|Height :||3 (0-3) m|
|Area :||7.42 km²|
|Residents :||458 (December 31, 2012)|
|Population density :||62 inhabitants / km²|
|Incorporation :||July 1, 1972|
|Postal code :||26736|
|Area code :||04923|
Card of the Krummhörn
Groothusen is an old Langwurtendorf in the municipality of Krummhörn in the west of East Frisia , about 15 kilometers northwest of the seaport town of Emden with 458 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2012). The terp has a length of about 500 meters and a width of about 130 meters.
After lifting registers of Werden Abbey (BECOMING arable) the place for the first time in the year 1000 under the name Husum mentioned the place but probably already in the 8th century originated. After excavations have been carried out locally, a Wikdorf, i. H. a trading venue, to be closed. It was created on a creek that led into the so-called Bay of Sielmönken , which is now completely silted up.
At that time the distance to the coast was only about 500 m and so the sea traffic routes of the Frisian long-distance trade ran in the immediate vicinity, including between Dorestad and Haithabu . Frisian merchants stacked their goods here and found accommodation for longer stays in the village. After being dyed in the 13th century , Groothusen lost its importance as a trading center. In addition to Groothusen, there are other Langwurtendörfer in East Friesland in Grimersum (Krummhörn), Jemgum and Hatzum (Rheiderland), in the center of Oldersum (Moormerland) and in Nesse (Norder Marsch).
As early as the early Middle Ages, Husum was the seat of a Münster provost. The large St. Petrus Church , one of the six provost churches of the old Emsgau, with its massive church tower forms the north-western end of the elongated Warfdorf . The bell dates from 1526. The tombstone of Adda von Meckenaborg, Mistress von Groothusen, carved in bluestone from 1590, is considered a special treasure. In addition to other grave slabs that are well worth seeing, the magnificent bronze baptismal font cast by Ghert Klinghe in 1454 and the valuable organ by Johann Friedrich Wenthin (1798–1801) with its unique flute sounds are further sights and attractions of the old church.
Three castles, the Oster , Middel and Westerburg, adorned Groothusen's village image in earlier times. Only the Osterburg - rebuilt around 1490 - has survived to this day, the other two were destroyed in feuds in 1400 and 1432 by the Hamburgers . The Osterburg is located on the east side of the village on a nature reserve with a long, old avenue of lime trees . Today it houses numerous historical memorabilia.
In 1744, Groothusen, like all of East Frisia, fell to Prussia . In 1756 the Prussian officials compiled a statistical trade survey for East Friesland. That year there were 23 merchants and craftsmen in Groothusen, including three bakers, linen weavers and tailors, two cooper, blacksmith, shoemaker and carpenters and one glazier and barber each. The three merchants traded in bits and pieces of salt, tobacco and soap.
In the course of the Hanoverian office reform in 1859, the Greetsiel office was dissolved and added to the Emden office, Groothusen has belonged to the latter since then. During the Prussian district reform in 1885 , the Emden district was formed into the Emden district, to which Groothusen then belonged.
For centuries, the natural depths and drainage channels that crisscross the Krummhörn in a dense network were the most important modes of transport. Not only the villages but also many farms were connected to the city of Emden and the port of Greetsiel via ditches and canals. The boat traffic with Emden was particularly important. Village boatmen took over the supply of goods from the city and delivered agricultural products in the opposite direction: “From the Sielhafenort, smaller ships, so-called Loog ships, transported the cargo to the inland and supplied the marsh villages (loog = village). The loog ships from the Krummhörn enlivened the canals of the city of Emden until the 20th century. "
Peat, which was mostly extracted in the East Frisian Fehnen , played an important role as heating material for the inhabitants of the Krummhörn for centuries . The peat ships brought the material on the East Frisian canal network to the Krummhörn villages, including Groothusen. On their way back into the Fehnsiedlungen the Torfschiffer often took clay soil from the march and the manure of cattle with which they their home were dug fertilized land.
In April 1919 there were so-called "bacon removals" from Emden workers, which were followed by rioting on the farm workers. Together with the Rheiderland , the district of Emden was the part of East Frisia most affected by this unrest. Workers broke into the surrounding villages in closed trains and stole food from farmers in clashes. The situation only calmed down after the deployment of the Reichswehr troops stationed in the region . As a reaction to this, resident groups were formed in almost all villages in the Emden area . The common resident defense Pewsums, Woquards and Groothusens was the strongest in terms of head count in the district of Emden and comprised 140 people. These had 40 weapons. The resident services were only dissolved after a corresponding decree by the Prussian Interior Minister Carl Severing on April 10, 1920.
The Emden – Pewsum – Greetsiel circuit , where Groothusen had a stop, was shut down in May 1963 and subsequently dismantled.
On July 1, 1972, Grothusen was incorporated into the new municipality of Krummhörn.
Culture and sights
- Diedrich Janßen-Jennelt (1889–1983), teacher and painter
- Udo Smidt (1900–1978), Evangelical Reformed clergyman and superintendent of the Lippe regional church
- Enno F. Kempe: The Osterburg to Groothusen ( Ostfriesischer Kunstführer , issue 12). Aurich 1989
- Waldemar Reinhardt: The excavation on the village throw of Groothusen, north district, and its results . In: Yearbook of the Society for Fine Art and Patriotic Antiquities in Emden . 39: 30-36 (1959).
- Manfred Hülsewede: Die Propstei, Groothuser Trilogie, Emden 2002 a. 2010, 2 vol. ISBN 3-921229-98-7 and 978-3-00-032358-4.
- Location map for the book "Die Propstei", Groothuser Trilogie, Vol. 2 on the basis of the district map of the green tax survey of 1872/73, LGLN. Land registry offices Aurich and Emden.
- Karl Heinrich Kaufhold ; Uwe Wallbaum (Ed.): Historical statistics of the Prussian province of East Friesland (sources on the history of East Friesland, Volume 16), Verlag Ostfriesische Landschaft, Aurich 1998, ISBN 3-932206-08-8 , p. 387.
- Ordinance on the reorganization of administrative offices 1859. pp. 675f., Accessed on May 21, 2013.
- Harm Wiemann / Johannes Engelmann: Old streets and ways in East Frisia . Self-published, Pewsum 1974, p. 169 (East Frisia in the protection of the dyke; 8)
- Gunther Hummerich: The peat shipping of the Fehntjer in Emden and the Krummhörn in the 19th and 20th centuries. In: Emder Yearbook for Historical Regional Studies in Ostfriesland , Volume 88/89 (2008/2009), pp. 142–173, here p. 163.
- Hans Bernhard Eden: The Resident Services of Ostfriesland from 1919 to 1921. In: Emder Yearbook for Historical Country Studies of Ostfriesland , Vol. 65 (1985), pp. 81-134, here pp. 94, 98, 105, 114.
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 263 f .