in most cases the original cadastral municipalities continue to exist, even in the larger cities: There, the element of the city ​​quarter is added as an urban planning element: the city of Linz, for example, is divided into 13  cadastral municipalities, but 9  districts (all of them also named as KG) and 36  statistical districts . In Vienna , which is also subdivided into municipal districts - an administrative structure that only exists here - the names of the localities are even more complex.

In recent years, the community names, and increasingly also the places, have been changed so that they are unambiguous within Austria without exception, often (in analogy to traditional names such as Zell am See and Zell am Moos in the State of Salzburg) also beyond the national borders Addition of a characteristic epithet such as Neumarkt im Hausruckkreis (Upper Austria), Neumarkt in Steiermark , some also to distinguish it from places in other countries (mostly the German-speaking neighboring regions of South Tyrol, Eastern Switzerland, Bavaria).
As of 2018 there are only three cases with the same named municipalities (with municipality code ):

In addition, numerous municipalities have given themselves epithets that do not serve to delimit the place, but rather to define the landscape more closely, such as the Carinthian state capital Klagenfurt am Wörthersee , or the Attersee municipalities , which have all joined together on the Attersee , including the municipality of Attersee am Attersee .

The names of the cadastral communities (land register), as well as the labeling of the place-name signs (according to StVO , which refer to the locality term as local area) have in part not participated in this development, and the different legal references are also the cause of the Carinthian place- name sign dispute over the Slovenian name .

In the course of this , the municipality names were standardized on Sankt in some federal states , the cadastral and locality names may still be abbreviated to St. (e.g. municipality: Sankt Georgen bei Salzburg , KG: St. Georgen , Ortschaft: St. Georgen near Salzburg ).

The usages of the official use of the abbreviation vary according to the federal state: St. Christoph am Arlberg can only be found in the GEONAM database (and online at AMAP ), but only entered in the Tiroler Landesserver Tiris under Sankt Christoph am Arlberg (addresses: St. Christoph ).

The only officially bracketed municipality name in Austria is Sankt Josef (Weststeiermark) , otherwise one only finds linguistic forms (in, im, bei) .

Nicknames of places

In Austria , like Sankt , the addition Bad is part of the official name given by the respective state government. It is awarded to medicinal baths, thermal baths, climatic health resorts, etc. Aflenz Kurort is called as a community name, otherwise there is also the right to use recreation village as an additional name.

Occasionally there is a city as part of the name ( city ​​of Haag ), or village ( Dorfgastein ). Vienna is called the federal capital , St. Pölten , the new capital of Lower Austria, expressly the state capital . As the city administration, Salzburg calls itself the city ​​of Salzburg to differentiate itself from the state government of the federal state of the same name ( Land Salzburg ) . The statutory cities of Burgenland (an old city-law term) Eisenstadt and Rust have traditionally been known as Freistadt (not to be confused with Freistadt Upper Austria) since Hungarian times .

Otherwise official city names are unusual, not least because of experiences during the Nazi era ( city ​​of the Nazi party rallies, etc.).

Regarding the spelling of the municipality names of Sankt it should be noted that in Austria this varies from federal state to federal state, whether the addition Sankt St. is used as the official spelling. This does not have to apply to place or settlement names.


Long and short place names

The longest place name has a New Zealand hill called Taumatawhakatangihangakoauauotamateaturipukakapikimaungahoronukupokaiwhenuakitanatahu (83 characters), outbid by officially understandably rarely used name of Bangkok, Bangkok Amon Rattanakosin Mahinthara Ayuthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom Udomratchaniwet Mahasathan Amon Piman Awatan Sathit Sakkathattiya Witsanukam Prasit (168 characters without spaces , 21 words). Europe's longest place name bears the Welsh village Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch (58 characters), which is twinned with the Dutch village of Ee and the French village of Y entered.

Pfaffenschlag near Waidhofen an der Thaya is Austria's longest municipality name with 40 characters (including the one with the most words) and Niederhelfenschwil  (18) is Switzerland's.

The longest name of a municipality in Germany is Hellschen-Heringsand-Unterschaar (32 letters), the longest municipality name in Germany in one word is Gschlachtenbretzingen (21), Michelbach an der Bilz-Gschlachtenbretzingen (40) is longer in connection with the name of the main town than any other place name in Germany. The names of districts are Schmedeswurtherwesterdeich (26), district of the municipality of Schmedeswurth in the district of Dithmarschen and Gotthelffriedrichsgrund (23), the name of a district of the municipality of Reinsberg in central Saxony .

The shortest place names:

  • One-letter place names are very rare:
    • In France there is a village called  Y .
    • There are places called  Å in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Denmark has another one-letter place name,  Ø ("island").
    • In the Caroline Islands there the place  U .
    • The Japanese city of Aioi  ( 相 生 ) was also called  Ō (in Japanese, however, there are two letters in both spelling and reading).
    • In China there are a large number of place names that consist of only one character, the pinyin reading of many characters has only two letters.
    • The name of place 6 in West Virginia, USA is officially written as the word Six .
  • Two-letter place names are less rare:
    • Probably the most famous city in the world with only two letters is Ur in Mesopotamia.
    • In the German-speaking area have two letters: Au (many), Ay , Ed (several), Ob , Öd (several) and Oy .
    • In Switzerland you can find the places Gy and .
    • In Burkina Faso a city is called .
    • In Denmark there are the places Ho and Ry .
    • In Estonia one of the villages is called Aa .
    • The city of Ba can be found in the Republic of Fiji .
    • In Finland there is the city of Ii .
    • In France there are 15 municipalities with two letters: Ay , , By , Eu , Fa , Gy , , Oz , Py , Ri , Ry , Sy , Ur , Us and Uz .
    • The cities of Ho and Wa are located in Ghana .
    • In Ireland one city is called Ta .
    • In Italy, four municipalities have a two-letter place name: Ne , Re , Ro and Vo .
    • In Luxembourg there is the locality On (dt. Ahn ).
    • In the Netherlands a village is called Ee .
    • In Norway the municipalities of Bø (Nordland) and Bø (Telemark) as well as Hå are known .
    • In Portugal there is the municipality of .
    • in Russia is the city of Ob .
    • The city of Ae and the Oa peninsula are known in Scotland .
    • In Sweden a place is called Ed .
    • in Serbia , the municipality is Ub in the Kolubara District .
    • The city of Bo is located in Sierra Leone .
    • In Hungary there is the municipality of .
    • In the Turkish province of Trabzon , a city is called Of .

A curiosity for German speakers are place names that do not contain vowels, e.g. B. Krk (it must be remembered that the sound r in Slavonic is syllable, one speaks “ kr̩k ”).

Common place names

The most common place names in the German-speaking world include Hausen , Neukirchen , Neustadt and Mühlhausen ; The most common place names in Austria include Berg , Hof , Bach , St. Georgen and St. Peter as well as Neusiedl .

In the US, the name comes Franklin at the front frequently .

Numbers as place names

See also


  • Onomatology, general: see literature for the article name research
  • Toponymy, general: see literature for the article Toponomastik
Place names in the entire German-speaking area
  • Manfred Niemeyer (ed.): German book of place names. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 2012, ISBN 978-3-11-018908-7 .
Place names in Germany
Place names in Austria
Place names in Switzerland
Place names in South Tyrol
  • Egon Kühebacher : The place names of South Tyrol and their history , 3 volumes, Athesia, Bozen 1991–2000. ISBN 88-7014-634-0 (1: The historically grown names of the municipalities, fractions and hamlets ), ISBN 88-7014-827-0 (2: The historically grown names of the valleys, rivers, streams and lakes ) and ISBN 88 -8266-018-4 (3: The names of the mountain ranges, groups of peaks and individual peaks in South Tyrol. Complete index ).

Web links

Wiktionary: place name  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Etymological Dictionary of the German Language, Berlin 1967, p. 280 f.
  2. David Stifter: Hallstatt - In Iron Age Tradition? (PDF; 352 kB) . In: Interpreted Iron Ages. Case studies, methods, theory. Conference contributions from the 1st Linz Discussions on Interpretative Iron Age Archeology . Ed. Raimund Karl, Jutta Leskovar (= studies on the cultural history of Upper Austria 18), Linz: Upper Austrian State Museum 2005, pp. 229–240.
  3. Jürgen Udolph : onenological studies on the German problem. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1994 (Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde, supplementary volumes, volume 9), ISBN 3-11-014138-8 , pp. 460–472 (based on: ); , ; Retrieved July 21, 2011.
  4. ^ German book of place names. Edited by Manfred Niemeyer. De Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 2012, p. 352.
  5. Duden. The dictionary of origin. Etymology of the German language. Duden, Volume 7. 2nd edition 1989, keyword Gestade .
  6. ^ Ernst Förstemann: The German place names . Nordhausen 1863, p. 224 (online here) .
  7. See for example Ulrich Hussong: Marburg “an der Lahn”. The nicknames of the city of Marburg, online
  8. Helmut Konrad, Andrea Strutz: Graz - "City of the popular uprising" . Retrieved August 25, 2018.
  9. Tour through the Westphalian Rothenburg . In: Westfälische Rundschau from May 4, 2008.
  10. ÖROK recommendation for the standardization of geographical names . Round-trip decision. Recommendation No. 46. May 15, 1998 ( pdf , [accessed on March 19, 2010]).
  11. ^ Statistics Austria (ed.): Municipalities with localities and postcodes . (469 pages, [PDF] updated versions, csv ). ( Memento of the original from November 14, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  12. The official spelling is fixed or represented alphabetically in Styrian municipalities , on the website of the Styrian state government, accessed on April 16, 2017; on Statistics Austria: A look at the municipality and (no longer up-to-date) on the table of municipal structural reform Styria 2015
  13. a b Sources: Guinness Book of Records . 1992.
    Russell Ash: 1001 facts, numbers and records (original title: Factastic Book of 1001 Lists ). S. 89.
    Lexicon of superlatives . Edition 2000, p. 98.
  14. The Guinness Book of Records therefore gave the title to the New Zealand location on the grounds that it was referred to by this name more often than Bangkok.
  15. also in the official version Pfaffenschlag bei Waidhofen adThaya (37 characters), and also without spaces (35), then follow St. Georgen bei Obernberg am Inn (as the second municipality also with six words) and St. Marienkirchen an der Polsenz (each 32 with spaces), Hohenwarth-Mühlbach am Manhartsberg would have 35, but is officially written Hohenwarth-Mühlbach aM (24).
  16. Feature Detail Report for: Six . US Geological Survey. June 27, 1980.
  17. and in Brittany the mythical city of Ys .