|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||Lower Saxony|
|Joint municipality :||Esens|
|Height :||3 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||21.68 km 2|
|Residents:||7271 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||335 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||26427|
|Area code :||04971|
|License plate :||WTM|
|Community key :||03 4 62 003|
|LOCODE :||DE 76Y|
City administration address :
|Am Markt 2-4
|Mayoress :||Karin Emken ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Esens in the Wittmund district|
Historically, the city - as the most important central place - belongs to the Harlingerland , which finally came to the county of East Friesland only in 1600 through the Berumer comparison . Since 1885 Esens has been part of the Wittmund district , which was formed from the offices of Wittmund and Esens and the city of Esens.
The city of Esens is located on the northern edge of the Oldenburg-East Frisian Geestrücke, about four kilometers from the Lower Saxony Wadden Sea. The surrounding area consists of small villages and scattered settlements. The district town of Wittmund is about 16 kilometers and the city of Aurich about 26 kilometers away.
The geological subsoil consists of ice-age sand, clay and marl deposits . Small flat moor lenses are embedded on the eastern edge of the city . The marshland begins north of the city limits and extends to the coast.
The only significant body of water in the urban area is the Benser Tief , a sluice run that leads far into the inland and primarily serves to drain the lower areas behind the dike . The deep flows into the North Sea via a sluice in Bensersiel .
The town of Esens borders the municipality of Neuharlingersiel in the northeast, the municipality of Stedesdorf in the southeast, the municipality of Moorweg in the southwest and the municipality of Holtgast in the west .
Esens was founded in the Middle Ages as a trading and market place on the storm surge-proof Geestrand not far from the coast. The place was created around 800 AD. At the beginning of the 16th century, the rule of Esen was ruled by Junker Balthasar , who rebelled against the Bremen merchants and thus against the Hanseatic League . Even today a festival is held annually in his honor. Balthasar died in 1540, and Esens came under the rule of the Rietbergers through inheritance , until it finally fell again through inheritance in 1600 to the Counts of East Friesland .
After the East Frisian Princely House was extinguished in 1744, their entire property, including the Harlingerland, fell to Prussia . The Prussians razed the castle, which was no longer needed, and finally also decongested the city. The mint was moved to Aurich , and Esens thus became a small provincial town in the region.
After a brief French occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the entire region was added to the Kingdom of Hanover and with this came back into the possession of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1866. As a result, Wittmund was designated the district town of Harlingerland, which was expanded to include the Friedeburg office. Esens thus lost further functions. Even after the establishment of the German Empire, Esens remained dominated by agriculture and industries did not settle there. However, the place was connected to the railway network, which has been maintained to this day.
In the Reichstag election of March 5, 1933 , the proportion of votes held by the German national parties was above average. The NSDAP was able to win 56.8% (42% at the Reich level) of the votes, the German National People's Party , which stood under the name of Kampffront Schwarz-Weiß-Rot, achieved 21.1%. The SPD and KPD received 13.8% and 2.9%, respectively.
At least 46 Germans of Jewish faith were victims of persecution during the Holocaust. The fates of about 30 people could not be clarified. 56 people escaped deportation by emigrating abroad, mainly to the USA, Argentina and Israel. On April 16, 1940, the Wittmund district administrator reported to the district president in Aurich: "The cities of Esens and Wittmund are free of Jews."
During the Second World War , Esens fell victim to the aerial warfare: on September 27, 1943, 165 people were killed in an Allied bombing raid. The “poor and workers house” was totally destroyed, 102 school and rural year children died in the basement of the building. Esens - even without military significance - was hit by stray bombers, who actually had Emden as their target , as a so-called “Target of Opportunity” .
The population of Esens increased considerably due to the flow of refugees in the post-war period . More than 1,500 refugees had to be taken care of, which led to major problems. In 1946 the proportion of refugees and displaced persons in the total population was 18 percent, by 1950 it had increased to 24 percent. In 1949, of the city's 4,047 inhabitants, 698 were displaced and 274 were refugees, relocated and evacuated.
The economy was slowly improving. In 1951 the Esens-Bensersiel bathing and tourist association was founded. From 1960 onwards massive investments are made in the development of tourism.
In 1965 the entire old town was designated as a redevelopment area. With the help of targeted measures, the inner city received a comprehensive modernization in the following years with the church square, the house of encounter, the warft stage, arcades and the Balthasar fountain. A north bypass was also included in the redevelopment concept to calm traffic in the city center. It was the basic requirement for the conversion of Steinstrasse into a pedestrian zone , in 1974 the first in East Frisia. In 1984 the city received first prize in the state competition "Building and Living in Old Surroundings" for its urban redevelopment.
When the municipality was reformed on July 1, 1972, the two municipalities of Bensersiel and Sterbur were incorporated into the town of Esens. Since then, the city of Esens, together with the surrounding communities of Dunum , Holtgast , Moorweg , Neuharlingersiel , Stedesdorf and Werdum, has been part of the Esens community . In the same year Esens and Bensersiel were recognized as coastal resorts. After further investments in the tourist infrastructure, both places were declared a North Sea resort (health resort) in 1990 . Bensersiel has also been a North Sea spa since 1996 .
Today, tourism in the city and the surrounding region is the most important economic factor in which major investments continue to be made, especially in the Bensersiel district.
In 2002 the city of Esens celebrated the 475th anniversary of the granting of city rights and the 425th anniversary of Schützencompagnie Esens e. V. , which was founded in 1577 as a vigilante and guarantor of civil order. On the occasion of the double anniversary, various celebrations and activities took place from June to October 2002. The bear campaign left a lasting impression, in which 44 artistically designed Buddy Bears put the Esens heraldic animal in the focus of the citizens as well as the numerous guests of the city.
Churches and Free Churches
- The Evangelical Lutheran parish belongs to the Harlingerland parish of the Evangelical Lutheran Regional Church of Hanover .
- The Roman Catholic parish of St. Willehad belongs to the Deanery East Friesland of the Diocese of Osnabrück .
- The Evangelical Free Church Congregation ( Baptists ) has been active in Esens since 1993 after starting out in house groups. Your church has been a flat roof building made of containers since 1994. In May 2011 the congregation began to become the Evangelical Free Church State Association of Baptists in the Northwest . heard with the construction of a church. In September 2012, the congregation celebrated its first service in the new building. The official inauguration took place a month later.
More faith community
Former synagogue community in Esens
The Jewish community in Esens existed for a period of around 300 years from its beginnings in the 17th century to its end on July 31, 1941. The first Jews should settle in the period after 1600. The first documentary mention is dated to 1637. A synagogue was built in 1827. In 1925 Jews made up 3.4 percent of the population in Esens. This was the fourth-highest percentage in East Frisia. After the National Socialists came to power, the exodus of the Esensian Jews began. On March 9, 1940, the last citizens of the Jewish faith reported to the city administration. The history of the Jews in Esens finally ended with the dissolution of the Jewish Kultusvereinigung e. V. on July 31, 1941.
The city council of Esens consists of 20 councilors. This is the specified number for the member municipality of an integrated municipality with a population between 7001 and 8000 inhabitants. The 20 council women and councilors are elected by local elections for five years each. The current term of office began on November 1, 2016 and ends on October 31, 2021. The elected mayor is also entitled to vote in the council.
The local elections on September 11, 2016 resulted in the following:
|Political party||Proportional votes||Number of seats||Change voices||Change seats|
|Alliance 90 / The Greens||7.02%||2||−4.78%||0|
|Alliance for the future of Esen||5.67%||1||+5.67%||+1|
The turnout in the 2016 local elections was 59.93 percent, above the Lower Saxony average of 55.5 percent. For comparison - in the previous local election on September 11, 2011, the turnout was 55.41 percent.
Karin Emken (SPD) has been honorary mayor of Esens since June 1, 2015 .
Representatives in the Land and Bundestag
Esens belongs to the state electoral district 87 Wittmund / Insel , which includes the entire district of Wittmund and, in the district of Aurich, the cities of Norderney and Wiesmoor , the municipality of Dornum and the island communities of Juist and Baltrum . The direct mandate was won in the early state elections in 2017 by Jochen Beekhuis from the SPD . In the state elections in 2013, Holger Heymann , also an SPD, was able to win the constituency. After his election to the district administrator of the Wittmund district, Heymann resigned from the state parliament.
Esens belongs to the parliamentary constituency Friesland - Wilhelmshaven . It includes the city of Wilhelmshaven and the districts of Friesland and Wittmund . The directly elected MP is Siemtje Möller (SPD). No party candidate from the constituency entered the Bundestag via the parties' list.
Coats of arms, colors and seals
|Blazon : “The coat of arms of the city of Esens shows an upright black bear with a red tongue and a gold collar, standing on a red fortress tower next to a red picket fence, holding a red brick between his two paws. It is crowned by a three-part red wall tower crown and surrounded on both sides by golden oak branches. "|
Foundation of the coat of arms: The city seal has been in evidence since 1540. The bear found its way onto the coat of arms and seal as the heraldic animal of the Attena chief family , who ruled Esens, Stedesdorf and Wittmund in the 15th century .
The city's colors are blue / yellow.
The official seal shows the coat of arms and the inscription "City of Esens (Ostfriesland)".
A legend tries to explain the bear in the city arms as follows: When the city of Esens was besieged by enemy troops again in the Middle Ages, a traveling musician with his dancing bear was inside the walls. The armed conflict lasted for a long time, but the city, fortified with walls, trenches and city gates, defied all attacks. So the opponents shifted to cutting off the supply routes and tried to starve the city out. When the need was greatest and the surrender was only a matter of a few hours, the bear that had been locked up by chance freed himself, climbed the tower of a city gate, roaring with hunger, and threw stones around him. The enemy drew the wrong conclusion that the Esensians still had enough provisions to feed a bear. They broke off the siege; the city was saved. As a thank you for this, the bear became the Esenser heraldic animal.
Culture and sights
Museums and exhibitions
The tower museum in St. Magnus has been explaining the history of this important church in Harlingerland since 1982 . The visitor will find numerous exhibits and lots of information on five floors.
The holographic museum is located in a futuristic-looking newly built building behind the St. Magnus Church . In addition to information on optical illusions, it contains numerous holographs and instructions for their production on three floors .
The Esens local history association uses all floors of the Esens Peldemühle and the adjacent miller's house for the “Leben am Meer” museum . The settlement history of the Harlingerland and the history of the city of Esens are shown.
In the former Jewish schoolhouse, today's August-Gottschalk-Haus, there is a memorial with an exhibition on the recent history of East Frisian Jews. The building was bought by the city of Esens in 1985 in order to demolish it according to a long-standing development plan and to create parking spaces in its place. Through a private initiative of the Ecumenical Working Group Jews and Christians in Esens e. V. , managed to save the house and to set up a memorial and exhibition on the recent history of the Esensian Jews. In the course of the renovation work on the house, the completely preserved mikveh of the Jewish community was discovered. On August 29, 1990, the memorial was opened to the public as the August Gottschalk House .
The tide fountain on the market square reflects the tides of the North Sea coast. The system fills up according to the water level in Bensersiel . The well water flows around the sculpture of a shipwreck made by the artist Albert Sous from Würselen .
In 1962, the Esen cultural community moved the Lower Saxony North state theater from Wilhelmshaven to Esens. Since then, the city of Esens has been a permanent venue for the state theater. It is played in the 382-seat theater in the Theodor-Thomas-Halle on Walpurgisstrasse.
The St. Magnus Church was completed from 1848 to 1854 according to plans by Friedrich August Ludwig Hellner in the style of Romantic Historicism . The interior is designed as a neo-Gothic hall church and is characterized by cross vaults and bundle pillars, which are led through circumferential galleries. A semicircular apse is attached to the eastern transept . The west tower was built in 1844. The late Gothic sandstone sarcophagus for Chief Sibet Attena , who died in 1473, was taken over from the previous building, as well as the bronze baptismal font by Hinrich Klinghe from 1474, the pulpit from 1674 and the altar with the large crucifix from 1714. Arnold Rohlfs created between 1848 and 1860 the organ, which with 30 stops on two manuals and pedal is the largest instrument from the 19th century in East Friesland.
The town hall of the city and the municipality of Esens , formerly the Palais von Heespen, is a two-story brick building with ashlar plaster and a hipped roof . It has only served as an administration building since 1943. The front is equipped with a three-axis central risalit, which is framed by colossal pilasters . As a dendrochronological dating of the roof structure showed, the building was built around 1610/15 using an older part of the wall. In the 17th century the bailiff Johann Vieth is named as the owner, who died in 1705. When exactly it came into the possession of the office administrator Wilhelm von Heespen, who came to the city in 1703, is not known. The renovation, carried out under the new owner, is scheduled for the beginning of the second decade of the 18th century. As part of this thorough renovation, the building was given a regularly structured facade in the spirit of the Baroque . Today's plaster was probably not applied until the 19th century. Of the interior, only the ancestral hall has retained its historical furnishings, which include a fireplace and several tapestries . The baluster staircase in the entrance hall has been preserved.
The old district court is a classical plastered building built in 1827 with a hipped roof and a three-axis central projection. After extensive renovations, it now houses an architecture office.
The former elementary school (now a Protestant parish hall) is not far from the Magnus Church. The brick eaves construction was built in 1861–66 in the form of the round arch style.
Several older residential buildings , mostly made of brick, have been preserved in the city center . The Ratsgaststätte Am Markt 1 was built in 1839 as an eaves house with a flat triangular gable. In 1851 the large Gulf barn was added to the rear property. The facade of the next-door gabled house Am Markt 3 (Mettcker House), which is provided with an outside staircase, is also likely to date from the first half of the 19th century. In essence, however, the building is significantly older. The assumption that the stone house of Bailiff Wibet von Stedesdorf stood at this point, however, could not be confirmed by the latest investigations. There was no evidence of medieval building material. At Herrenwall 6 there is a single-storey eaves building with a mansard roof , which is characterized by a three-axis central projection. It was built in late Classicist form in 1863. The so-called Edzardsche Haus is located at Steinstrasse 12 . It probably dates back to the 16th century, making it one of the city's oldest residential buildings. However, the facade was renewed at a later time. The gable, which is based on Dutch models and still has late Baroque shapes, is labeled "1788". Inside, the historic hall, which is now used as a sales room, has been preserved. The south side of Jücherstraße still offers remnants of a petty bourgeois residential area . Herdetor 19 is one of the few representatives of Art Nouveau in Esens , the facade of which is decorated with floral elements.
"Peldemühle" built in 1701, used as a museum since 1989.
The largest sports club in town is TuS Esens . He offers soccer, basketball, handball, table tennis and gymnastics. In addition to the TuS Esens, there is also the TC Esens in Esens, which only offers tennis.
Schützenfest: The Esenser Schützenfest is one of the largest shooting festivals in Lower Saxony and is considered the largest shooting festival in East Friesland. It is visited by around 75,000 people annually. About 100 showmen attend the festival. It usually starts on the Friday before the second Sunday in July and ends on the following Tuesday.
Economy and Infrastructure
Tourism is the most important economic factor in the city of Esens with its coastal district of Bensersiel. In 1951 the "Bathing and Transport Association Esens-Bensersiel" was founded. From humble beginnings, tourism has grown steadily. In 1972 Esens / Bensersiel received state recognition as a coastal resort . In the 1970s, the construction of the sailing harbor “Frerichshafen” (1974) and the seawater wave pool (1974) as well as the leisure facility “Aquantis” (1976) improved the tourist infrastructure. In 1979, Bensersiel was awarded the title of Seebad . In the 1980s, further construction projects were started, such as the new Bensersieler Hafenzauffahrt (1980), the Kurpark (1980), the youth hostel (1987), the mother-and-child home of the AWO (1987) and the leisure and adventure pool "Nordseetherme" (1989). In 1990 it was recognized as a North Sea spa and in 1996 Bensersiel became a North Sea spa .
In 2005, Esens / Bensersiel recorded 127,395 guests and 911,839 overnight stays.
In 1912, entrepreneurs from Esen founded a commercial association, which in the 1950s joined the Ostfriesland retail association as a district subgroup. In 1968 the advertising association "Aktiongemeinschaft Esens und Umgebung" (AEU) was founded and in 1971 it was entered in the register of associations.
A bypass road for the town of Bensersiel that was illegally built between 2009 and 2011, disregarding a bird sanctuary, has been the subject of legal disputes for years. For more information, see the relevant section of the local article.
The city is the current end point of the East Frisian Coast Railway from Wilhelmshaven to Esens (KBS 393), which used to reach north via Dornum (from here still a museum). The section to Dornum will possibly be rebuilt because of its importance for tourism in the region, which would be quite possible - if you consider that there is hardly any development. There go the hourly trains to Veolia belonging NordWestBahn from and towards Wilhelmshaven. Since the end of 2005 there has also been a stop in Burhafe again .
Earlier, a branch of the Aurich circular railway began in Esens , which connected the cities of Leer, Aurich, Esens and Wittmund on a 1000 mm track and was primarily used for goods traffic, but also for passenger transport. A branch line of the Aurich circular railway also led from Esens to Bensersiel to bring Langeoog's visitors to the port. Parts of the old and long-dismantled railway line are now cycle paths.
The Esen district of Bensersiel has a tide-independent ferry port , through which ferry traffic to the island of Langeoog has been handled since 1859 . The ferry connection is operated by the Langeooger Schiffahrt of the island community of Langeoog . In addition to the regular ferry service, tourist day trips with excursion boats are also offered during the season.
The Anzeiger für Harlingerland that appears in Wittmund is the regional daily newspaper for the district of Wittmund. The newspaper also reports on topics from Esens on weekdays.
The Lower Saxony boarding school Esens (NIGE) in the south of the city of Esens is maintained by the state of Lower Saxony for schoolchildren who, for economic, family, traffic or school-related reasons, can only attend a different type of grammar school under difficult conditions. Over 90 percent of the students at the boarding school come from the East Frisian Islands . The NIGE covers grades 5 to 12 and is the only boarding school in Lower Saxony to offer Latin as a second foreign language from the 6th grade onwards. Currently (2010) around 1000 students are taught at the school.
The Carl-Gittermann secondary school was for a named school principal , who in the Revolution of 1848-49 to the National Assembly in Frankfurt known and accused the prince, they would have to give the promise of their countries, new constitutions, not kept. He was later sentenced to four weeks in prison for this. The Realschule is attended by around 435 students and is a partner school of SV Werder Bremen .
The Herbert Jander secondary school is attended by around 250 students. Namesake is a former headmaster.
The Christian-Wilhelm-Schneider-Förderschule was named after the pastor and founder of the former orphanage in Esens. The special school is attended by around 170 students.
The primary school Esens Nord with around 430 pupils maintains a branch in Werdum.
The secondary school, the secondary school, the special school and the primary school are sponsored by the Wittmund district.
The "German Teddy Foundation" based in Esens was founded on September 28, 1998 in the ancestral hall of the Esen town hall as a section of "Good Bears of the World" . The city coat of arms of the city of Esens with the bear creates a symbolic connection to the Teddy Foundation. The foundation gives away teddy bears to children in the event of a disaster or accident in order to alleviate the threat of trauma . For this purpose, emergency vehicles from the police and rescue services as well as the emergency stations in hospitals are equipped with the teddy bears. The foundation is financed through donations, the sale of the teddy bear and sponsorship. Since the Teddy Foundation was established, more than 100,000 teddy bears have been distributed to children in need. The teddy bears are used in almost 360 cities, towns and districts.
One of around 1800 measuring points of the radioactivity measuring network of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) is located in Esens . The measuring station measures the local gamma dose rate (ODL) at the measuring location and sends the data to the measuring network. The data, averaged over 24 hours, can be called up directly on the Internet.
The honorary citizenship is the highest honor given to the city of Esen. The city has awarded the following people:
- Ewald Neemann (1907–1996), city director
Adolf Hitler's honorary citizenship was unanimously withdrawn by the city council in February 2011. Up until that point in time, according to the city administration, it was not at all clear that Hitler had ever received honorary citizenship due to a lack of documents. A chronicle of the city of Esens penned by Gerd Rokahr (see literature) made the city leaders aware of honorary citizenship in the first place.
sons and daughters of the town
- Balthasar von Esens († 1540), freedom fighter and pirate
- David Fabricius (1564–1617), theologian, important amateur astronomer and cartographer
- Heike Fleßner (* 1944), educational scientist and professor
- Johann Hülsemann (1602–1661), Lutheran theologian
- Philipp Heinrich Erlebach (1657–1714), composer
- Christian Eberhard (1665–1708), Prince of East Friesland from the house of the Cirksena
- Enno Rudolph Brenneysen (1669–1734), lawyer and chancellor of East Frisia
- Philipp Ludwig Statius Müller (1725–1776), theologian, zoologist and professor in Erlangen
- Johann Gottfried Rohlfs (1759–1847), organ builder
- Gerhard Moritz Roentgen (1795–1852), Dutch naval officer, mechanical engineer and shipbuilder
- Arnold Rohlfs (1808–1882), organ builder
- Gerd Sieben Janssen (1802–1899), organ builder
- Theodore Thomas (1835–1905), composer, founder of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra
- Ernst Christian Carl Kruse (1837–1900), doctor and politician
- Sara Oppenheimer (1844–1906), opera singer
- Gerhard Tappen (1866–1953), general of the artillery
- Hinrich Fokken-Esens (1889–1976), painter
- Johann Gerhard Behrens (1889–1979), Evangelical Lutheran pastor and astronomer
- Eilert Dieken (1898–1960), police superintendent, involved in a war crime in occupied Poland (1944)
- Ewald Aukes (* 1951), politician (FDP)
- Friedhelm Tränapp (* 1963), Brigadier General
People associated with Esens
- Timo Schultz (* 1977), German soccer player, grew up in Esens
- Cyrus Overbeck (* 1970), German visual artist, lived and worked in Esens from 2003 to 2019
- Gerd Rokahr : A Chronicle of the City of Esens . Brune-Mettcker-Verlag, Wittmund 2010. ISBN 978-3-87542-075-3
- The bombing raid on Esens on September 27, 1943. A difficult subject was approached.
- Siegfried Schunke: Magnus Church Esens ( Ostfriesischer Kunstführer , booklet 9). Aurich 1986. ISBN 3-925365-17-6 .
- State Office for Statistics Lower Saxony, LSN-Online regional database, Table 12411: Update of the population, as of December 31, 2019 ( help ).
- Ostfriesische Landschaft - Ortschronisten: Esens, Stadt, Landkreis Wittmund by Gerd Rokahr (PDF; 99 kB), accessed on January 3, 2011
- Gerd Rokahr: Esens, city, district of Wittmund. In: East Frisian Landscape. Retrieved July 15, 2020 .
- Herbert Obernaus: Historical manual of the Jewish communities in Lower Saxony and Bremen . Göttingen 2005, p. 570 .
- Klaus-Dieter Alicke: Lexicon of the Jewish communities in the German-speaking area . tape 1 . Gütersloh 2008, ISBN 978-3-579-08077-2 , p. 1174 .
- Cf. Gerd Rokahr: "The bomb attack on Esens on September 27, 1943", published as a booklet for the exhibition of the same name in the "Müllerhaus", the Esens municipal gallery from September 27 to November 2, 2003
- Law on the reorganization of the communities in the Emden - Norden - Aurich - Wittmund area of June 23, 1971
- Esens.de: A Brief History of the City of Esens ( Memento from September 19, 2010 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on January 9, 2010
- Esens Bear City - A lovable city that has many bears , accessed on December 25, 2010
- Homepage of the community ( memento of November 16, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), read on November 24, 2009
- Press reports on the topping-out ceremony of the new Baptist Church in Esens ( Memento from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 887 kB); accessed on February 13, 2012
- EFG-Esens.de: ( page no longer available , search in web archives: 1st service in the new building ). September 9, 2012, accessed July 19, 2013.
- Lower Saxony Municipal Constitutional Law (NKomVG) in the version of December 17, 2010; Section 46 - Number of MPs , accessed on December 30, 2016
- Overall results of the municipal council elections for the city of Esens 2016 , accessed on December 30, 2016
- The CDU gets the most votes nationwide. September 12, 2016, accessed December 30, 2016 .
- Mayoress and City Director of the City of Esens , Homepage of the City of Esens, accessed on July 29, 2018
- constituencies to the Federal
- Nordwest-Zeitung: Bundestag election: These members represent our region . In: NWZonline . ( nwzonline.de [accessed September 29, 2017]).
- esens.de: Main Statute (PDF; 14 kB), accessed on October 24, 2011
- Sculpture in Esens - Short Description, page 4 ( Memento from August 4, 2018 in the Internet Archive )
- Landesbühne Niedersachsen Nord: Esens venue , accessed on December 26, 2010
- Gottfried Kiesow : Architectural Guide Ostfriesland . Verlag Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz, Bonn 2010, ISBN 978-3-86795-021-3 , p. 339.
- Organ in Esens on NOMINE eV , viewed February 13, 2012.
- The history of the former Palais von Heespen was dealt with in detail by E. Rust: The building of today's Esenser town hall and its builder Wilhelm von Heespen. In: Emder Jahrbuch, Volume 78 (1998), Aurich 1999, pages 45-77. The north wall probably dates from the second half of the 16th century.
- See Rust, page 52.
- For example with Detlef Kiesé: Get to know Esens-Bensersiel. Information about Bärenstadt and the North Sea Spa , 2nd edition, Esens 2007, page 33
- See this: E. Rust: The building of today's Esenser town hall and its builder Wilhelm von Heespen. In: Emder Jahrbuch, Volume 78 (1998), Aurich 1999, page 47
- According to Onno Mensen: Esens and the surrounding area in old views. Leer 1994, p. 24
- More details from Kurt Asche: Bürgerhäuser in Ostfriesland (Library Ostfriesland, Volume X), Norden 1992, page 63
- Reactivation of the railway is under discussion again , Anzeiger für Harlingerland, June 22, 2016, accessed on May 20, 2017.
- Niedersächsische Internatsgymnasium - Brief information , accessed on December 25, 2010
- German Teddy Foundation - The Foundation , accessed on December 28, 2010
- Esens measuring point , accessed on September 1, 2011
- Locations of the measuring probes of the radioactivity measuring network with their daily mean values , accessed on September 1, 2011
- East Frisian landscape: Ewald Neemann (PDF), accessed on April 17, 2019
- Esens: Hitler no longer an honorary citizen , Ostfriesen-Zeitung, February 2, 2011, accessed on August 1, 2011.
- Joanna Bercal, Katarzyna Domagała-Pereira: Zginęli, bo ratowali Żydów. Brutalne morderstwo Ulmów. In: Deutsche Welle online. December 13, 2019, accessed June 12, 2020 (pol).