|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||Lower Saxony|
|Height :||0 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||76.78 km 2|
|Residents:||4427 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||58 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||26553, 26427|
|Primaries :||04933, 04938|
|License plate :||AUR, NOR|
|Community key :||03 4 52 027|
|LOCODE :||DE 76G|
|Community structure:||10 localities|
|Address of the
|Schatthauser Str. 9
|Mayor :||Michael Hook (independent)|
|Location of the municipality of Dornum in the Aurich district|
Dornum is a unified municipality in East Friesland and politically belongs to the Aurich district in Lower Saxony . It is named after the capital of the same name. With 4427 inhabitants, it is the smallest unitary municipality on the mainland of the Aurich district. These are distributed over almost 77 square kilometers, which results in a population density of around 58 inhabitants per square kilometer. This is very low even when compared to other parts of East Frisia. With around 148 inhabitants per square kilometer, East Frisia is already more sparsely populated than Lower Saxony (around 168) and the Federal Republic of Germany (around 230).
The district of Nesse is one of the oldest Wik settlements in East Friesland and is dated to the 9th century. As in Emden , Groothusen and Grimersum , sea trade took place there early on. Like Groothusen and Grimersum, however, Nesse lost this importance due to silting up of the harbor and dikes. Dornum was a glory from the late Middle Ages to modern times , most recently under the Barons of Closter.
Tourism is an important economic pillar, especially in the coastal resorts. Around 500,000 overnight stays are registered in Dornum every year. The municipality is also a hub for the import of Norwegian North Sea gas: this is where the Europipe I and II pipelines end . The community is also characterized by agricultural businesses that find favorable cultivation conditions in the march.
The organ of St. Bartholomew's Church by Gerhard von Holy and two castles in the main town of Dornum are among the outstanding cultural assets in the community . The oldest mill in East Frisia (built in 1626) can also be found in the community.
Dornum is the birthplace of Miene Schönberg, who became known as Minnie Marx , mother of the Marx Brothers , after emigrating to the USA . Her brother Al Shean (born Albert Schönberg) also comes from Dornum: He was a comedian and also a pioneer for the success of the Marx Brothers.
Position and extent
The municipality is the northeastern municipality on the mainland of the Aurich district in East Frisia and is located directly on the North Sea . In the north it borders on the Wadden Sea , which is under nature protection as the Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park and was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in June 2009 together with the Schleswig-Holstein and the Dutch part . In front of the coastline are the Neßmer Watt, the Dornumer Watt and the Dornumer Nacken from west to east .
The administrative seat in the main town is about twelve kilometers west of the town of Esens in the neighboring district of Wittmund and sixteen kilometers northeast of the town of Norden . The district town of Aurich is about 21 kilometers south. Dornum lies on the border of the historic regions of Norderland and Harlingerland : While the larger western part with the main town is part of the Norderland, the smaller eastern part belongs to the Harlingerland.
With 76.78 square kilometers, Dornum is the second smallest unified municipality in the Aurich district after Baltrum and one of the smallest unified municipalities on the East Frisian mainland . The largest extension of the municipality in north-south direction is about 6.4 kilometers, measured between the Marienfeld farm in the south and the sea dike in the north. In a west-east direction it is about 15.7 kilometers between the Willrathshof in the west and the eastern tip of the Westerbur polder.
The municipality borders the North Sea in the north . The islands of Norderney in the northwest, Baltrum in the north and Langeoog in the northeast are within sight of the coast . Since Dornum borders on three integrated communities , the number of neighboring communities on the mainland is very large. In the east, Dornum borders on Esens and Holtgast (both integrated municipality Esens ), in the south (clockwise) on Ochtersum , Utarp , Schweindorf , Westerholt and Nenndorf (all integrated municipality Holtriem ). These municipalities are all located in the Wittmund district . In the southwest, Dornum borders on Großheide , in the west on Hage and Hagermarsch (both joint municipality of Hage ) in the Aurich district . Dornum thus has ten neighboring municipalities, including islands 13. The number of neighbors is reduced to four (with islands seven) if it is specified at the municipality level.
Geology, soils and hydrology
The geological picture is partly determined by the Pleistocene , but much more by the Holocene . Almost the entire area of the municipality is in the march . Only the main town including the residential areas Resterhafe and Schwittersum as well as Roggenstede to the south are located on two small Geestinseln . The municipality is protected by dykes on the seaward side , as it is only slightly above sea level . Two dyke yachts are responsible for dike maintenance in the municipality . The association area of the north dike reaches approximately to Dornumergrode, further east the Esens-Harlingerland dike is responsible.
The soil conditions differ depending on the distance from the coast and thus on the age of the marshland: In the foreland of the dike (regionally called Heller ) there is raw march . The areas are flooded during storm surges during the winter months. Inland dikes are joined by Kalkmarsch and Kleimarsch . These three types of march are included in the young march. The Altmarsch , located to the south, consists mainly of heavy articulated and sea march transition soils that are difficult to use for arable farming . They are mainly used as pasture and grassland, i.e. for dairy farming . The young marshland areas with their very light and medium-heavy soils allow both dairy and arable farming . However, since they bring very high yields, agriculture is usually preferred.
The Altmarsch in particular is partly below sea level because the deposited sediments have sagged due to their own weight, decomposition processes and drainage measures.
The inland has to be drained to avoid being under water when it rains continuously. Countless small trenches as well as smaller and larger natural and artificial channels (regionally called deep ) serve this purpose . These are in turn drained via the Accumersiel sewer and pumping station, which was built in the 1960s and replaced an older sewer. Sielacht Dornum , based in Esens, is responsible for draining a large part of the municipality, and Sielacht Norden is responsible for the western part.
The main part of the municipal area is drained by the Accumer Deep and its sub-deeps and numerous drainage ditches. The catchment area of the Accumer Tief extends into the bog areas of the southern neighboring municipality of Holtriem and a small part of the eastern municipality of Esen . From these areas smaller peat streams and drainage ditches flow to the Accumer Tief. It runs between Uppum and Dornum in an east-west direction, then in a south-north direction to Dornumersiel. After a new sewer was built in the late 1960s, a Mahlbusen was created there, which stores the inland water if a sewer is not possible at high tide . The continuation of the Accumer lows forms in the North Sea, the Seegat Accumer Ee between the islands Baltrum and Langeoog. Until the beginning of the construction of the dykes in the High Middle Ages and in the following centuries, the Accumer Tief and today's Accumer Ee were an open inflow from the rear (south) Geest area into the North Sea. This is also indicated by a sea craft from earlier centuries that was excavated at Roggenstede, southeast of Dornum, at the end of the 19th century.
The western part of the municipal area around Nesse was drained by the Neßmersiel for centuries. After its final shutdown, however, the water flows over the Norder Tief to the Leybuchtsiel and (since 1991) mainly to the Leysiel .
|use||Area in ha|
|Building and open space||385|
|including living space||215|
|of which commercial and industrial space||13|
|including green area||27|
|of which road, path, square||243|
|Areas of other use||263|
|of it land||21st|
Right exactly 85 percent of the municipality of Dornum is used for agriculture. This is one of the highest values among the unified and integrated communities in East Frisia and is well above the East Frisian average of 75 percent. The Lower Saxony comparison value is 59 percent. The forest poverty becomes particularly clear when the 44 hectares of trees are compared to the total area: the result is a percentage of 0.57. For comparison: the Federal Republican average is more than 30 percent and even the East Frisian average is around two percent. Water bodies make up 2.21 percent of the municipal area, which means that Dornum is only slightly above the national average of two percent. Most of the waters are drainage ditches, including the Mahlbusen in Dornumersiel.
In addition to the eponymous town of Dornum, the municipality also includes the localities Dornumergrode , Dornumersiel , Nesse , Neßmersiel , Roggenstede , Schwittersum , Westdorf (with Ostdorf ), Westeraccum , Westeraccumersiel and Westerbur (with Middelsbur ).
These main places include other smaller places, which are individually named: Aderhusen , Alexandrinenhof, Altensiel, Arler Hammrich, Blankenhausen, Buschplatz, Buterhusen, Butterburg, Cankebeer, Dammspolder, Deich- and Sielrott, Deichstrich, Dreihausen, Eiland, Friedland, Friedrichsfeld, Georgshof , United Kiphausen, rake deep, Joachim field Kiphausen, small Kiphausen, Kloster, Marie field, means Kiphausen, center bar, Neegrobeer, Neuhausen, Neßmeraltendeich, Nessmergrode, Neßmermühle, Neßmerpolder, Easter Cold Inner Grashaus, Osterbur, Osterdeich, Pumpsiel, Reersum, Reidump, Resterhafe , Roggensteder Hammer, Schlöterei, Siebelshörn, Südburg, Südburger Buschhaus, election site, Westeraccumer Neuland, Westerburer Neuland, Westerdeich, Wilhelminenhof.
The municipality is located in a moderate climate zone in the climate district of Lower Saxony's lowland North Sea coast . The major climate is maritime and is characterized by relatively cool and rainy summers; relatively mild winters with little snow, prevailing westerly winds and high annual rainfall. In the months of December and January the average temperature drops to zero to minus 2 degrees, in July and August an average of 20 degrees is reached. Most rainy days are in December with 20, the least in March and May, where 13 days of precipitation fall. The number of average hours of sunshine per day varies between one (December / January) and seven hours (May / June).
According to the Köppen climate classification , Dornum is in the Cfb classification .
- Climate zone C : warm, temperate climate
- Climate type Cf : humid, temperate climate
- Climate subtype b : warm summers
The closest weather station is in Aurich (see there for further information).
The municipality of Dornum borders the Wadden Sea and thus the Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park . Parts of the foreland of the dike, the Heller , belong to protection zone II. There are no nature reserves in the municipality. The largest protected landscape area (since 1991) is the Dammspolder west of Westeraccumersiel with 67.9 hectares. The Dornumer Schlosspark and the Kreihörn region to the north (11.8 hectares) have been designated as a protected landscape area since 1969. A protected part of the landscape is the wetland and pond area Im Ischen south of Westeraccum (22.9 ha). In the center of Dornum there are lime trees and red beeches, which are designated as natural monuments.
Prehistory and early history
Finds from the Stone Age and the Roman Imperial Age were discovered in Dornum, stone tools, a fragment of a stone sickle and fragments of clay in Roggenstede, which point to a settlement in the Stone and Bronze Ages between 3000 and 800 BC. Indicate. The area of the former bank was initially settled. Here, in prehistoric times, the inhabitants built terps at favorable points on the still unsealed marshes. This allowed them the fertile clay soils use and had extensive inland tidal creeks at the same time access to the sea. The first villages were built on terps at a time when the land was not yet protected from the sea by dikes. Investigations by the Lower Saxony Institute for Historical Coastal Research at the Kirchwarft von Resterhafe suggest that it was laid out in the Roman Empire.
The dike construction began in the region around the year 1000. A port was first mentioned in 1289, when the Harlingers, in a dispute with the city of Bremen, referred to a contract signed in the port called Ackumhe . Originally, the entire area of today's Dornum municipality belonged to the Harlingerland and the church was under the provost of Ochtersum . In the High Middle Ages, the Hilgenrieder Bay separated the area around the north, the Norderland of the Federgau, from the former Gau Norditi, from which the Harlingerland later developed. The latter also included Dornum. The successive embankment of the Hilgenried Bay in the following centuries made this natural border between the north and Hage on the west and Dornum on the east disappear. At the same time, in 1362, the Second Marcellus Flood , also known as the Grote Mandränke , widened the Accumer Tief - originally probably a small continental stream or a swampy lowland - so that Dornum in the east received a new natural border with the Harlingerland. The main town may have had its own port at that time, which is deduced from the street name Kajediek at the castle park.
The church, which was built in 1270, including its baptismal font from the time it was built, testify to the Christianization of the Dornum population.
In the Middle Ages, Dornum was the seat of several families of chiefs : In the second half of the 14th century, Hero Attena was named as the first chief of Dornum. Whether he was also chief of Nesse is disputed. Hero's son, Lütet , slew - allegedly on the advice of his mother-in-law - his wife Ocka for alleged unfaithfulness and insubordination. Thereupon the mother-in-law Foelke Kampana , wife of chief Ocko II. Tom Brok and popularly called the " Quade Foelke ", had Dornum conquer and Lütet and Hero arrested. Both are said to have been beheaded on her mother-in-law's orders. The heirs then divided their property among themselves. The Kankena from Wittmund followed the Attena through marriage and inheritance. In the course of the 15th century they succeeded in developing a glory in Dornum with its own jurisdiction . This consisted of the two parishes in the eponymous main town and Resterhave as well as the villages and residential areas Dornumergrode, Dornumersiel and Kiphausen. The local chiefs (lords) thus retained a certain degree of autonomy within the county of East Friesland .
Under the Cirksena (1464–1744)
The three castles in Dornum were destroyed in the course of the Saxon feud (1514–1517). The East Frisian Count Edzard I and Georg von Sachsen fought over claims in Friesland in those years, whereupon an army of 20,000 men, led by Heinrich I (Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel) , invaded East Friesland. The Oldenburg Count Johann V allied with him, as did Hero Omken from the Harlingerland . On his way north , Hero Omken attacked the three Dornum castles and destroyed them before he set fire to the city of Norden.
The last witch burning in East Frisia took place in Dornum in 1665 .
Dornumersiel and Accumersiel were destroyed in the Petriflut of 1651 , but were soon rebuilt. In 1712 the Osterneßmersieler Polder was diked east of Neßmersiel, largely driven by the interested party Teckenbörg.
The area in question was severely affected by the Christmas flood of 1717 . According to a contemporary survey by the preacher Jacobus Isebrandi Harkenroth, 262 people perished in the glory of Dornum alone. 50 horses, more than 200 cattle, almost 100 sheep and 24 pigs drowned in the floods. 67 houses were completely destroyed and 20 partially. The natural disaster devastated the sluices, ports and towns of Dornumersiel and Westeraccumersiel almost completely: of 122 houses only seven remained, but they were hardly habitable anymore. There were also victims in Nesse and the surrounding area, which at the time was part of the Berum office. This was the second most affected by the flood of East Frisia after the one in Esens. 585 people and a total of more than 2500 farm animals were killed in the Berum office, of which a part - no longer precisely determinable - was attributable to Nesse, Westdorf, Ostdorf, Neßmersiel and the surrounding farms. 188 houses were completely destroyed and 164 partially destroyed in the office of Berum.
Prussian period (1744–1806 / 15)
In the second half of the 18th century, the Prussian government attached great importance to the reclamation of further stretches of land, which - in addition to peatland colonization - also included dikes. The Dammspolder (1764/71) and the Westerburer Polder (1771/78) were built at that time , and the administrator and mayor of the north, Dr. Hajo Lorenz Damm, played a decisive role. He was also involved in the construction of a new polder in what is now the northern part of the city. In 1772 the Westerneßmersieler polder was diked, it was followed in 1774/75 by the Hamm polder on the outside of what was then the outer depression after Neßmersiel. In 1775 the cake baker polder was added, named after one of the driving forces behind the dike, Johann Friedrich Kuchenbäcker (1722–1787).
In 1794, the glory of Dornum included the villages of Dornum, Dornumergrode, Dornumersiel, Resterhafe, Reersum, Schwittersum and Kiphausen with a total of 1224 inhabitants. The central place was Dornum with almost half (602) of the inhabitants. These were distributed between the two castles, nine farms, 106 fireplaces ("full" households) and 97 whole and half wharf sites (day laborers and agricultural part-time businesses). In Dornumergrode there were 16 yards and 30 wharfing sites, in Dornumersiel 35 wharfing sites.
Hanoverian period (1815–1866)
In 1820 Ernst Friedrich Herbert zu Münster acquired the Dornum glory from the previous owner, Privy Councilor Hoffbauer zu Minden. Under his aegis, the reclamation of new land continued. About a decade after the glory was taken over, the construction of today's Münster polder began. Its completion, however, fell in the year of the Count's death, 1839. The Alexandrinenhof was built in the polder in 1852, named after Alexandrine Galitzin , the wife of Georg Herbert zu Münster , who had taken over the splendor from his father. In addition, the Wilhelminenhof, named after the wife of Ernst Friedrich Herbert zu Münster, Wilhelmine Charlotte Princess zu Schaumburg-Lippe, was relocated to the new polder.
When the Prussian government abolished the old office structure in favor of rural districts in 1885 , the Northern District was formed. The municipalities of the present area belonged to the above-mentioned district since that year.
As in all marshland areas of East Frisia, there were great social and economic differences between rich large farmers and poor farm workers throughout the 19th century and into the 20th century: “During the march, the social differences had a particularly sharp and harsh effect: on one side On the one hand tough and proud peasants, gentlemen through and through, on the other hand the day laborers. They, too, do not resemble the tribe and the farmers in terms of pride, but are economically oppressive. "
Reports from farm workers state that the working days lasted from 4 a.m. to 6 p.m., interrupted by a one and a half hour lunch break. The farm workers, if they did not have their own (and if so, very modest) house often slept with the cattle in the stable. Already at the age of 13, immediately after attending school, the offspring were referred to farmers via so-called “ servants ”. Alcoholism was also widespread, along with other health problems .
During the fourteen years of the Weimar Republic, a noticeable shift in the elections from the left (liberal) to the right was noticeable in the localities of the municipality of Dornum - as in most of the municipalities in East Frisia. This was particularly evident in the main town of Dornum, where the USPD won the 1919 Reichstag election with 30.1% of the votes, ahead of the left-wing liberal DDP (27.7) and the SPD (18.8). In the election in May 1924, however, the anti-Semitic DNVP emerged victorious with 30.5%, ahead of the SPD with 22.1%. According to the results of the census carried out a year later, there were 58 Jews in Dornum in 1925. Four years later, the NSDAP, even more radical in its anti-Semitism, was ahead of the SPD (26.3%) with 32.2% of the vote. In the Reichstag elections in 1932 and 1933, the NSDAP even achieved an absolute majority with almost 60% of the votes.
In 1930 Paul Alexander Wilhelm (William) zu Münster sold the remains of the former glory of Dornum. According to his ideas, the property should remain undivided, i.e. the palace and the courtyards Wilhelminenhof, Alexandrinenhof, Joachimsfeld, Groß Kiphausen, Schwittersum, Georgshof, Marienfeld and Damm together with the lands (849 hectares) should be transferred to another owner. For the price of one million Reichsmarks, however, no single buyer was found, which is why the tenants of the aforementioned farms and a farmer from the Lower Rhine who had been displaced by industry secured the property and then divided it up. The castle had been used by the SA as a driving school since 1932 and later became the property of the state.
The synagogue was de-dedicated and sold on November 7, 1938 for 600 Reichsmarks to the neighboring master carpenter August Teßmer, who from then on used it as a storage room. Nevertheless, on the night of the pogrom in 1938, the windows of the building were smashed, the furnishings that were still there were taken out of the building and burned on the market square. That night, SA troops arrested all the Jewish residents of the village and took them to the neighboring north , where other Jews from the district were rounded up. Old people, women and children were released on the morning of November 10, the men were deported to Sachsenhausen concentration camp , from which they only returned weeks later. In the period that followed, the last Jews tried, as far as they were able to, to leave Dornum or Germany. On September 13, 1939, 8 Jewish fellow citizens were still living in Dornum. On March 8, 1940, the village was reported as " free of Jews ".
During the Second World War , prisoners of war and other internees of various nationalities were housed in the municipality. In the main town there was a labor camp that temporarily contained up to 46 people, all of them Russians. In addition, Germans, Poles, Serbs and French were interned at times. Other prisoners were housed with farmers in and around Nesse, including Germans, French, Belgians and Poles. The internees were mainly used to work in agriculture.
post war period
Beginning in the late 1960s, Dornumersiel turned to (bathing) tourism. In the following decades, the tourist infrastructure was gradually expanded. The beach hall was opened on June 22, 1967, and the new port in Accumersiel went into operation in the same year. It not only houses a fleet of cutters, but also offers space for sport and leisure boats. The campsite followed in the following year. The sandy beach was expanded to 80,000 square meters by flushing in 1969, and in that year the first 100 holiday homes were also completed in a settlement behind the beach. Another 160 houses followed in the following year. A seawater swimming pool followed in 1973. The investments led in 1981 to the recognition of Dornumersiel as a state-approved resort . In Dornumersiel, several three to four-story holiday home apartment blocks were also built in the early 1980s. The community and private investors also invested in the infrastructure in Neßmersiel. The ferry port to Baltrum was moved further to the coast in 1970, as the fairway became increasingly muddy. This also shortened the ferry journey time to 20 minutes.
On July 1, 1972, the communities of Roggenstede, Schwittersum and Westeraccum (previously in the Wittmund district ) were incorporated. On November 1, 2001, the communities of Dornumersiel were added with the places Dornumergrode, Westeraccumersiel and Westerbur, which were incorporated on July 1, 1972, and Nesse, with the places Neßmersiel and Westdorf, which were incorporated on July 1, 1972.
Until October 31, 2001, Dornum was a joint municipality , which was created in 1972 from the merger of the municipalities of Dornum, Nesse and Dornumersiel. Today Dornum, promoted by the community director Dieter Erdmann, is a unified community with the districts Dornum, Dornumergrode, Dornumersiel, Westeraccumersiel, Nesse, Neßmersiel, Westeraccum, Westdorf (with Ostdorf), Westerbur and Roggenstede.
The population of the main town has been around the 1,000 mark for some time. A significant boost in population development came after the end of the Second World War, when many refugees were taken in from the former eastern regions of the German Reich. In 1946, 301 of the total of 1255 inhabitants were refugees, which corresponds to a share of 24 percent. In 1950 one registered 1264 inhabitants. The number of refugees was 346. The quota rose to 27.4 percent.
On June 30, 2008 the entire municipality of Dornum had 4,767 inhabitants, who were spread over an area of 76.78 km². This corresponds to a population density of 62.1 people per km².
Development of the place name
The founding myth tells of a giant who built a house on the as yet uninhabited Geest Island because it was overgrown by a dense thorn forest that protected him from raids by pirates . The thesis of the eponymous thorns has now been refuted. The place name is a combination of the nickname Dore with -Sum , which means "home". According to the current state of the name interpretation, it can be assumed that the Association of Dore settled in the first millennium of our era .
The place is mentioned for the first time in 1400 as to Dornen and to Dornym . In 1589 he was called Dornum , in 1435 in Thornum . Then today's spelling prevailed.
The municipality council of the municipality of Dornum consists of 14 council women and councilors. This is the specified number for a municipality with a population between 3,001 and 5,000 inhabitants. The 14 council members are elected for five years each by local elections. The current term of office began on November 1, 2016 and ends on October 31, 2021.
The most recent local elections on September 11, 2016 resulted in the following:
|Party / list||Share of votes||+/-% p||Seats||+/- seats|
|SPD||51.28%||+ 4.5||8th||+ 1|
|CDU||20.11%||- 9.81||2||- 2nd|
|Free citizen protection initiative SG Dornum (FBI)||20.25%||+ 4.52||3||+ 1|
|AfD||8.34%||+ 8.34||1||+ 1|
The turnout in the 2011 local elections was 59.66%, above the Lower Saxony average of 55.5%. In the previous local election on September 11, 2011, the turnout was 56.96%.
Full-time mayor of the municipality of Dornum has been Michael Hook since 2007. For his first term of office, Hook prevailed with 53.54% of the vote against the candidate Thomas Erdmann from the SPD . In the last mayoral election on October 12, 2014, Hook was re-elected for a second term. He prevailed with 51.47% of the votes in front of the SPD candidate Herwig Horman, who achieved 43.13%, and the Green Hinrich Becker with 5.39%.
Representatives in the Land and Bundestag
The municipality of Dornum belongs to the state electoral district 87 Wittmund / Insel , which includes the entire district of Wittmund as well as the towns of Norderney and Wiesmoor in the district of Aurich , the municipality of Dornum and the island communities of Juist and Baltrum . 15 parties ran for the state elections in Lower Saxony in 2017 . Six of these parties have put up direct candidates. The directly elected MP is Jochen Beekhuis from the SPD .
In Bundestag elections, Dornum belongs to constituency 24 Aurich - Emden . This includes the city of Emden and the district of Aurich. In the 2017 federal election , the social democrat Johann Saathoff was directly elected. No party candidate from the constituency entered the Bundestag via the parties' list.
The municipality of Dornum is in a poor financial position. The main reason for this is the loss of business tax revenues from the Norwegian energy company Statoil, which operated a landing station for North Sea gas in the municipality (today owned by the Norwegian state company Gassco, see Economy). After restructuring, not only did business taxes cease to apply in 2006, the municipality even had to repay taxes paid in advance. Dornum's budget situation deteriorated significantly. However, the municipality is just above the assessment limit for special grants of the State of Lower Saxony, so that no special compensation payments are paid. The debt, which in 2005 was only 140,000 euros, rose to more than 6.4 million euros by the end of 2012.
Coat of arms, flag and official seal
|Blazon : "In gold, an erect, red-armored and red-tongued black bear with a gold collar."|
|Justification of the coat of arms: The coat of arms reflects the history of the municipality. When the former municipality of Dornum (today's main town) wanted to introduce a coat of arms in 1961, it was decided to use the coat of arms of the Attena chief family , the lords of the Harlingerland, who probably had their ancestral seat on the Norderburg. The chiefs of Dornum belonged to the family since the second half of the 14th century and in the early 15th century. The Attena coat of arms also found its way into East Frisia and, in a modified form, a bear growing out of a wall tower in the city coat of arms of Esens. In Wittmund's coat of arms, two bear claws represent the former rule of Attena.|
The municipal flag is also kept in the basic colors of the coat of arms. Dornum carries a gold-black divided flag, centered with the coat of arms of the municipality. The official seal contains the coat of arms and the inscription of the municipality of Dornum .
Like the entire Harlingerland and most of the Norderland , the community is Lutheran . The parishes of the main town, of Nesse and of Resterhafe belong to the parish of the north, with Resterhafe being the smallest parish of the parish with 404 parishioners. The communities in Roggenstede, Westeraccum and Westerbur, on the other hand, belong to the Harlingerland parish. The Lutheran Church in the districts of Aurich and Wittmund has the highest percentage of Lutherans in all of Germany.
In the area of the political community there are the Lutheran parishes of Dornum, Resterhafe, Roggenstede, Westeraccum and Westerbur. Together they come to a total population of around 4,800 people in the political community to around 4,000 members. The two largest parishes are Nesse with around 1,300 and Dornum with around 1,200 parishioners. Westeraccum has around 550, Westerbur around 250 and Roggenstede around 225 parishioners. In addition there are around 400 parishioners from Resterhafe. The church in the main town is a "reliably open church", so it is always open to visitors at set times.
The Dornum New Apostolic Church Congregation was dissolved on February 22, 2015. At that time it existed for 80 years. In 2006 the community still had 64 members.
However, there has been no Jewish community since the time of National Socialism . The Jewish community of Dornum existed for a period of around 300 years from its beginnings in the 17th century to its end on March 8, 1940. In 1925, the town had the highest percentage of Jewish citizens in East Frisia with 7.3 percent . Excluded and persecuted after 1933, many Jews emigrated. Over 50% of the Jewish residents living in Dornum in 1933 were murdered in the Holocaust . None of the surviving Jews from Dornum returned. The preserved cemetery of the community and the synagogue, in which a memorial has now been set up, still bear witness to Jewish life .
Economy and Infrastructure
Traditionally, small craft and commercial enterprises dominated the economy in Dornum. Large parts of the municipality of the surrounding villages, however, were still dominated by agriculture after the municipal and territorial reform. The soil is very fertile with a high soil value number . In 1974 there were 87 companies in the agricultural sector. In the following years this number fell considerably from 66 (1979) to 51 (1987). At the same time, a concentration was observed, as in 1987 large farms (28) clearly had the majority. Furthermore, 12 small and 11 medium-sized companies were represented. After skyrocketing to 106 in 1971, the number of non-agricultural workplaces fell to 90 in 1987. The total labor force almost doubled to 718. The quota of out-commuters (45.7%) and in-commuters (42.5%) also increased significantly in 1987.
As a sparsely populated community on the North Sea coast, where a steady wind blows, the community is suitable for generating wind energy. There are several wind farms in Dornum, and the municipality has determined areas for further use by wind turbines. However, usage conflicts sometimes arise with bird protection.
Dornum is a hub for natural gas deliveries to Europe. In Cankebeer, between Dornum and Nesse, the Norwegian company Gassco AS , which is exclusively owned by the Norwegian state , operates a natural gas landfall facility for the Europipe pipelines . In this system, the pressure is released from around 160 bar to 80 bar and the raw material is then transported over 49 kilometers of underground lines to Emden, where the amount of gas is measured and delivered to the customer network. In this way, natural gas is transported by pipeline from Norway to Dornum and made available for the European market. Another line goes from Dornum to Salzwedel in the NETRA pipeline .
Tourism is important in the summer months and during individual periods of the winter half-year (e.g. Christmas / New Year or Carnival ). The municipality of Dornum records almost 500,000 overnight stays annually. A total of around 6,000 beds are available. The main tourist attractions are the main town of Dornum, the port and sewage area of Dornumersiel and Neßmersiel with the "Sturmfrei" leisure center. Neßmersiel also has one of the numerous paddle and pedal stations in East Friesland. Accommodation options can also be found in all other villages in the municipality.
There are motorhome parking spaces in Dornumersiel and Dornum. Hotels can be found in the main town as well as in Neßmersiel, but private pensions in all villages of the municipality. Holiday homes can be found in all districts. In addition, farmers rent rooms on their farms.
The campsite in Dornumersiel has around 150 permanent pitches, 100 tourist pitches, 16 camper pitches and 40 tent pitches. In Dornumersiel there is also the thatched house by the sea with play barn , children's entertainment , fireplace and reading room as well as tourist information . There is a sandy beach next to the port entrance.
The community is clearly characterized by agriculture, with grassland farming in the old marsh areas as well as arable farming in the young marsh areas. In the core town of Dornum there is also a large fruit-growing plantation where apples are grown.
Part of the agricultural land in the Westdorf / Ostdorf / Nessmersiel area is owned by Theelacht , an old cooperative association of landowners from the Norderland. The Theelacht is divided into eight "Theele" (shares), each of which has land. Five of the "Theele" are wholly or at least partially located in Dornum: Hover Theel, Osthover Theel, Neugroder Theel, Eber Theel and small parts of the Ekeler Theel. The lands are leased to farmers in the respective areas.
Dornum is away from the main traffic routes. The community is connected to the cities of Norden and Esens via state road 5 and Aurich via state road 7. The nearest motorway junctions in Ostfriesland are on the A 31 (Emden- Bottrop ) in the city of Emden ( Emden-Nord driveway , around 44 kilometers) or at the Riepe junction (around 41 kilometers). When driving in the direction of Oldenburg / Bremen, the route via the A 29 is shorter, the approach to Wilhelmshavener Kreuz is around 49 kilometers away. Overland bus routes connect Dornum with the north and Esens. Despite multiple requests from the Dornum politicians, there is no direct connection to the district town of Aurich, the journey via the north or Esens to Aurich, a good 20 kilometers away, takes more than an hour. An exception is a tourist bus that runs twice a day in the summer months.
Dornum has a well-developed network of cycle paths. There are separate cycle paths on the two main roads as the main mode of transport. The community is on the North Sea Coast Cycle Route.
Dornum no longer has a train station with a regular and permanent connection to the rail network. The nearest train stations are in Norden and Esens . While the Norder Bahnhof is an intercity stop with connections in the direction of Bremen / Hanover and Münster / Cologne, only regional trains of the NordWestBahn run from Esens , which connect to Oldenburg Hbf (with a change in Sande or Wilhelmshaven) .
Dornum was connected to the rail network in 1883 via the East Frisian Coast Railway. On May 29, 1983, passenger traffic between the north and Dornum was stopped. The freight traffic initially remained. The route between the north and Dornum has been used for tourist traffic since 1987 by the Ostfriesland coastal railway museum. On September 23, 1989, freight traffic was also discontinued and the line was sold to the neighboring communities by Deutsche Bahn via the Aurich district in 1991. They leased these to the museum railway. The section between Dornum and Esens was shut down on September 27, 1985 and dismantled in 1986. There is now a cycle path on the route . The north - Dornum section is now operated as a public railway infrastructure by the municipality of Dornum as a railway infrastructure company.
There are harbors in the districts of Dornumer- / Westeraccumersiel and Neßmersiel in the municipality. Depending on the tide, the North Sea island of Baltrum is approached from Neßmersiel by ferries of the shipping company Baltrum-Linie, founded in 1928 . The journey time is around 30 minutes. Depending on the time of year and travel time, there are one to a maximum of four departures per day in each direction. The luggage of the holidaymakers is loaded into containers before departure and then transported on the same ferry. The shipping company operates its own bus connection to the north station . A total of over 200,000 people are transported to and from Baltrum every year. The island is connected to the mainland with four ferries, including a cargo and passenger ferry and a jet boat. After the freight traffic with the supply ship Baltrum II was previously handled via the port of Norddeich , this has been done since 2006 via the port of Neßmersiel, which was inaugurated in June 1970, which was therefore expanded from April to August 2008 by a 35 meter long freight quay. The shipping company also offers excursion services. The sailing club has 50 berths for sports boats in Neßmersiel.
The marina in Dornumer- / Westeraccumersiel has 240 berths. Special trips to Baltrum and Langeoog are offered. Both places also have a significant fishing fleet.
Dornum is in the circulation area of three daily newspapers: Ostfriesen-Zeitung , Anzeiger für Harlingerland and Ostfriesischer Kurier , of which the Ostfriesen-Zeitung, published in Leer, is the only East Frisian daily newspaper in the entire Ostfriesland region with local editions. The Ostfriesischer Kurier and the Anzeiger für Harlingerland cooperate in the editorial field, so that the articles about Dornum events are identical. In addition, an advertising paper from the publishing house of the Emder Zeitung appears twice a week : on Wednesdays it appears as the home paper , on Sundays as the Sunday paper . The weekly newspaper Echo is published by the Ostfriesischer Kurier publishing house (once a week). The community radio station Radio Ostfriesland and the private radio station Radio Nordseewelle also report from the community .
There are two independent day-care centers in the municipality: in Dornum and Nesse. There is a primary school in the main town, where the secondary and secondary schools are also located. It is housed in the Dornum Castle . The closest grammar schools are the Lower Saxony boarding school in Esens , the Ulrichs grammar school in Norden and the Ulricianum in Aurich, where there is also an integrated comprehensive school. The closest vocational schools are in Aurich and Norden. The closest university of applied sciences is in Emden , the closest university is in Oldenburg . In the adult education sector, the North District Adult Education Center has a branch in Dornum.
In addition to the municipal administration with subordinate companies such as the building yard and the subsidiary Tourismus GmbH, there is also a police station in Dornum. It is manned during normal office hours, outside of these the municipality is looked after by the police station in Norden.
Authorities and courts responsible for the municipality are located in Norden (district court, tax office, land registry, branch of the district administration) or Aurich (district administration, regional court). The nearest hospitals can also be found there.
Culture and sights
Of the three castles originally built in the municipality, two have been preserved to this day. The Burghotel Beningaburg to the legend from 1375 to 1380 by chief have been built Olde Hero Attena (Dornum) as a moated castle. It was destroyed in the Saxon feud , but then rebuilt. By marriage it later fell to the Beninga family , who gave the building its name. Today there is a restaurant in the building. In the ancestral hall of the castle historical paintings of the Beningas can be seen.
The moated castle in Dornum, the Norderburg , like the Beningaburg, was probably built by Olde Hero von Dornum in the 14th century. The Norderburg was destroyed in 1514 - like the other Dornum castles - in the course of the Saxon feud and rebuilt in 1534. A tower was added in the middle of the 17th century. Between 1698 and 1706 the castle was thoroughly rebuilt. A wide triangular pediment can be found above the entrance, which contains a relief of Pallas Athene. The walls changed hands several times in the following centuries. In 1942 the castle finally became state property. In 1951 the Norderburg was converted into a secondary school. The premises of the building with the restored two-storey knight's hall , which, among other things, houses two family portraits of the von Closter chief family who once resided here, can only be viewed as part of a guided tour. During the summer holidays the castle is used for exhibitions, concerts and jousting games. Visits are possible at certain times due to school operations.
The Westerburg , which was destroyed in the Saxon feud, is no longer preserved . It was the only one that was not rebuilt. A mill was built on the historical site in 1719.
The Dornum Synagogue Memorial houses a permanent exhibition on Jewish life in East Friesland . It is divided into the areas of “history”, “culture” and “religion”. The synagogue is the only Jewish house of worship in East Frisia that was not destroyed during the Reichspogromnacht , as it had already been profaned a year earlier. The synagogue in Dornum is the only one that has survived and is open to the public in East Frisia. The legacies of the painter brothers Ludwig and Georg Kittel and Enno Wilhelm Hektor can be seen in the Oma-Freese-Huus , which was built around 1850 . The Lüttje Huus an't Diek ( Little House on the Dike) in Neßmergrode shows the rural life and work of farm workers in East Frisia in earlier times.
The Zwei-Siele-Museum in Dornumersiel is reminiscent of a curiosity in East Friesland: The founding of two Sielorte, Dornumersiel and Westeraccumersiel, in close proximity to each other, which was due to the former border between the Norderland and Harlingerland. The earlier importance of the sewage sites for merchant shipping and the history of fishing are also documented with many maritime objects, models and display boards. The National Park House , which shows the importance of the Wadden Sea , has also been located in Dornumersiel since 1988 . You can see materials on the world of birds, a model of a beach and salt marsh, a model of a mussel bank, seawater aquariums and a three-dimensional model of a seal bank. The consequences of the use of nature and environmental pollution on flora and fauna play a major role.
Churches and organs
There are medieval churches in several parts of the community, most of which were built in the 13th century. Some of the furnishings are of supraregional importance in terms of art history.
The most famous church in the municipality is the St. Bartholomew Church in Dornum. It was in the years 1270/90 on a mound built. The 13th century bell tower houses two bells that are as old as the tower. In the grave cellar under the church is the hereditary burial of the Dornum chiefs. In 2011, eight coffins containing the remains of the von Closter chief family were restored. From 2012 they are to be made accessible to the public. The rich interior decoration was donated by Haro Joachim von Closter, such as the altar reredos , which reached the wooden ceiling and which Hinrich Cröpelin created in 1683. The elaborately carved Baroque pulpit and the prieche of the Closter family also come from him . The baptismal font made of Bentheim sandstone dates from the time the church was built. The organ built by Gerhard von Holy in 1710/11 is one of the largest village organs in northern Germany and the second largest historical organ in East Friesland. It has largely been preserved and was recognized as a national monument of European importance in 1995.
The St. Mary's Church in Nesse was built around 1250 as a Romanesque hall church made of tufa and in 1493 a polygonal brick choir with a ribbed vault was added. Special features of the church are the stone rood screen from the end of the 15th century with its three large basket arches and the font made of Baumberger sandstone , which dates from the 13th century. The most complete preserved church complex in East Frisia is grouped around the building with the rectory, the organist's house, the separate bell tower and the cemetery.
The construction of the Petrikirche in Westeraccum began around 1270. The interior is closed off by three bays with a ribbed vault. The east apse still has the original arched windows. The ornaments in the vault from the years 1270 to 1280 discovered during renovation work in 2000 and the baroque pulpit by Andreas Danhast from 1694 are worth seeing.
The St. Matthew Church of Resterhafe is considered the oldest in glory. It was built in the middle of the 13th century as a one-room church made of bricks in monastery format on a terp about five meters high. The original vaults were later replaced by a flat wooden beam ceiling. The choir has been separated by a wooden barrier with bars and ornaments since the beginning of the 17th century. The winged altar also dates from this time.
The origins of the Roggensteder Church are also in the 13th century. The brick church was built as a Romanesque hall building on a granite base. The shield arches on the long walls inside indicate the former stone vaults. The church's writing altar dates from the 16th century and used to be in the Dornum church. The pulpit was made in the 15th century. Johann Gottfried Rohlfs built the organ from 1827 to 1833, which has largely been preserved in its original condition. Other items of equipment include a crucifix that used to hang on a forked cross, a baptismal font made of Bentheim sandstone from the time the church was built and a sacrament house with the original painting. A votive ship has adorned the church since 1680. A special feature is the hagioscope , a medieval leprosy fissure.
The Westerbur Church was built in 1753 on the foundations of an earlier church as a hall with a polygonal choir. The interior fittings were largely taken over from the previous building. Arnold Rohlfs built her organ on a painted gallery in front of the altar between 1859 and 1860.
A large number of historic houses have been preserved in the center of Dornum. The ensemble around the market square is characterized by small alleys.
There are still four historical windmills in the municipality: The Dornum post mill is not only the last of its kind in East Friesland, but also the oldest mill in the region. It was built in 1626 and has been owned by the municipality of Dornum since 1984. The post mill does not yet have a gallery and a wind rose. It is manually turned into the wind for grinding. In order to better exploit this wind, the small mill was built on an artificially created earth wall. The mill is currently (as of 2011) being restored. Gallery Dutch are in the towns of Westeraccum, Westerbur, Nesse and Neßmersiel .
Until 1960 Westeraccumersiel was the location of a rescue station of the German Society for the Rescue of Shipwrecked People (DGzRS). Today the lifeboat Walther Müller , a ship of the nine-meter class that was set up in front of the old rescue shed, reminds of this tradition . The Walther Müller was renamed to the name Eppe de Bloom , echoing the first foreman of the former rescue station Accumersiel. Other attractions include the ports in Dornumer- and Neßmersiel.
Concerts are regularly given on the Holy Organ in the Dornum Church in summer. These operate under the term night organ , as they take place in the evening hours by candlelight. In addition, the churches serve the concerts of the series Tidal Concerts in East Friesland and Musical Summer in East Friesland .
Sports and leisure facilities
In the municipality of Dornum, the Frisian sport of Boßeln is practiced in several clubs . Football is played at SV Dornum (the largest club with around 850 members) and at FC Nesse . Both clubs offer other sports. The sport of sailing is operated by the Accumersiel Yacht Club and the North Sea Yacht Club Neßmersiel . Other clubs located in the municipality are the shooting club Dornum as well as the judo club Dornum and two fishing clubs.
There are sports halls in the main town and in Schwittersum, and sports fields in Dornum and Nesse. A tennis court is located in Dornumersiel. There is also an indoor seawater pool called Doroness there. The indoor play park Sturmfrei in Neßmersiel offers sports such as bowling, climbing, trampoline jumping, billiards, table football or table tennis as well as ball sports such as soccer, badminton or volleyball on 2,800 square meters.
Language and tradition
In Dornum, East Frisian Platt is spoken in addition to High German . The Low German is anchored in the community well. There are projects in kindergartens and schools in order to bring the younger generation into contact with Low German at an early stage. There are also Low German church services , and it is quite common for weddings to be held in Low German .
Several local and homeland associations, which can be found in almost all districts, take care of the maintenance of regional culture and the processing of history.
Ulrich von Dornum (1465 / 66–1536) is particularly known in theology . In June 1526, he initiated in Oldersum a public debate of Emden preacher George Aportanus with the Catholic Dominican prior Laurens Laurensen . The text about the dispute, which Ulrich wrote afterwards, was widely circulated and thus contributed to the rapid implementation of Protestantism in East Frisia. Johannes Ligarius (1529–1596) from Nesse was instrumental in shaping East Frisian Lutheranism after the religious split into Reformed and Lutherans. At the age of 20 the pastor and astronomer David Fabricius took up his parish office in Resterhafe (1584). The East Frisian revival preacher Remmer Janssen was vicar in Nesse.
Hendrick Gottfried Dürkopp (born May 5, 1736, † July 27, 1778 at sea) was director of the Dejima trading post in Japan for the VOC . The deputy Johann Gerhardt Röben (born August 27, 1812 in Norden, † February 24, 1881 in Dornum) was represented in both the Paulskirche parliament and the German Reichstag (1871-1874). Friedrich Vissering was also a member of the Reichstag in 1884 and 1885 .
The writer Enno Wilhelm Hektor (1820–1874) brought Low German back to life in literature. His best-known work is the Heimatlied der Ostfriesen In Oostfreesland is't best . The portrait painter Henrich Becker , born in 1747, created works about many East Frisian personalities.
The internationally best-known people from Dornum include Miene Schönberg (known as Minnie Marx, 1865-1929), the mother of the Marx Brothers , and her brother Albert Schönberg (known as Al Shean, 1868-1949), with whose help the five brothers ins Show business.
The CDU member of the Bundestag Diedrich Schröder was a member of parliament from 1969 to 1983. From 1967 to 1986 he was President of the East Frisian Country People . In 1948 MEP Horst Posdorf was born in Dornum.
The painter, graphic artist and sculptor Ruth Schmidt Stockhausen (1922–2014) lived in the Dornum district of Westdorf from 1983 to 2014 in an old Gulfhof. Her artistic estate is administered by the Ruth Schmidt Stockhausen Foundation based in Westdorf, and the unchanged studio rooms with selected works by the artist can be viewed every summer on selected weekends.
Chiefs and Barons of Dornum
- Lütet Attena († around 1410/11)
- Fir Kankena († 1461)
- Sibet Attena (around 1425–8 November 1473), East French chief
Hikko Kankena died around 1554 as the last of his tribe. His sister Almut von Kankena became the heir to the glory of Dornum. She was married to the nobleman Gerhard von Closter from Drente . The family then called themselves von Closter, Freiherr von Dornum . The last representative was Haro Joachim von Closter († 1728). After his death, his youngest daughter Sophia von Closter († March 11, 1783), who was married to the Württemberg privy councilor and baron Johann von Wallbrunn (born September 6, 1690; † 1752), inherited. From here the glory came through the marriage of the daughter Wilhelmine Eberhardine Sofie von Wallbrunn (* October 29, 1732 - July 22, 1807) with Carl Gustav Friedrich von Uexküll-Gyllenband (* September 21, 1716; † December 21, 1801) family Uexküll Gyllenband . In 1795 the glory was sold to the Count von Schönburg, who already sold it to the privy councilor von Hoffbauer from Minden in 1798 . In 1820 there was another change of ownership to the Count of Münster .
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- Harald Vogel , Reinhard Ruge, Robert Noah, Martin Stromann: Organ landscape Ostfriesland . Soltau-Kurier-Norden, Norden 1995, ISBN 3-928327-19-4 , p. 40 f., 142 .
- Gottfried Kiesow: Architectural Guide Ostfriesland . Verlag Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz, Bonn 2010, ISBN 978-3-86795-021-3 , p. 308 .
- Gottfried Kiesow: Architectural Guide Ostfriesland . Verlag Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz, Bonn 2010, ISBN 978-3-86795-021-3 , p. 311 .
- Gottfried Kiesow: Architectural Guide Ostfriesland . Verlag Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz, Bonn 2010, ISBN 978-3-86795-021-3 , p. 299 .
- Gottfried Kiesow: Architectural Guide Ostfriesland . Verlag Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz, Bonn 2010, ISBN 978-3-86795-021-3 , p. 313 .
- Dietrich Diederichs-Gottschalk : The Protestant written altars of the 16th and 17th centuries in northwest Germany . Verlag Schnell + Steiner GmbH, Regensburg 2005, ISBN 978-3-7954-1762-8 , pp. 135 ff.
- Monika van Lengen, Uda von der Nahmer: Kulturkarte Ostfriesland , Ostfriesische Landschaftliche Verlags- und Vertriebsgesellschaft, Aurich 2006, ISBN 3-932206-61-4 , p. 66.
- DGzRS lifeboats decommissioned. ARTHUR MENGE and WALTHER MÜLLER - the last boats of their kind in: … intern , magazine of the German Rescue Society (PDF file), edition December 6, 2006 p. 24, accessed on September 2, 2012.
- Municipality of Dornum: Welcome to the municipality of Dornum , accessed on August 18, 2010.
- Website of the Ruth Schmidt Stockhausen Foundation
- Ernst Heinrich Kneschke : New General German Adels Lexicon , Vol. 2, p. 291 digitized.
- Michael Ranf: New genealogical-historical news , p. 467, digitized.
- Friedrich Arends: Earth Description of the Principality of Ostfriesland and Harlingerland , p. 434 ( digitized )