|coat of arms||Germany map|
Coordinates: 54 ° 8 ' N , 8 ° 52' E
|Height :||7 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||8.48 km 2|
|Residents:||4907 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||579 inhabitants per km 2|
|Area code :||04834|
|License plate :||HEI, MED|
|Community key :||01 0 51 013|
|LOCODE :||DE BUM|
|Office administration address:||Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz
|Mayor :||Hans-Jürgen Lütje (independent)|
|Location of the municipality of Büsum in the Dithmarschen district|
Büsum ( Low German Büsen ) is a municipality in the Dithmarschen district in Schleswig-Holstein . The port is located directly on the North Sea , has been a seaside resort since the 19th century and the third largest tourist destination on the Schleswig-Holstein North Sea coast after Sankt Peter-Ording and Westerland .
Originally an island with several villages, Büsum has been connected to the mainland since 1585. Above all tourism characterizes the community, the excursion and fishing port characterizes the townscape; the Büsum crabs landed there are also known nationwide.
The place is on the North Sea , on the Meldorfer Bucht , near the Eider estuary in the Dithmarscher Marsch , about 100 kilometers northwest of Hamburg. The port is connected to the open sea by the Piep ocean current , which runs through the Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park . The Büsum port is protected against the risk of storm tides by a barrage that is closed when the water level is one meter above sea level .
Neighboring communities are the communities of Westerdeichstrich and Büsumer Deichhausen (both in the Dithmarschen district), starting clockwise in the north .
Storm surges and land reclamation
From the first mention in 1140 until the construction of the Hafen Koog in 1940, the townscape of Büsum has changed steadily. Land reclamation , dike and dike construction contributed to the expansion of the community towards the north and connected the former island with the mainland, storm surges repeatedly caused devastation and land loss - the larger southern part of the island has now sunk into the sea.
Probably the island was Bisvne from the places Middlestorpe , Norddorp (today Büsum), Dick Husen ( Büsum ) and Werven . The assumption that there was also a Süderdorp is already shared by Neocorus , but has not yet been archaeologically confirmed. Large parts of the island itself as well as nearby sands were probably destroyed by various storm surges in the 14th and 15th centuries, which are not further documented. While Middlestorp is said to have been destroyed by the Hamburgers in 1482, a leave book from 1496 no longer knows the place.
Especially up to the construction of the Wardam in 1585, which connected Büsum with the mainland, the island was the victim of numerous storm surges in which the entire southern part of the island was lost. During the All Saints Flood in 1532 , the salty sea water even reached the church, but above all the flooding of the fields had serious consequences. The famine and disease that followed resulted in 360 deaths. The All Saints Flood in 1570 also caused severe damage, at the latest by that time Middlestorp disappeared into the sea for good. There were no longer any plans to resettle. In 1573 the dike was damaged and the dune island of Tötel in front of Büsum disappeared completely in the North Sea.
The Burchardi flood caused severe damage in 1634, tearing 32 Wehlen into the dike and killing 168 Büsumers. Werven sank into the sea during the Christmas flood in 1717 . Traces of the location were only rediscovered when the Speichererkoog was created in 1978. The last storm surge to wash over the dike was the February flood of 1825 . During the storm surge in 1962 , a dike breach could only just be prevented.
Originally only protected by dunes , the Büsum people began to build Wurten in the Middle Ages . Both the actual Dorfwurt ( Osterwarft ) and the Westerwarft both date from the 12th century. In their long rectangular shape and their design, they resemble the village sausages from Büsumer Deichhausen , Schülp or Manslagt .
While the storm surges eroded the island in the south on the sea side, the Dithmarschers tried to enlarge it in the north, facing the land. Around 1450, two crescent-shaped crags followed in the north, on the area of which today, among other things, Oesterdeichstrich lies, and in 1577 the Grovenkoog to the northwest, on which Westerdeichstrich is located.
After the lost last feud in 1559, Büsum came to the Dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf , who started building a dam through the great tidal creek between the island and the mainland, the Wardstrom, from 1583 . Favored by the sediments that were now being deposited on both sides of the dam, Duke Johann Adolf had the eastern and 1609 Wardammkoog dyed. Another Koog followed in 1696 , the Hedwigenkoog . The Friedrichsgabekoog of 1714 finally connected the peninsula with the Wöhrden coast. Dikes at Büsum were then only carried out to relocate the port, enlarge it and make it more accessible. The last major expansion of the port was carried out in 1952.
The first documentary mention of the place can be found in a document of the Bremen-Hamburg bishop Adalbero of Bremen , in which he mentioned the place Bisvne in a list of parishes in 1140 . The name at that time indicates the rushes that probably grew in the dune area in the middle of the island. Formally there is a dative plural , so the place name means "near the rushes". Other older testimonies are bisune, Büsen, Bosen and Butzen .
The current place Büsum with the St. Clemens Church is built on a long rectangular wurt of the Middle Ages. Büsum was originally an island , the south side of which was partially eroded over the centuries by storm surges ( 1362 , 1436 and 1570), while it enlarged in the north due to land growth. With the construction of a dike , Büsum was merged with the Dithmarscher Nordermarsch in the 16th century (Wardamm, Wardammkoog).
Büsum has been closely associated with tourism since the 19th century and has been significantly influenced by it since the 20th century. The first pioneer in this regard was Kirchspiel vogt Claus Bruer, who - probably inspired by similar plans in Tönning - put the first bathing carts on the beach after 1818 . Presumably due to the lack of infrastructure and the difficult accessibility of the place, the plan failed. These cautious beginnings were destroyed by the February flood of 1825 , which hit Büsum particularly hard.
Paul Johann Boysen, parish bailiff from 1828 and bailiff from 1838 to 1852, drove the development forward. The innkeeper Heinrichs opened his first restaurant . In 1836 Boysen had the storm and flood-prone bathing carts replaced by permanent bathing houses. The community has been calling itself the North Sea resort since 1837 .
The boom as a seaside resort and the dominant position that tourism should exercise on the place began to develop at the end of the 19th century, when the transport links to the mainland improved. In 1872 the road to Heide via Wöhrden was paved with clinker and in 1883 the railway line from Heide was built . The citizens and the community reacted in 1889 when a community of 32 citizens bought the bathing facilities from the "Hotel Stadt Hamburg". The first brochure for the town appeared in 1890, and the first advertising poster in 1891. The community has been in charge of the bathing business since 1896 and began to levy a tourist tax that year . At the end of the 19th century 300 guests resulted in 8500 overnight stays.
While men and women bathed separately until 1902, Propst Heesch, inspired by positive experiences on Helgoland and Sylt , suggested introducing a mixed-sex family bath in Büsum as well. As early as 1903, the community was able to build the first eight changing rooms for women on the future family beach. “In order to maintain decency and morals”, she issued regulations that forbade photography as well as visits to the family beach by individuals. Ladies and gentlemen had to wear high-necked suits made of impermeable material "that did not stick to the body when wet".
In 1904 the community had a sandy beach filled up to complement the previous meadow beach . Both family and sandy beaches were successful; because as early as 1911, 6,000 guests came, who then occupied 2083 guest beds. After the First World War, the municipality added excursions to the island of Helgoland .
On April 1, 1934, the parish county of Büsum was dissolved. All of their villages, village communities and farmers became independent communities / rural communities, including their main town, Büsum.
A group of SA and SS men under the leadership of Karl Herwig occupied the town hall in Büsum with loaded carbines on March 13, 1933 and relieved the German national Büsum mayor Otto Johannsen from his office. On March 7, 1933, Johannsen refused to hand over the black, red and gold flag to SA men. From March 15, 1933, the NSDAP member Emil Meier acted as acting head of office .
After 1933 the Nazi organization Kraft durch Freude also sent vacationers to Büsum, so that in 1937, for example, 5649 spa guests and 6391 Kraft-durch-Freude guests stayed in Büsum. In 1950 the number of spa guests was 3857, which provided 33,991 overnight stays. By 1953 the number had risen to 7097 spa guests. At the end of the 20th century, around 160,000 guests provided 1.6 million overnight stays each year.
After Dithmarschen had been a stronghold of the National Socialists before 1933 and the NSDAP had received 60% of the votes in the Reichstag elections in 1932, Büsum (and the neighboring Wesselburen ) came into the focus of the nationwide public in 1965. Both cities refused for a long time to rename a street named after Adolf Bartels , the Dithmarsch cultural politician . In addition, three teachers were suspended at the Büsum North Sea High School. Among other things, they claimed that “the Americans only installed the gas stoves in the concentration camps after the war was over, so that they could blame the Germans for the extermination of the Jews ”, encouraged schoolchildren to play an “Auschwitz game” or forbidden schoolchildren to be positive to speak about Israel or Anne Frank .
These processes obviously did not harm tourism. For a long time Büsum was the only North Sea holiday resort south of St. Peter-Ording in Schleswig-Holstein. The dominance of the place only limited camping vans that were also set up in the surrounding area and relied on a less demanding infrastructure. Tourism was also reflected in urban planning. Nowadays, holiday apartments shape the appearance of the town, and the port facilities have changed their appearance significantly with large buildings such as the Kurmittelhaus, the spa guest house and the swimming pool. A single high-rise built in 1972 is clearly visible in the wide, flat surrounding area.
Of the 18 seats in the municipal council, since the municipal elections on May 6, 2018, the CDU has seven seats, the SPD five, the FDP two and the Voting Association FWB four. The turnout was 51.2%.
coat of arms
Blazon : “In silver the red Büsum lighthouse, in the middle silver, below the lantern surrounded by two galleries; to the left of it is a blue Büsum shrimp boat with no sails and no nets, partially covering the base of the lighthouse with the stern, moving to the left. "
- Kühlungsborn , Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania
- Camaret-sur-Mer , France (since 1966)
Economy and Infrastructure
The community is a seaside resort and the most important center of tourism in the Dithmarschen district . Including visitors, it is the largest place in the district in the summer months. In 2002 Büsum businesses offered 6,846 guest beds, which were used by 83,295 guests for a total of 658,723 overnight stays. After Sankt Peter-Ording , Westerland on Sylt and the Baltic Sea resorts of Grömitz and Timmendorfer Strand , Büsum ranks fifth in the number of overnight stays in Schleswig-Holstein. 99.5% of the guests came from Germany; 480 came from abroad.
The shrimp fishing is a defining feature of the town, albeit with decreasing economic importance . This developed in Büsum at the end of the 19th century, when it became possible to cool the perishable animals and transport them quickly inland. The Büsum fishing company was founded in 1898. The number of shrimp fishermen in Büsum has fallen: While 136 cutters were registered at the height of 1948, the numbers fell to 75 ships by 1973, in 1998 there were 34 and in 2008 it was still 20. Many boats in the harbor are coming meanwhile from Friedrichskoog or the Netherlands , whereby the Büsum people accuse the Dutch of being very lax with the European fisheries directives. After an increase, the yields decline again until 2005, so the catch of crabs on the west coast of Schleswig-Holstein fell in 2007 to 5.9 million tons compared to 7.1 million tons in 2006 and 7.8 million tons in 2005, thus following one long-term decline.
The largest buyers at the Büsum port are two Dutch companies , too : Heiploeg , which also bought the former Büsum fishing cooperative, and Klaas Puul . The two companies now control up to ninety percent of the crab market; That is why there have been dramatic price changes time and again in recent years. Smaller companies are Gustav Rentel and Krabben-Kock in Büsum and Stührk-Delikatessen in Marne . For a long time, shrimp pounding was a profitable extra income, especially for housewives in Büsum, but this picture has changed since the 1960s. Büsum crabs come to Morocco or Eastern Europe either by truck (Klaas Puul company) or ship (Heiploeg) , where they are peeled and then brought back to the German market. After the initial problems were overcome, there are now two shrimp peeling machines right in Büsum.
In order to support the shrimp fishing in particular, the state government decided to promote the expansion of the state port. On January 30, 2012, the first pile-driving was carried out to expand the embankment of the port basin IV into a new quay for eight new cutter berths. Approx. 3.1 million euros were invested in 2012/2013 for the approx. 225 m long system, the dredging of the harbor basin to the required 5.5 m water depth and other land-side adjustments. The expansion was funded by the European Fisheries Fund (EDF). In 2011, goods handled in the Büsum port amounted to around 140,000 tons.
Road, rail and air
The place can be reached via the federal highway 23 and then the federal highway 203 , which ends here.
Büsum is the end point of the Büsum – Heide - Neumünster railway line . The regional trains of Nordbahn Eisenbahngesellschaft mbH & Co. KG (NBE) run every hour during the day on the route from Büsum to Heide and every two hours on to Neumünster at the Schleswig-Holstein tariff , which is also used for regional buses .
The Heide-Büsum airfield is located in the neighboring municipality of Oesterdeichstrich .
Büsum can be reached by bike via the European EuroVelo route North Sea Coast Cycle Route (leads via Hamburg and Bremen, among others).
After Brunsbüttel, Büsum has the largest port on the Schleswig-Holstein North Sea coast. The tidal stream Piep (Norderpiep in the direction of the Eider and North Friesland, Süderpiep in the direction of Helgoland and the mouth of the Elbe) makes it possible to travel through the Wadden Sea into the open North Sea. In normal weather, ships with a draft of up to two meters can dock at low tide .
There are mainly excursion boats that go to Heligoland and shrimp cutters . The Büsum fishing license plate is “SC”, but not only Büsum cutters are in the harbor, but also cutters from Friedrichskoog and increasingly larger vessels from the Netherlands , depending on the fishing situation . In June 2008, for example, in addition to the 25 cutters from Büsum, there were 50 from the rest of Germany and 50 from the Netherlands in the port. In 2014, around 35 to 40 fishing cutters drove from Büsum.
The Heligoland ships sail in the summer months.
The marina offers around 100 berths; 80 of these are normally occupied by members of the Büsum sailing club, which also manages the mooring facility.
The rescue cruiser Theodor Storm of the German Society for the Rescue of Shipwrecked People is stationed in Büsum .
The port is also home to the Schleswig-Holstein ship of the German customs and several buoy layers from the Federal Waterways and Shipping Office in Tönning .
In 2018, more than 173,000 tons were handled in the Büsum port . In passenger shipping, 156,000 passengers were transported from Büsum on round trips and to Heligoland.
Büsumer Hafen is a member of the port cooperation Offshore-Häfen Nordsee SH .
Büsum lighthouse from 1912/1913
Since the local elections in 2008, the Amt Kirchspielslandgemeinde Büsum, Stadt Wesselburen and Amt Kirchspielslandgemeinde Wesselburen have merged to form the new Amt Büsum-Wesselburen, the administration is divided between the two places.
Büsum is taking an innovative approach to prevent resident doctors from giving up their practices for reasons of age and residents and guests from being unable to be treated on site: The medical center is enlarged and a subsidiary of the municipal administration hires doctors (also with part-time contracts).
Schools and education
- School by the sea (European School, National Park School, Fairtrade School), Otto-Johannsen-Straße, elementary and community school with upper secondary school (578 students in 28 classes.)
- Volkshochschule Büsum, Seeschwalbenweg
- Evangelical Lutheran St. Clemens, Kirchenstrasse
- Roman Catholic Filial church St. Andreas, An der Mühle
- New Apostolic Church Büsum, Swatten Weg
Culture and sights
to eat and drink
The egg grog is said to have been invented in the Hotel Zur Post , the most important hotel in Büsum's early days . Culinary, however, Büsum cuisine is shaped by the fishing port, so that fish and shrimp dishes are particularly popular here. Büsum crabs are known far beyond Büsum, a Büsum type of plaice is a plaice covered with North Sea crab meat.
The list of cultural monuments in Büsum includes the cultural monuments entered in the list of monuments of Schleswig-Holstein.
To the west of Alleestraße is the listed town hall of Büsum , which was built in 1914 and 1915 according to plans by Carl Mannhardt in the neo-baroque style. Behind the town hall is the Evangelical Lutheran St. Clemens Church from the 15th century with a rich interior. The tallest and therefore highly visible and striking, but still controversial building, is the Büsum skyscraper , which towers over all other buildings in the village, such as the Büsum lighthouse , many times over. The actual townscape is characterized by apartment houses from the second half of the 20th century, mostly with one or two floors.
The community runs several museums and organizes numerous exhibitions. In addition to the artificially washed up sandy beach , Büsum has a newly built sea water wave pool Piratenmeer , the museum harbor Büsum and the museum by the sea , which is primarily dedicated to the sea and its use by people. In 2006 the storm surge world "Blanker Hans" was built at the port . This cost 7.5 million euros and told, among other things, the story of the storm surge in 1962 . However, it has been closed since November 2015 for financial reasons. A Science Center has been operating in this building since June 2017 .
For some years now, part of the port basin 1 has been designated as the museum port of Büsum . The most important exhibit is the Rickmer Bock motor lifeboat , which was stationed in Büsum for the DGzRS from 1961 to 1981 . The former fishing cutter Fahrewohl has also been there since the beginning of 2008 . The ship, built in 1912 in Wewelsfleth for the Büsum skipper GG Johannsen, is the oldest still operable Büsum shrimp cutter . The cutter was in Büsum from 1912 to 1921, where it got its first engine in 1915. Then he came to Kaiser-Wilhelm-Koog , where he ran on the dike in a heavy storm that same year, almost the entire fleet of the owner was destroyed in the same storm. In 1923 the ship came to Cuxhaven , in 1929 back to Dithmarschen with the home port Friedrichskoog , where it served as a fishing cutter until 1976. It then belonged to several owners, including the director of the Museum of Hamburg History, before the Museum Harbor Association Büsum acquired it at the end of 2007.
There are two beacons in Büsum. The red and white lighthouse was built as an orientation light in 1912/1913, is 22 meters high and has a nominal range of 17/12 nautical miles . The pier light consists of two towers, each ten meters high, in green and red. They have a nominal range of four nautical miles. Since 2007 there has been a replica of the first beacon from the 19th century at the museum harbor.
sport and freetime
In Büsum there are beaches with and without a dog ban. In the district of Stinteck, nude bathing ( nudist beach ) is expressly allowed. On Büsum's main beach there is the Piraten Meer adventure pool with a wave pool and the Perlebucht lido . In the village there is also an outdoor go-kart track, a Nordic walking course, a museum and several campsites.
During the summer months, the tourism service and independent organizers offer a wide range of mudflat walks , gymnastics and bike tours. A specialty in Büsum is the mudflat run with music , where the spa band accompanies the mudflat hikers . The custom goes back to 1900, and was largely promoted by the Hamburg spa guest Rehder, who also walked as President of the Wadden on the first hikes .
The district of Dithmarschen and the nearby Eiderstedt offer numerous other leisure opportunities.
- Andreas Brus († 1532), vicar in Büsum, pilgrim to Rome, song poet
- Theodor Heinrich Behrens (1842–1905), chemist
- Martin Bahr (1889–1967), hydraulic engineer, honorary citizen of the community
- Bernd Dörfel (* 1944), former national soccer player, born in Büsum
- Bernd Epler (* 1949), former middle-distance runner
- Association for Dithmarscher regional studies (VDL) (Hrsg.): Dithmarschen - regional studies - culture - nature. Issue 2/2008 “Büsum”; Heath 2008.
- Martin Gietzelt: History of Dithmarschens. Boyens & Co., Heide 2000, ISBN 3-8042-0859-2 .
- Kurt Schulte: Büsum: From the island to the North Sea spa. Boyens & Co., Heide 1989, ISBN 3-8042-0476-7 .
- ↑ North Statistics Office - Population of the municipalities in Schleswig-Holstein 4th quarter 2019 (XLSX file) (update based on the 2011 census) ( help on this ).
- ↑ a b c BSV Büsum: "The Büsumer Yachthafen".
- ↑ a b c Dirk Meier: Ol Büsum liggt in wille Haff ... , in VDL 2008, pp. 2–9
- ↑ a b c d e f Dieter Braune: 100 years of Büsum family baths 1903–2008. In: VDL. 2008 pp. 10-13.
- ^ A b c d e Karl-Heinrich Buhse: The development in Dithmarschen since 1950. In: Martin Gietzelt: Geschichte Dithmarschens. Pp. 411-414, Boyens & Co., Heide 2000, ISBN 3-8042-0859-2 .
- ↑ State Statistical Office Schleswig-Holstein (ed.): The population of the communities in Schleswig-Holstein 1867 - 1970 . State Statistical Office Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel 1972, p. 251 .
- ↑ Martin Gietzelt: History of Dithmarschen, page 332
- ↑ Martin Gietzelt: “The overpainted consciousness. 'Brown' teaching staff in Büsum and brazen high school graduates " ( Memento from February 27, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ Die Zeit: “Braun in Büsum”, edition of October 22, 1965
- ↑ Boyens Medien 2018 - Local election Büsum
- ↑ Schleswig-Holstein's municipal coat of arms
- ↑ Sönke Dwenger: Catching vacationers instead of crabs . In: Dithmarscher Landeszeitung of February 5, 2008, p. 16
- ↑ a b Wilstersche Zeitung: Shrimp fishing in "foreign" hands. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on February 26, 2007 ; Retrieved November 24, 2014 .
- ^ Museum by the Sea: "Krabben" ( Memento from September 13, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ Crabs. In: Dithmarschen Wiki. Retrieved May 28, 2010 .
- ↑ Start of port expansion in Büsum . In: Daily port report of January 31, 2012, p. 3
- ^ Carl L. Ahrens: Important pillars of the regional economy . In: Daily port report of August 28, 2014, special supplement Schleswig-Holsteinischer Hafentag , p. 9
- ↑ Balance sheet of the German seaports 2011 . In: Hansa , Heft 4/2012, pp. 77-81, Schiffahrts-Verlag Hansa, Hamburg 2012, ISSN 0017-7504
- ↑ Timetable of the Büsum - Heide - Neumünster railway line ( Memento from April 4, 2018 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF)
- ↑ North Sea Cycle Route in Schleswig-Holstein. NDR, accessed June 26, 2017 .
- ↑ Büsum at seenotretter.de, accessed on April 3, 2018.
- ↑ Büsum looks ahead. In: Daily port report . April 15, 2019, p. 3.
- ↑ Dirk Schnack: Showpiece on the North Sea beach. aerztezeitung.de, September 18, 2015, accessed on August 31, 2016.
- ↑ Stefan Scheytt: Something new in the north. in: Brand Eins, September 2016, pp. 104–110.
- ↑ Statistical Office for Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein: Directory of general education schools in Schleswig-Holstein 2019/2020
- ^ "Blanker Hans" becomes the Phenomania experience center. In: Norddeutsche Rundschau. June 30, 2017 ( shz.de ).
- ↑ Anja Petersen: "Fahrewohl" returns home. In: Dithmarscher Landeszeitung. January 30, 2008, p. 19.