|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||Lower Saxony|
|Height :||1 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||112.36 km 2|
|Residents:||49,913 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||444 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||26721, 26723, 26725|
|Primaries :||04921, 04927|
|License plate :||EMD|
|Community key :||03 4 02 000|
|City structure:||20 districts|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Tim Kruithoff (independent)|
|Location of the city of Emden in Lower Saxony|
Emden is a city in the north-west of Lower Saxony and the largest city in East Frisia . It is located at the mouth of the Ems on the north bank of the Dollart . With 49,913 inhabitants, Emden is the smallest of the state's independent cities , ranks 20th among the cities in Lower Saxony and is therefore the second largest city on the Lower Saxony coast after Wilhelmshaven . The inhabitants are called Emder, the adjective is also like that.
The city emerged as a Frisian trading center around the year 800 and is still largely characterized by its seaport , which in the 20th century was the basis for the settlement of larger industrial companies such as the Nordseewerke shipyard and the Volkswagen factory . As a business location, the only independent city in East Frisia is of paramount importance for the region. The city has been a university location since 1973 . The regional planning of Lower Saxony has identified Emden as a medium-sized center with upper-central sub-functions since 2007 .
In the 16th century, Emden was one of the most important sites of the Reformation, along with Geneva and Wittenberg. Johannes a Lasco , Albert Ritzaeus Hardenberg and Menso Alting worked in Emden, among others . The baptism of 300 adults in an anteroom of the Great Church by Melchior Hofmann in 1530 marked the beginning of the Anabaptist movement in north-west Germany and the Netherlands. The Great Church was also a religious refuge for refugees from the Netherlands during the Reformation. Grateful descendants of the refugee families donated to the east portal of the Great Church in 1660, which they called "moederkerk" ("mother church"). The Synod of Emden (1571) was the first national synod of the Dutch Reformed . Because of this importance, the Council of the Community of Evangelical Churches in Europe (CPCE), based in Vienna Emden, was the first place on the continent to award the title of “ Reformation City of Europe ” in December 2013 .
Emden is also known as the birthplace of the comedians Otto Waalkes and Karl Dall , who shaped the East Frisian joke through their work . In particular, “Otto” made his hometown better known through films and music albums. The Johannes a Lasco library and the art gallery in Emden are of national importance . The latter was donated by Henri Nannen , who also came from Emden.
Emden is located in the north-west of Germany in the historical East Frisia landscape and is Germany's most westerly seaport . It is located on the northern edge of the mouth of the Ems into the North Sea , and south of the city is the Dollart Bay . The port of Emden is 38 nautical miles from the mouth of the Ems near Borkum . At the Knock , which forms the westernmost point of the Emden urban area, is the southwesternmost point of the East Frisian peninsula.
Nearby larger cities are Oldenburg (a good 70 kilometers east-southeast), Bremen (a good 110 kilometers east-southeast), Groningen (a good 50 kilometers west-southwest - the distance by train or car is much longer, however, as the Dollart has to be bypassed) and Wilhelmshaven (good 60 kilometers east-northeast).
The state planning of Lower Saxony shows Emden as a medium-sized center with upper-central sub-functions . The catchment area varies depending on the function being observed. As a shopping town, Emden mainly supplies the surrounding communities, some of them only partially, as there is competition to the towns of Aurich and Leer . The latter have the advantage that their catchment area extends in all directions, while in the south and west of Emden the Ems and Dollart form the natural border of the catchment area. The same applies to other services. As the largest city in East Frisia, Emden has an important role in the retail trade in East Frisia despite its unfavorable location (as a shopping town).
As a place of work, on the other hand, the city is of paramount importance for the entire East Frisia region and in some cases beyond. The cultural program is attended - at least for individual events, such as some concerts in the North Sea Hall - by guests who live in the area around Oldenburg, in the central to southern Emsland or in the northeast of the Netherlands . In addition, Emden is often a destination for tourists who spend their vacation on the coast and see the cultural sights of the city.
|use||Area in ha|
|Built up area||3,484|
|including residential space||922|
|including mixed construction area||135|
|of which commercial building space||1,738|
|of which special construction areas (especially port facilities)||690|
|of which road traffic||141|
|of which stationary traffic||2|
|including railway systems||95|
|of which air traffic||31|
|including sports fields||97|
|of which other green spaces||219|
After extensive incorporations in 1945/46 (Larrelt, Harsweg, Uphusen) and 1972 (Twixlum, Wybelsum, Logumer Vorwerk, Widdelswehr, Jarßum, Petkum), agricultural areas now make up 52 percent of the urban area (see table; now 61.1 percent , As of December 31, 2014). This means that Emden is pretty much in line with the national average, but it has an above-average amount of agricultural land for an independent city . In contrast, within East Frisia as a whole (agricultural areas of around 75 percent), Emden has a below-average share. The water area share of 6.85 percent (7.7 percent, as of December 31, 2014) is well above the national average of two percent, given the port and the large number of canals. Like all municipalities in the Marsch, however, Emden is forested far below average (1.24 percent, as of December 31, 2014). The largest contiguous forest area is the Emder Wall , an urban forest created in the 1990s in the far north of Emden is still in the process of developing. So far, 71 hectares have been planted with around 450,000 trees, and the rows of trees and bushes are to be cleared at a later date.
Geology and soils
The city's geological subsurface is determined by sediments from the Holocene . Due to its location on the Ems and Dollart, Emden is one of the few communities on the East Frisian mainland that has no part of the Geest and therefore has no Pleistocene strata near the surface . The predominant landscape is the marsh .
Large parts of the city area to the west of Emden was only in the 19th and 20th centuries dikes and are considered very fruitful. In addition, many agricultural areas in the east and west of the city were flooded with silt in the 20th century , which was obtained from dredging the Ems and the Emden harbor . After these areas had dried, they were again upgraded, as the silt is considered a valuable soil component. This practice continues today, currently (as of 2013) in the Wybelsum area .
The Emden marshes cover the entire urban area with the exception of some eastern areas near Marienwehr and Uphusen as well as in Borssumer to Petkumer Hammrich , where they occur in socialized form with other soil types. Pseudogley can be found northeast of Uphusen and south of the Ems-Jade Canal and in Borssumer Hammrich, underlain by Kleimarsch . The southern part of the Uphuser district around the Uphuser Meer and the Bansmeer as well as the Petkumer Hammrich (roughly north of the Fehntjer low ) consists of low moor with a raw march overlay. From 1954 onwards, areas near Uphusen were flooded with silt for several decades, then drained and - thus improved in soil quality - returned to agricultural use. To the north-east of Marienwehr, near the Kleiner Meer , there is a low moor with a knickmarch layer . The eastern part of the port of Emden, which was polded in and then artificially elevated in the early 20th century, is also an exception : it is known as Gley - Regosol , as Gley was used to raise the site.
The rest of the city area consists of Altmarschen and Jungmarschen . The youngest marshy soils are in the Petkum dike foreland , where salt marshes are only flooded with particularly pronounced storm surges and otherwise pedogenesis (soil formation) has already started. The area is a nature reserve . It is also attributable to the raw march (i.e. the youngest march form) as well as the Rysumer Nacken an der Knock , which was washed up in the 1970s and incorporated in 1976.
Kalkmarsch and Kleimarsch are also included in the Jungmarsch , whereby the former are the younger ones in terms of pedology . Kalkmarschen found in Emden mostly in those areas, which only in recent centuries dikes were. Apart from a narrow strip of Kalkmarsch, which is located from Borssum to Petkum directly behind the Emsdeich, all of the Kalkmarsch soils are in the west of the city, especially in the Larrelter and Wybelsumer polder, which was only diked between 1912 and 1923, and in the Dollart in the late 19th century reclaimed Kaiser Wilhelm Polder, on which the districts of Constantia and Port Arthur / Transvaal arose. In addition, there is Kalkmarsch between Larrelt and Twixlum as well as an extension to the north of the latter district. The Kleimarsch is much less represented in the Emden urban area, it occurs in the west of the city mainly as a narrow "connecting strip" to the Kalkmarsch to the south. The largest contiguous strip of Kleimarsch extends roughly from Petkum via Borssum through the city center and from there follows the Hinter Tief to the north. In places, however, this strip is barely more than a hundred meters wide.
The Knickmarsch , which makes up large parts of the northern and eastern urban area, is counted among the old marshes - hence the part of the march that represents the stage of maturity of the soil development. The soils are among the oldest marshy soils, are (as can also be seen in Emden) furthest away from the coast and have sunk in the course of soil formation. In parts of the urban area, such as the Bartshausen farms near Wybelsum and Rote Scheune near Twixlum, the area is below sea level . Knickmarsch can also be found in the Meeden north of Larrelt and east of Conrebbersweg, in the last-mentioned district itself, but above all in the entire east of the city area from an (roughly) imaginary line Barenburg-Herrentor-Borssum - unless it is mentioned at the beginning socialized (mixed) forms at Marienwehr as well as in Uphuser, Borssumer and Petkumer Hammrich.
The highest elevations are the artificial , around 7.5 meter high terp , which was created in the Middle Ages , on which the city was built, and the 15 meter high garbage dump , which has been redesigned into a landscape park since mid-2006 .
Emden is a city of water. There are 865 hectares of water area (as of December 31, 2014) within the limits, which corresponds to 7.7 percent of the total area. A large part of it consists of harbor basins, but around 150 kilometers of canals also run through the urban area. Parts of the sewer system are natural watercourses, most of the other hand, has been artificially created - such as the Emden moat , which together with the Emder Wall part of the medieval fortifications made or for the shipping scale channels such as the stretch drive low , the Ems-side channel and the Ems Jade Canal . In addition, there are two lakes, the Uphuser Sea and the Bansmeer , in the area of the city of Emden, and the city borders on another ( Hieve or Kleines Meer ). All lakes are connected via canals with the port of Emden and the East Frisian waterway network, whereby there is a driving ban on the Bansmeer, which is a designated nature reserve. The Hinter Tief and the Larrelter Tief connect Emden with the canals north and west of Emden, via the Knockster Tief with the Krummhörner villages, and the Fehntjer Tief and the Ems-Jade Canal with the canals east of Emden. It is possible to travel to Oldenburg and the Weser via the Ems-Jade Canal and other branches - but in sections only with boats without higher superstructures due to low bridges. The port of Emden with the large sea lock and the Nesserland lock forms the passage from inland shipping to sea shipping .
As part of coastal protection , Emden is protected from storm surges in the North Sea by dikes . Therefore, the sea dike runs between the Knock in the far west and the harbor entrance and the Emsdeich in the south of Emden runs from the harbor entrance to the eastern border of Emden . In addition to artificial waters such as harbors, canals and sluices , some rivers , also referred to here as low , ensure the necessary drainage of the urban area, which is only slightly above sea level.
Emden is mainly in the direct influence of the North Sea . In summer the daytime temperatures are lower, in winter often higher than in the further inland. The climate is generally characterized by the Central European west wind zone.
Storms are common in spring and autumn, and these often coincide with a storm surge . Winds are measured in hurricane strength. During the All Saints Flood in 2006 (November 1st), the highest water level ever recorded in the Emden harbor was measured at 3.59 meters above the mean tidal high water . The outer harbor, exposed to the sea and not protected by dikes and locks, was flooded. The storm surge caused damage in the six figures.
According to the Köppen climate classification , Emden is in the Cfb division .
- Climate zone C : warm-temperate climate
- Climate type Cf : humid-temperate climate
- Climate subtype b : warm summers
The average annual temperature is 8.8 ° C. The warmest months are July and August with a monthly mean temperature of more than 16 ° C. The coldest month is January with an average of 1.3 ° C.
The amount of precipitation within a year in Emden is 805 mm. The rainiest month is November with 83 mm, the least rainy month is February with 45.5 mm.
The sun shines a total of 1512 hours in Emden. May offers the greatest chance of sunshine. This month there are 210 hours of sunshine. The opposite in December: Then the sun shines for only 32 hours.
The values given relate to the long-term mean for the years 1961 to 1990.
Monthly average temperatures and precipitation for Emden ( Wolthusen measuring station )
Source: German Weather Service
Expansion of the urban area
The maximum length from north to south is 7.7 kilometers. The extension from west to east is a maximum of 20.4 kilometers, the city extends in full width along the Ems. The total length of the city boundary is 43.0 kilometers on the land side. The total area is 112.36 square kilometers (as of December 31, 2014), which are composed as shown in the table above. The comparatively low population density of 461 inhabitants per square kilometer and the high proportion of agricultural land result from the municipal reform of 1972: At that time, the villages of Wybelsum , Logumer Vorwerk , Twixlum , Widdelswehr and Petkum were incorporated with their surrounding areas (see urban structure ). Large parts of the areas in the east and west of the city are therefore dominated by agriculture. The Petkumer Deichvorland nature reserve is located in the east of the urban area .
Immediately adjacent communities from northwest to east clockwise: Krummhörn , Hinte , Südbrookmerland and Ihlow (all Aurich district ) and Moormerland ( Leer district ). In the south as well as in the west Emden is bounded directly by the Ems and the Dollart. On the opposite bank of the Ems and the Dollarts are the municipalities of Jemgum and Bunde (district of Leer) and Dutch territory, including the city of Delfzijl and the municipality of Oldambt . The island of Borkum is a special case : politically it belongs to the district of Leer. The only connection to the German mainland leads via Emden, which is why the seaport city plays an important role for the island as a school location, but also for services and the supply of goods.
The most intense relationships exist between Hinte and Emden. Behind is a suburban community that essentially serves as a sleeping community . The urban transition is fluid. During the local government reform in 1972, it was discussed whether the current area of the community of Hinte should be completely incorporated into Emden, but this was rejected. The relationships between the municipality of Krummhörn and Emden are similarly close, even if the Krummhörn (the colloquial name) has its own economic mainstay in tourism. However, the majority of residents of both communities use Emden as a place to work and shop as well as the city's leisure infrastructure. The business district of the Emden District Court and the Emden office of the Federal Employment Agency also include both of these municipalities in addition to the city.
In a somewhat less strong, but still significant form, this interdependence also applies to other, nearby parts of the Aurich district and the municipality of Moormerland in the Leer district.
Emden has 20 districts, which, however, are not all listed separately in the city's population statistics, but are partly summarized. In the past few decades, there have been three times larger incorporations: in 1928, 1945 and 1972. The urban area was increased considerably, particularly due to the last incorporations in the course of the Lower Saxony municipal reform in 1972.
The city center can be divided into the following quarters: Old Town , Authority District , Bentinkshof , Boltentor , Groß-Faldern and Klein-Faldern . According to statistics from the city of Emden, the three largest districts are the city center (8950 inhabitants), Barenburg (7015 inhabitants) and Borssum / Hilmarsum (6046 inhabitants).
The city center of Emden is - compared to many other similarly large or larger cities - quite heavily populated. One reason for this can be found in the reconstruction phase after the war: many bombed-down commercial buildings - including smaller houses in which business and apartment were united under one roof - were replaced by purely residential buildings during the reconstruction phase. In the southern part of the city center the port of Emden begins with smaller transshipment points and shipyards.
In the city of Emden there are two nature reserves , both of which are in the east of Emden. On the one hand, there is the 0.24 square kilometer Bansmeer , one of the formerly numerous inland lakes in the lowlands between Emden and Riepe . The nature reserve also includes the area around the lake in the Riepster Hammrich , Riepe, Petkum and Uphusen districts . The area with a total size of around 48 hectares has been under protection since 1975. Since 1994, the 200 hectares large Petkumer dyke placed under protection. The area outside the dike is largely part of the EU bird sanctuary Emsmarsch from Leer to Emden .
As a landscape protection area (LSG), the LSG Großes Meer and surroundings has been under protection since 1972. It covers a flat area of 2148 hectares around the Great Sea and the Loppersumer Sea and also includes the Hieve . Most of the LSG is located in the Südbrookmerland area, while Hinte and Emden (Marienwehr district) have smaller shares. The landscape protection area is part of the EU bird sanctuary East Frisian Sea .
The Burgallee in Petkum, which comprises 17 linden trees and three chestnut trees and is located on a former farm that has now been converted for residential purposes, is designated as a natural monument.
- List of nature reserves in Emden
- List of landscape protection areas in Emden
- List of natural monuments in Emden
- List of protected landscape components in Emden
The history of the city of Emden begins around the year 800. During this time, a Frisian trading settlement was founded at the mouth of the Ems. The first documentary evidence of Emden seafaring dates from 1224, when an Emden merchant ship was mentioned in London . Until that time it was only a smaller settlement that was laid out on a terp .
The name of the city comes from the confluence of the river Ehe (or Aa), which at the time flowed into the Ems in what is now the area of the city. The location at this mouth (regionally called Muhde ) gave rise to the name Amuthon, which in the Middle Ages first became Emuthon, then Embden and finally Emden .
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the trading town of Emden came into constant conflict with the powerful Hanseatic League , as the pirates around Klaus Störtebeker were supported by Emden and other places in East Friesland such as Marienhafe . The consequence of this conflict was the multiple occupation of Emden by Hanseatic (especially Hamburg) forces. The Hamburgers did not finally leave Emden until 1447.
Early modern age
The transition from the Middle Ages to the early modern period can be dated for Emden around the year 1495: In that year Count Edzard I commissioned the Emden Mayor Hompe Hayen with an important embassy to the Diet of Worms . There, King (later Emperor) Maximilian I gave the city of Emden its coat of arms: the Engelke up de Muer (little angel on the wall), which still adorns the city's coat of arms today. During this time the staple right , which the city had already granted itself from 1412 (and which was later confirmed by the counts), was confirmed by the emperor (probably in 1494), as was a contract with Münster to recognize the staple right (1497 ) closed. Ships that wanted to pass Emden on the Ems had to offer their goods for sale for three days. Emden benefited from this privilege until the stacking right was abolished in the 17th century. A severe setback for the Emden trade occurred in the form of the Second Cosmas and Damian Flood in 1509: If the Ems continued to curve northwards past the city until the flood, it looked for a straight path into the Dollart and after the storm surge on to the North Sea : The port of Emden was slowly but surely in danger of silting up. Keeping the fairway clear turned out to be difficult and costly.
Nevertheless, Emden developed into a flourishing city in the following decades. This was due on the one hand to the activities of the Emden merchants and shipowners, but above all to a political development in the second half of the 16th century: the Dutch fight for independence against the Spaniards in the Eighty Years' War . Dutch expelled and persecuted by the Spaniards, mainly patricians like Diederik Jansz Graeff or merchants, ship owners and craftsmen settled in the nearest neutral port city - and that was Emden.
The new trade connections, which the Dutch brought with them, meant for Emden at times the rise to one of the most important port cities in Northern Europe. At the same time, through the work of Johannes á Lasco and other Reformed theologians , Emden developed into an important city of Calvinism , which at times earned Emden the nickname “Geneva of the North”. The city's wealth around 1600 made it possible to return the Ems to the old river bed through a dam. The dam lasted until 1616. In that phase, the Emder Wall was also built, which was the only place in East Frisia that saved the seaport city from being captured by troops in the Thirty Years' War . In addition, a large number of buildings were erected - sacred as well as profane. The town hall (1574–1576), the port gate (1635) and the Reformed New Church (1643) should be mentioned here.
An expression of the bourgeois self-confidence of that time was the Emden Revolution of 1595, during which the East Frisian Count Edzard II was expelled to the neighboring town of Aurich. The legal scholar Johannes Althusius, who was appointed city syndic in 1604, strengthened the position of the city in the following decades, in particular towards the counts and neighboring cities. At that time Emden was not de jure a free imperial city . With the Netherlands as the protective power behind them and extensive independence from the East Frisian Count House, Emden was de facto a free imperial city. Kappelhoff (1994, see literature) coined the term quasi-autonomous city republic for this .
1648 to 1800
After the end of the Thirty Years' War and the return of the Dutch to their homeland, it became clear that the boom phase was over. The return of the exiles also led to a loss of trade connections and capital, which meant a serious bloodletting in Emden sea trade. The commitment of the Electorate of Brandenburg , which relocated its Brandenburg-African Company to Emden in 1683, did not change much, especially since its importance declined rapidly from 1700 onwards.
The city of Emden was the driving force behind the acquisition of East Frisia by the Kingdom of Prussia in 1744, when the last East Frisian count died childless. The Prussian years brought an - albeit modest - economic boom. The Emden East Asian trading company , founded by Friedrich II in 1751, was only successful for the few years before the outbreak of the Seven Years' War in 1756.
1800 to 1918
During the Napoleonic Wars , Emden - like the whole of the East Frisian Peninsula - was part of the Kingdom of Holland and later of the French Empire . After the Congress of Vienna , Prussia finally ceded Emden and East Friesland to the Kingdom of Hanover - as compensation for the acquisition of formerly Polish areas. The Hanover period brought the city - apart from the construction of the Hanover West Railway in 1854/1856 - only a few economic impulses.
After the German Wars of Unification , economic development took off. The self-sufficiency efforts of the German Empire in the second half of the 19th century and the emerging rise of the Ruhr area to an industrial conurbation opened up new opportunities for the Emden seaport, as it was the closest domestic seaport to the Ruhr area. The transport routes to the south have been significantly improved , especially through the construction of the Dortmund-Ems Canal and other canals. Generous polders in the area of the harbor created areas on which industrial companies were settled in the following decades. The most important at that time was the North Sea Works, founded in 1903 . Other important infrastructure measures of these decades were the construction of the Nesserlander Schleuse (commissioned in 1888) and above all the Great Sea Lock (1913), at that time the largest of its kind in the world with an inland length of 260 meters. This made the port of Emden , which was previously dependent on the tide, accessible for large ship units. Coal from the Ruhr area and iron ore back were the most important cargo handled at that time. In 1882 the first cable connection between Germany and the USA from Emden to Coney Island / New York City was put into operation. In addition, the Emden herring fishery was of great importance at that time. The Nordseewerke built a large number of ships for the Imperial Navy during the First World War .
On September 2, 1915, the nail picture De Isdern Keerl van Emden was set up in front of the town hall in Emden , whose face was designed after the likeness of Karl von Müller . The war symbol burned on September 6, 1944 in a heavy air raid in the town hall.
1919 to 1945
In the interwar period , Emden was affected by economic hardship from the German inflation from 1914 to 1923 and the global economic crisis. In 1928 the Emden urban area was expanded by incorporating the suburbs of Borssum and Wolthusen .
The victory of the NSDAP in the Reichstag election in March 1933 , the deportation of Jews and the elimination of political opponents took place just as quickly as elsewhere in the German Reich . As a result of the armament program, many warships were built in the shipyards , especially submarines during the war . On the night of November 9th to 10th, 1938, Emder SA troops took part in the riots against the Jews ordered by the Reich leadership, which were later referred to as the "Reichskristallnacht" or November 1938 pogroms . The synagogue was burned down and all male Jews were deported via Oldenburg to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp , from which they could only return after weeks. The discrimination continued. At the end of January 1940, an initiative by East Frisian district administrators and the municipal authorities of the city of Emden led the Gestapo control center in Wilhelmshaven to instruct Jews to leave East Frisia by April 1, 1940. The East Frisian Jews had to look for other apartments within the German Reich (with the exception of Hamburg and the areas on the left bank of the Rhine ). In October 1941 Emden was one of the first twelve towns in the kingdom, from which Jews in the East deported were. 23 residents of the Jewish retirement home in Emden were temporarily transferred to the Jewish retirement home in Varel in October 1941 and from there deported to Theresienstadt via Bremen and Hanover in July 1942 .
During the Second World War , there were a number of air raids on the important industrial and port city, which initially did not cause any major damage. This changed on September 6, 1944, the day of the greatest catastrophe in the history of Emden . Allied bomber units destroyed around 80 percent of the city center and thus almost all of the historical structures of the past centuries. The North Sea Works , which fulfilled various armaments contracts and mainly built submarines , were hardly hit. The main target was the civil city center. A particular reason for the attack is not apparent from the records of the Royal Air Force ; but it was the last on the city.
Allied ground troops reached the city in early May 1945, but were unable to take it without a fight. Emden was declared a fortress shortly before the end of the war and was defended by the surrounding flak batteries for a few days on the orders of the fortress commander . The last fighting in the Emden area was on May 4, 1945. In the course of the war, 2404 Emden soldiers were killed. In addition, 408 Emden citizens, forced laborers and members of the Wehrmacht were killed in bomb attacks. 465 Jewish citizens were murdered during the Nazi era.
The rebuilding of the heavily destroyed city dragged on until the early 1960s, it was only declared officially over in 1962 with the reopening of the town hall. At the beginning of that decade there were barrack camps in the city , in which bombed people lived, especially since the city had taken in refugees from the former German eastern regions despite the destruction . Under pressure from the occupiers, the suburbs of Larrelt , Uphusen and Harsweg were incorporated into Emden as early as 1945/46 .
The economic miracle did not go to town yet over. For example, after approval by the occupying powers, seagoing ships were being built again at the shipyards in the early 1950s. The most important industrial settlement took place in 1964 with the laying of the foundation stone for the Volkswagen factory in Emden . The VW Beetle was produced there from 1965 and the VW Passat since 1977 . In the decades that followed, the Volkswagen Group concentrated the entire import and export of its automobiles (later including subsidiaries) in Emden, which made the port the third largest car loading port in Europe. With the municipal reform of 1972 , the Emden urban area was expanded considerably and reached its present size. The current districts of Wybelsum , Logumer Vorwerk , Twixlum , Petkum , Widdelswehr and Jarßum were added. In addition to extensive agricultural land, this included today's industrial area Rysumer Nacken an der Knock , where natural gas from Norwegian North Sea fields, such as Ekofisk , has been landed through the European pipeline since 1977 .
The reconstruction of the city and the supply of apartments was essentially complete at the end of the 1960s, to which the construction of higher-story (up to eleven floors) apartment buildings contributed - primarily by the union-owned Neue Heimat group . Starting in the 1970s, the city's cultural infrastructure was expanded considerably. The New Theater , the North Sea Hall , the University of Applied Sciences and other facilities were built. In the 1980s, the art gallery was added, and in the 1990s the Johannes a Lasco library .
In 2012, the city received national media attention through the child murder in Emden .
In 1928 the urban area was expanded to include the former Emden glories Borssum (with today's Hilmarsum ) and Wolthusen (with today's Tholenswehr ). Both localities were spun off from the Emden district for this purpose.
Shortly after the end of the Second World War, the urban area was expanded to include the current districts of Larrelt (October 1, 1945, 1254 inhabitants) and Harsweg (also October 1, 1945, 835 inhabitants). Both districts were previously part of the north district . On April 1, 1946, Uphusen (with Marienwehr , together 804 inhabitants) was added from the north district . In the course of the municipal reform in Lower Saxony on July 1, 1972, the urban area was significantly expanded: From the north district, the city of Emden took over the communities Wybelsum (1301 inhabitants), Logumer Vorwerk (297 inhabitants) and Twixlum (719 inhabitants) from the Leer district the municipalities of Petkum (1008 inhabitants) and Widdelswehr (with Jarßum , together 1034 inhabitants). The most recent expansion of the urban area is the official recording of the washed-up area on the Rysumer Nacken on January 1, 1976, which was previously free from parishes.
According to estimates, around 15,000 people lived in Emden when the seaport city was at its peak around 1600. This made Emden a city with a remarkable number of inhabitants at that time. For comparison: Hamburg and Cologne, the two largest cities of those days, had around 40,000 inhabitants. Today, however, the population of Hamburg is 35 times that of Emden and Cologne is 19 times as large.
By 1744 the population decreased to around 7,000 and rose to around 13,400 by 1880. Due to industrialization, the city grew to 37,000 inhabitants by 1940. After the Second World War, Emden experienced another boost in development. Since the 1960s, apart from a few years, the population has been consistently over 50,000. Since the 1980s, several larger building areas have been designated in the urban area, including a completely new district in Constantia . The city of Emden has thus been able to cushion the previously noticeable trend towards migration from Emdern to the surrounding area. In addition, the Emden city administration tries to persuade the students of the university to register with their main residence in Emden. The city of Emden also started a naturalization campaign in 2013 based on the example of Hanover and Osnabrück . The aim is to convince as many of the 2500 or so foreigners as possible of the advantages of German citizenship. According to the city administration, 465 EU citizens and around 680 citizens from other countries would be eligible for rapid naturalization.
The Lower Saxony State Office for Statistics predicts that the city of Emden will have a further increase in population to more than 52,000 by 2021. In May 2013, a decrease in the population of Emden by around 300 was forecast. Both forecasts were announced before the results of the 2011 census.
Bernd Bornemann (SPD) has been the city's mayor since the local elections in September 2011 . He replaced Alwin Brinkmann , who had held this office since 1986 - initially on a voluntary basis and since 1998 full-time, making him the longest-serving Lord Mayor of Lower Saxony since September 2006. Tim Kruithoff has been Lord Mayor of Emden since November 1, 2019 .
From the end of the Second World War to the local elections in 2001 , the SPD - with the exception of a brief period in the 1950s - always had an absolute majority of the votes in the city council elections. This majority was sometimes more than 60% of the valid votes cast. The 2001 local elections could therefore be seen as a local political turning point, as the Emden SPD received “only” 39.5% of the votes. At the same time, the Emden FDP achieved one of the party's best election results in all of Germany with just under 24.3%. In the local elections in September 2006 , however, the Social Democrats won back the majority. The FDP lost significantly in this election, but the result was still above the national average for the party at the election. Conversely, the Christian Democrats performed well below the national average.
The official final result of the local election on September 11, 2011 (with comparative figures for the local election of September 10, 2006):
|SPD||51.8%||- 2.7||22 seats||- 1|
|CDU||21.0%||+ 1.9||9 seats||+ 1|
|FDP||8.4%||- 6.4||4 seats||- 2nd|
Alliance 90 /
|15.4%||+ 7.8||6 seats||+ 3|
|The left||3.2%||- 0.6||1 seat||- 1|
There were drastic changes in the composition of the city council as a result of the local elections in 2016, with the SPD losing 20.8% of the votes and the first-time voter community "Together for Emden" GfE was able to unite 20.2% of the votes from the stand.
The official final result of the local election on September 11, 2016 (with comparative figures for the local election of September 11, 2011):
|SPD||31.0%||- 20.8||13 seats||- 9|
|GfE voter community
"Together for Emden"
|20.2%||+ 20.2||9 seats||+ 9|
|CDU||19.1%||- 1.9||8 seats||- 1|
|FDP||12.1%||+ 3.7||5 seats||+ 1|
|Alliance 90 /
|11.3%||- 4.1||5 seats||- 1|
|The left||5.3%||+ 2.1||2 seats||+ 1|
The official title of Emden has been Lord Mayor since 1877 .
In the penultimate mayor election on September 11, 2011, Bernd Bornemann (SPD) was elected full-time mayor. He achieved 61.2% of the vote and was ahead of the non-party candidate Martin Lutz, who was supported by the CDU and FDP, with 38.8%. The turnout was 45.8%.
After Bornemann did not run in the last mayoral election on September 8, 2019, the non-party Tim Kruithoff was able to prevail with 75.4% of the votes in the first ballot. He took office on November 1, 2019, ending the era of SPD mayors, which had lasted more than six decades, whose candidate Manfred Eertmoed received only 16.4%. 6 other non-party candidates did not exceed 3% each.
Representatives in the Landtag and Bundestag
The city belongs to the state electoral district of Emden / Norden , which consists of the city of Emden, the city of Norden and the municipalities of Krummhörn, Hinte and Hage . In the Lower Saxony state parliament ( legislature from 2017 ) two members are represented in the constituency. The directly elected MP is Matthias Arends (SPD). Hillgriet Eilers (FDP) also moved into the Lower Saxony state parliament via the state list . The SPD's second vote result of 49.4 percent was again the best of this party in the 87 electoral districts of Lower Saxony.
In federal elections, Emden belongs to constituency 24 Aurich - Emden . This includes the city of Emden and the district of Aurich. In the 2017 federal election , the social democrat Johann Saathoff was directly elected. No party candidate from the constituency entered the Bundestag via the parties' list. The Emder voted with an absolute majority for Saathoff in the first votes and a majority in favor of the SPD in the second votes.
coat of arms
The Emden coat of arms was awarded to the city in 1495 by King Maximilian I after long requests and payment of high fees . The coat of arms is called "Engelke up de Muer" ("little angel on the wall") and is in the city colors (gold, red, blue).
|Blazon : "On blue waves a red battlements ; above ita golden crowned golden virgin eagle growing in black . "|
|Justification for the coat of arms: The blue waves symbolize Emden's connection and proximity to the Ems, which at that time still flowed directly past the city. The wall in the middle stands for the security and protection that Emden offered, as well as for the Ems wall, which separated Emden from the Ems. The golden angel is modeled on the former coat of arms of the Cirksena family, the then ruling noble family of the city. This is not a "real" angel , but a harpy , a female doom demon with wings and claws from Greek mythology , also known in heraldry as the "virgin eagle".|
Emden has partnered with the following cities:
From 1990 to 2008 there was also a partnership with Prenzlau in Brandenburg . This mainly served to help with the reorganization of local government in the city after the fall of the Wall and has since been dissolved by mutual agreement. Until January 2012, Emden had a partnership with the London Borough of Hillingdon in England , which had existed since 1961. Since the contacts were hardly maintained in the end, the London district dissolved the partnership.
With Arkhangelsk, on the other hand, there is a lively exchange, especially at the academic level with the university there. In addition, several council members suggested entering into a partnership with a Chinese port city with a technical college.
Emden was the official sponsored city of a total of five German naval ships, most recently the frigate of the same name , which was put into service in 1983 and decommissioned in 2013; it was also the first ship that was also built in Emden: at the North Sea Works .
Religion and church
Emden is predominantly Protestant, shaped by the admission of Protestant - Calvinist religious refugees from the Netherlands in the middle of the 16th century (see Synod of Emden ). The city was the site of famous theological disputations and was long known as the “ Geneva of the North”. In the centuries that followed, the number of Lutherans increased - mainly due to immigration - who are now in the majority over the Reformed.
According to statistics from the city of Emden (as of June 30, 2017), around 14,243 (2015: 15,666 people) of Evangelical Lutheran denomination live in Emden. There are Lutheran congregations in Borssum, Petkum and four other congregations that cover different areas of the central districts.
Since 2007, Emden has been the seat of the regional superintendent for the district of Ostfriesland-Ems of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Hanover . The sermon church of the state superintendent is the Martin Luther Church . Previously, the official seat was in the East Frisian city of Aurich .
According to this, 14,767 believers are evangelically reformed . There are reformed churches in Larrelt , Logumer Vorwerk , Twixlum , Wybelsum , Marienwehr, Jarssum , Borssum , Uphusen and Wolthusen . In addition there is the New Church and the Great Church in the city center, which is no longer used for church services , formerly the moederkerk ( Dutch for mother church ) of north-western European Calvinism (more on this in the article History of the City of Emden ). In addition to the Reformed congregations, there is an old Reformed congregation in Emden. It was founded in 1856 and thus celebrated its 150th anniversary in 2006.
After the Reformation , a Catholic church was not built again until 1803 , the Church of St. Michael . In December 2010 about 4,100 Catholics lived in the city, organized in a congregation with two places of worship.
The Mennonite community in Emden is one of the oldest of its kind in the world; in Germany it is the oldest still existing free church community. It was created in 1530 and goes back indirectly to the work of the Anabaptist leader Melchior Hofmann . In Emden in the 16th century, the Emden Religious Talk was also an important religious talk between Reformed and Mennonites. The former Mennonite Church in Emden was destroyed in the Second World War. In 2013 the congregation had 93 members; Children are not included in this number because the Mennonites do not baptize people until they can make a creed of their own.
The Baptist Congregation was organized as a constitutional church in 1902. One of their germ cells was the Huguenot "congregation under the cross", a part of which turned to the Baptist understanding of baptism and congregation - including their preacher de Haan.
The Christian community in Emden is located on Cirksenastraße. The parish is part of the BFP . In 2012 it celebrated its 50th anniversary.
The church of the New Apostolic congregation is also located on the Ringstrasse .
About 1,300 Muslims live in the city. In 2009, the first mosque in East Frisia was opened in a converted restaurant in the immediate vicinity of Emden's main train station .
The synagogue of the Jewish community, built between 1834 and 1836, was destroyed on November 9, 1938 . The Jewish orphanage, the Jewish elementary school and the Jewish old people's home were destroyed in the Second World War. Only one Jewish cemetery has survived. Today there are hardly any people of Jewish faith living in Emden, so the religion is not practiced publicly.
Other / non-denominational
The statistics from April 2005 indicate a number of around 13,600 people who do not belong to one of the three major Christian denominations. In addition to non-denominational members, these include members of the above-mentioned free churches , as well as Muslims and members of other religious communities. Adding all church-affiliated and non-affiliated residents together, there is a small difference to the total number of residents in April 2005.
Culture and sights
The art gallery in Emden goes back to an initiative of Henri Nannen, who was born in Emden . The planning began in 1983, on October 3, 1986 the art gallery was opened by the then Federal President Richard von Weizsäcker . The focus of the collection is on pictures of the New Objectivity and German Expressionism.
The East Frisian State Museum is located in the Emden Town Hall, originally built between 1574 and 1576 by the Antwerp city architect Laurens van Steenwinckel and rebuilt until 1962 after it was almost completely destroyed in the Second World War . The Landesmuseum is a regional museum with a focus on Emden / Friesland / Europe and exhibits a large collection of armor as well as cutting and stabbing weapons from the early modern period ("armory"). It is the largest city-owned collection in Europe.
The Otto-Huus , opened in 1986, shows the career of the Emden-born comedian Otto Waalkes . In addition to curious childhood memories and props, excerpts from the comedian's events are shown.
The bunker museum documents life in the city's bunkers during the Second World War . It opened on May 6, 1995.
In Ratsdelft three museum ships are moored. The lightship Amrumbank , built in 1915 at Meyer Werft in Papenburg , was the first of the museum ships in the Ratsdelft in 1984. From 1917 the ship was used as a "floating lighthouse" in several positions in the North Sea. The Amrumbank houses a shipping history museum with a focus on sea sign technology. The history of herring fishing is clearly presented on the logger Stadt Emden . The rescue cruiser Georg Breusing took its "last berth" in the Ratsdelft on December 23, 1988. The rescue cruiser of the DGzRS was put into service in 1963 and used on the Borkum station until 1988. As early as March 2, 1861, a newly founded association set itself the goal of rescuing castaways.
The Pelzerhäuser , a branch of the East Frisian State Museum, are located on Pelzerstraße in the old town of Emden . These are two houses, located at Pelzerstraße 11 and 12. Pelzerhaus 11 is a three-storey residential building built in 1909 based on the previous building from the 16th century with re-used original parts. At Pelzerhaus 12, built in the second half of the 16th century, only the three-storey brick facade with volute gable remains . The associated house was replaced by a new building in 1983. They are among the oldest houses in the city.
The Natural Research Society of Emden from 1814 (NfG-1814 for short) was founded on December 29, 1814 in Emden. It is therefore the culturally oldest institution in East Frisia. On November 7, 1843, the Royal Hanoverian Ministry of the Interior granted her the right of a legal person. Purpose, aim and tasks of the society are: Promotion of natural history, knowledge of natural history, natural sciences in general, research and teaching and the dissemination of scientific knowledge also in the field of the protection of nature, the landscape and the environment. In the rooms of the Natural Research Society there is a collection of ethnological objects. These come from many countries around the world and were mainly collected in the old North Sea Museum in the 19th century.
The New Theater Emden offers a little more than 600 seats and was built in the early 1970s. It is located in the so-called cultural quarter , in which the Nordseehalle event hall is also located. Plays and concerts are given in the New Theater. The Friesenbühne offers Low German theater and has its own stage in the Groß-Faldern district . Open-air theater events take place in Emden at changing intervals.
The Johannes a Lasco Library in the ruins of the Great Church was opened in 1995 after three years of (re) construction. It goes back to the archive and the book collection of the Reformed community of Emden, which has existed since 1559, and serves as a public library with a focus on Reformed Protestantism . The JALB was named after the Polish theologian and reformer Jan Laski, called Johannes a Lasco , who worked in Emden between 1540 and 1555. The library is operated in the legal form of a foundation and was voted library of the year in 2001 by the German Library Association and the Zeit Foundation .
The Emden harbor gate was built in 1635 by the Emden city architect Martin Faber . It is one of several artistically significant city gates that were built in the first half of the 17th century - and the only one that has survived. However, several restorations have been carried out over the centuries, so that the current condition shows the original condition, but no longer has any original materials. On the archway is the Latin saying "Et pons est Embdae et portus et aura deus" ("God is for Emden bridge, harbor and sailing wind").
The boiler lock is the only round chamber lock in Europe that connects four waterways and is therefore a unique structure. The lock, built in the 1880s, is a listed building and still fulfills an important function in the Emden waterway network today.
After the severe destruction during the Second World War, only sparse remains of the historic residential buildings have survived. The best impression of the old Emden is given by the largely spared district of Klein-Faldern with its predominantly petty bourgeois houses. In Kranstraße 63 there is a two-story gabled house with a bell gable marked in 1813 . Buildings from the 16th century can still be found in Mühlenstraße, including No. 45, the facade of which, however, was renewed in 1811. The Gödens house is not far from the New Church . The two-storey brick building in a bacon layer system is completed by a younger half-hip roof . It was built in 1551, making it one of the oldest buildings in Emden. It has served as a student residence since 1985.
The houses on Torumer Strasse and Wilgumer Strasse are more recent. The two streets form the starting point for the development of the Port Arthur / Transvaal district , which began in the first decade of the 20th century. Many of the small, crouched buildings, typical of a workers' settlement , have largely been preserved in their original state. The city's water tower was also built at the beginning of the 20th century. The Art Nouveau building near the train station is 42 meters high.
The Hamburg architect Fritz Höger also left his mark in Emden. In the style of brick expressionism, the administration building for the Westfälische Transport-AG (WTAG), today Emder Verkehrsgesellschaft AG, was built on Schweckendieckplatz in 1913–1914. In that office and administrative district there are other examples of brick or clinker expressionism.
In earlier times there were a number of mills in the city of Emden , most of which were Dutch mills . The oldest dates from 1732 and is in the Larrelt district . The other mills are located on the wall in the city center and in the Tholenswehr district .
In the city garden not far from the town hall there is a memorial in honor of the former mayor Leo Fürbringer . It is laid out in the form of a fountain. Fürbringer, Lord Mayor from 1878 to 1913, made a great contribution to the expansion of the Emden harbor at that time. The monuments of Frederick the Great and the Great Elector are located on the sewer and the Knock pumping station in the far west of Emden . Until the war they had stood opposite the town hall. Both monarchs did a great job for East Frisia: the Great Elector by promoting sea trade in Emden, Frederick II by reclaiming moors and protecting the coast.
The town hall (even if it is a new building after it was destroyed in the war) and the port gate are considered Emden's landmarks from earlier centuries. The Emden water tower and the gantry crane of the North Sea Works are to be mentioned from the industrial age .
Emden is on the marshland and is therefore only very sparsely wooded. In 1999, work began on creating a city forest on agricultural land in the north of Emden on the border with the community of Hinte . This should serve local recreation, but also contribute to improving the climate.
The largest and oldest green space in the city is the Emder Wall . Originally built as a defensive structure, the wall today has a recreational function. It was built at the beginning of the 17th century to defend the then very prosperous city and used to consist of eleven kennels (pentagonal bastions) that were almost in a ring around the city. In the early 19th century, windmills were built on the hills, three of which are still standing. Today eight of the once eleven kennels are left.
The city's central cemetery, located between the districts of Tholenswehr and Wolthusen , is laid out like a park, especially in its older part. Another park is the Burgplatz in the city center on the site of the medieval and later razed Emden Castle . The St. Stephen's Square in the district of Gross-Faldern was in bed one after the war backfilled with rubble canal , the brewer ditch created and is next to the Castle Square , the second near the center of the park. In 2006, work began on converting the former municipal landfill into a landscape park . The highest elevation, Emden, with more than 15 meters is to be built on the site. There are also seven allotment gardens in Emden .
Events and leisure
Concerts in front of a larger audience take place in the North Sea Hall with a capacity of up to 5500 people. There are also concerts mainly in the rock / pop area in the Alte Post cultural center . Concerts, plays, revues and festive events are given in the New Theater. The forum of the local adult education center in their building is mainly used for lectures, discussions and concerts in front of a smaller audience. In the Johannes á Lasco library as well as in the churches, especially in the New Church and the Martin Luther Church, there are also concerts - mainly classical music, in the churches there are also gospel concerts. The library is also used for festive events such as award ceremonies. In 2005 the bunker in the Barenburg district, which was converted into a so-called culture bunker, was added as an event space. In spring and summer there are outdoor events in many places.
Once a year the Matjesfest , the Delftfest and the Emden Filmfest take place in spring and summer. With the Matjesfest , which takes place in downtown Emden around the town hall and the Ratsdelft, the Emden pay tribute to the history of herring fishing in their city. The Delft Festival (usually in July) was Emden's city festival until the 1990s . By including the Council Delftes the maritime character of the city should be highlighted. A large number of historical ships as well as boats of leisure captains then dock in the Council Delft. There is also an entertainment program “all about water”. The International Film Festival Emden-Norderney (usually beginning / middle of June) has established itself as the largest film festival in Lower Saxony since it was founded in 1990. In its early years it was particularly promoted by the German director Bernhard Wicki . The Emden Adult Education Center is in charge of organizing the film festival. According to their information, the number of visitors has been consistently over 20,000 for several years.
In July and August there is an invitation to the Musical Summer Ostfriesland / Groningen - at least one of the classical concerts is always given in Emden. In late summer there are various concerts in front of pubs in the city center (including the Summer In The City series ). The Schützenfest has been celebrated in September since the 19th century , although it goes back to much older traditions. On a Friday at the beginning of November, the Blues Night has been taking place in various Emden city center pubs since the late 1980s . The Emden Christmas market has been partly on a pontoon in the Ratsdelft ( floating Christmas market ) for a few years .
In 2002 a multiplex cinema of the CineStar group from Lübeck was built near the train station right next to a parking garage . This cinema has six halls with a total of 927 seats. The traditional "Apollo" , built in the late 1920s with three halls at last, was the only cinema in town until then. Since the summer of 2009 there has only been one cinema in Emden, because the "Apollo" was closed on July 31, 2009.
Many of the city's preserved bunkers provide good training conditions for the local music scene. The city's nightlife mainly takes place around the New Market. Emden has an above-average density of bars. Several brothels have survived from the time when the ship's crews stayed on land for longer while in port . Although the berthing times of the ships (and thus the crews' shore leave) have become shorter and shorter in recent decades, several of these houses still exist today.
East Frisian Platt is spoken in Emden . As in other cities and municipalities in East Frisia, the number of speakers has decreased, especially among the younger ones. In addition, there is an above-average number of people in Emden compared to other East Frisian municipalities (especially rural municipalities) who did not grow up with Low German and hardly speak it at all - due on the one hand to the university of applied sciences , on the other hand to the companies where many students and employees who are not native to East Frisia work. The more urban environment compared to other places in East Frisia could also contribute to this.
In 2012, a Low German literary competition was launched, the price of which is named after the Emden writer Johann Friedrich Dirks (1874–1949). It is awarded every two years on his birthday (February 9th) and is endowed with 2500 euros. The first award ceremony took place in 2013, the second in 2015, and the third in 2017.
Emder or Emdener ? According to the Duden , the name of the inhabitants of Emden is Emder, Emdener is also used less often. Both variants are therefore officially permitted and correct in the linguistic sense. The only common variant in Emden, however, is Emder . This is expressed in public life (media reports) as well as in company names etc.
As a traditional albeit former sea fishing location, fish is one of the culinary specialties of Emden. Particularly noteworthy here is the herring , which is served in various forms. Also crabs , for example, in the nearby Greetsiel landed among the specialties. The numerous inland waters are also rich in fish, so that fish that you have caught and prepared is often on the menu. Smoking the fish is popular. In winter, like kale - preferably with Pinkel , cooking sausage, smoked meat and bacon - eaten. A clear man ( grain ) is one of them. Cabbage meals are often part of a Boßel tour .
Economy and Infrastructure
Port, industry and energy
In Emden there is a seaport at the mouth of the Ems into the North Sea . It is the westernmost seaport in Germany. The port was already very important around 1600, but it decreased in the following centuries. A free trade zone existed there from 1751 to 2009 . Since the late 19th century there has been a generous expansion and industrial settlements. The members of the Emden Lotsenbrüderschaft , who ensure the pilotage on the Ems, are stationed in the port.
The third largest car loading port in Europe in Emden mainly handles vehicles from the Volkswagen group. In addition, there are forest products, building materials and wind turbines , mostly from the Aurich company Enercon . There is also a ferry service to Borkum .
The largest employer in Emden is the VW plant . In terms of the number of employees, it is the largest industrial production site west of Bremen and north of the Ruhr area . The plant has "around 9581" employees (as of summer 2016). The Volkswagen factory in Emden was inaugurated in 1964 after nine months of construction; From December 1, 1964, the VW Beetle was also produced here . In 1978 the last Beetle produced in Germany rolled off the assembly line at the VW plant in Emden.
The VW Passat has been produced in the Emden plant since 1978 ; the factory is the lead plant for this model. In addition to the sedan, the Variant station wagon and the Passat CC are also manufactured in Emden, the latter two exclusively in the seaport city.
In the Frisia industrial park, on the site of the demolished Frisia oil refinery at the gates of the VW plant, several supplier companies have settled. Another industrial employer is the Nordseewerke . Parts for offshore wind turbines were manufactured in the former large shipyard . Shipyard operations (without new buildings, only repairs and conversions) will be continued on the site by Emder Werft und Dockbetriebe GmbH, which belongs to the Hamburg company Seafort Advisors , which specializes in the shipping sector. ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems is still represented with a location in Emden, but has announced that it will close it. The 220 employees are to receive an offer to move to other locations.
In addition to the industrial workers at the shipyards and in the VW plant, there are a number of other companies in the city, primarily in the construction sector, mechanical engineering and the food industry. There are still a small number of fish processing companies. There are also a number of marine equipment companies and other shipyard suppliers, including in the field of navigation and communication technology.
In the west of the city is the “ Wybelsumer Polder ” wind farm . Enercon has been producing and shipping prefabricated concrete tower parts for wind turbines in the southern Emden harbor since 2005. Until the beginning of the 2010s, the BARD company manufactured wind energy systems in Emden, exclusively for the offshore sector.
In the west of Emden there has been a natural gas landing station since the mid-1970s . Here at the Rysumer Nacken, the gas was received and processed (pressure adjustment) via a pipeline from Norwegian fields in the North Sea until 2016 . This almost 40-year-old system was replaced by a new gas terminal from the Norwegian energy company Gassco , which was built for over 680 million euros over a period of three years. This means that a significant part of German gas imports are delivered via Emden.
In the spring of 2006, the energy company E.ON put the Emden 4 power plant (output 452 MW) back into operation; previously the power plant, which went into operation in 1972, had been offline for several years. In 2009 the gas and steam power plant was taken over by the Norwegian Statkraft . In February 2012, however, Statkraft announced that the operation would not be profitable due to overcapacities in the electricity market and that the power plant would therefore be put back into cold reserve . At the same time, plans for a replacement building at the same location were given up. In addition, there has been a biomass power plant (20 MW) in the port of Emden since 2005 .
Services and tourism
In the past few years tourism has been developed as a mainstay. Day tourists predominate, who visit Emden during a vacation on the coast. The tourists mainly visit the cultural institutions in Emden. Furthermore, water tourism in particular was (and is) expanded. When it comes to cycling tourism, the city works closely with the surrounding districts. The designation of holiday flats and holiday homes and the establishment of the Parkhotel Upstalsboom in Emden are economic signs of tourism development. A campsite is located near the lake dyke on the Knock . Emden is on the following cycling and long-distance hiking routes: North Sea Cycle Route , International Dollard Route and Dortmund-Ems Canal Route .
In addition to the other services of an independent city, Emden has an important role in the retail trade in East Frisia. The Dollart Center , the largest shopping center in the region, is also located here. There are a number of shipping companies in the seaport city .
The Emden city administration employs around 800 people. The Stadtwerke Emden GmbH (SWE) take over the supply of gas, water, electricity and district heating in Emden city. A smaller part of the electricity is generated with wind turbines in the Emden urban area, but the majority is purchased externally. Further subsidiaries of the Stadtwerke and thus ultimately the city of Emden are Stadtverkehr Emden GmbH (SVE), which provide public transport with buses within the city, and Flugplatz Emden GmbH (FPE), which operate the local airfield.
The Hans Susemihl Hospital (HSK) is the only clinic in Emden and a non-profit GmbH (gGmbH) of the city of Emden. In a referendum, the citizens of the city in 2019 spoke majority for the creation of a well for the district of Aurich competent central clinic in Georgsheil out. The approval in the Aurich district, which is also necessary, had already been given two years earlier, while Emden initially failed to do so.
Other important (non-urban) public employers , some with a three-digit number of employees, are the University of Emden / Leer (3900 students) in the Constantia district and several authorities, including the tax office , the trade supervisory office responsible for all of East Friesland and parts of the Emsland , the Emden District Court , the Emden labor court, which is also responsible for the districts of Aurich and Leer, and the Emden waterways and shipping office (WSA with branches in Leer as well as on Borkum and Norderney ; together 351 employees) as well as other financial service providers such as Sparkasse Emden or Ostfriesische Volksbank .
There is also a branch of the state-owned Niedersachsen Ports GmbH (port operator) and the regional Chamber of Commerce and Industry for East Frisia and Papenburg in the seaport city . Emden is also the seat and namesake of the Emden district of the Federal Employment Agency . This includes the city of Emden, the district of Aurich , the district of Wittmund and the city of Borkum in the district of Leer .
Since the VW plant in Emden - measured by the number of employees - is still of paramount importance for Emden and large parts of East Frisia, one can speak of a monostructure . The Volkswagenwerk is responsible for the majority of the sales in the manufacturing industry in East Frisia. The plant employs around 9,500 people. Many companies such as suppliers or port service providers are dependent on the Volkswagen factory.
Thanks to the factories, the economic power in Emden is higher than the national average. The gross domestic product in 2014 totaled 3.062 billion euros (compared to 2006: 1.997 billion euros). The gross domestic product per inhabitant in 2014 was 61,224 euros (as of December 31, 2014, 176% of the national average; compared to 2003: 38,995 euros, 151%). The gross value added per employed person in the manufacturing industry was 94,026 euros, 127% of the national average (2003: 65,136 euros, 120%), in the service sector it was 50,468 euros, 91% (2003: 45,690 euros, 89%). In the service sector, port services should be mentioned in particular. Although the share of agricultural land in the total area of the city is more than 50%, agriculture plays only a very subordinate role for the number of employees in the city.
Emden has a clear surplus of commuters . Most of the employees who commute come from East Frisia, to a lesser extent from further away. The proportion of employees commuting from the Aurich district is particularly high . Of the 32,276 employees subject to social security contributions at the work site in Emden, 19,288 (as of June 30, 2014) commuted (compared to June 30, 2010: 29,072 versus 17,401). At the same time, 4082 (2010: 3367) residents of Emden were working beyond the city limits, which resulted in a commuter surplus of 15,206 people (2010: 14,034). Due to the size of the company, the VW plant and the North Sea Works are the primary destinations for commuters. In 2014, 9,779 of the employees were female (30.3%) and 22,497 were male (69.7%).
In the future atlas 2016, the independent city of Emden was ranked 209 out of 402 districts, municipal associations and independent cities in Germany and is therefore one of the regions with a “balanced risk-opportunity mix” for the future.
With a population of around 50,000, the job density in Emden is an above-average 681.9 jobs per 1,000 residents. Despite the high density of jobs, the unemployment rate in the city is above the average in Germany. The unemployment rate in June 2019 in the Emden branch (City of Emden, municipalities Krummhörn and Hinte) in the Emden employment agency district was 6.8%. In the city of Emden alone, the rate was 7.9% (as of June 1, 2019). 8.4% of all workers in the city were contract workers in 2011. With this number, Emden is at the top in a nationwide comparison.
The federal motorway 31 runs in a semicircle around Emden with five interchanges at various points in the city. This motorway, which is also known colloquially as the Ostfriesenspieß , connects Emden and East Frisia with the Ruhr area . The first section of the A 31 to Emden was built in 1976; the A 31 was completed in December 2004. The federal road 210 begins in Emden and leads in a west-east direction across East Frisia via Aurich, Wittmund and Jever to Wilhelmshaven . In Emden, the B 210 is interrupted for a short stretch by the A 31. A relocation of the federal road to better connect the eastern part of the port and to relieve the colony of Friesland is in planning. Landesstraße 2 runs through Emden from west to east : It runs through Emden from Wybelsum via Larrelt ( Larrelter Straße ) and the city center to Borssum and Petkum, where it is successively called Petkumer Straße and Leeraner Landstraße . In addition to the motorway, the L 2 is the most important east-west connection in Emden. Further main roads connect the area of the neighboring communities Krummhörn, Hinte and Ihlow. In downtown Emden there are three pedestrian zones (between both Sielen, Große Straße, Brückstraße) and a covered shopping arcade (Neutorgalerie in Neutorstraße), and near the train station there is a car park with 394 parking spaces. Due to the ground conditions in the city, there are no underground car parks, all other public parking spaces are at ground level.
Emden has several train stations for passenger and freight traffic. As a passenger station of serving Emden Hauptbahnhof at the Emsland Railway and the Emden outer harbor near the Borkum quay where the ferries of AG Ems to Borkum store. Every day, Inter City of line 35 in the direction of Koblenz (about Münster , Ruhr and Cologne ) and the line 56 by Berlin / Cottbus or Leipzig (about Bremen and Hannover ). There are regional train connections to Münster and via Oldenburg and Bremen to Hanover. To the north is single track Norddeich Mole reached.
Emden has a smaller former marshalling yard . Today this is only used for local freight traffic, in particular for rail transport of the cars loaded in Emden. In addition, there is a factory station of the VW plant with some shunting and loading tracks. The port has its own port station and a loading station at the former Erzkai, which is hardly used today. A large number of companies in the port have a siding . The now double-track Rheine – Norddeich Mole railway was built in the 1850s as the Hanover Western Railway . Because of the transport of ore by rail from Emden to the Ruhr area, it was designed for heavy haulage very early on.
Local public transport
Local public transport in Emden is ensured by buses. In addition to the city bus lines of Stadtverkehr Emden GmbH (SVE), a subsidiary of Stadtwerke Emden, there are connections to the surrounding area that are served by regional buses from the Deutsche Bahn subsidiary Weser-Ems-Bus GmbH .
From February 23, 1902 to April 30, 1953, an electric tram ran from the town hall to the outer harbor in Emden . In addition, from July 27, 1899 to May 25, 1963, the city was connected to the places mentioned by the Emden – Pewsum – Greetsiel small train . In Emden there are cycle paths on almost all main roads and a number of cycle paths .
The Emden airfield serves the regular traffic to the East Frisian Islands and the business traffic of the local companies, especially Volkswagen. Sports pilots also start here. Emden is the seat of OFD Ostfriesischer Flugdienst , which operates up to seven daily scheduled flights to Borkum. The closest international airports are Groningen Airport and Bremen Airport .
Ferries depart daily from the ferry terminal in Emden's outer harbor catamarans of AG Ems to the island of Borkum. There are technical facilities for handling larger RoRo ships . In the summer months, the Ditzum – Emden Außenhafen – Delfzijl ferry also operates. Other ferry terminals for excursion traffic are located on the Knock and in the Petkum district ( Ditzum – Petkum ferry ). To the south, the Dortmund-Ems Canal connects the port of Emden via Münster with the Ruhr area and the Rhine ; on the Mittellandkanal are Magdeburg , Berlin , Dresden and Prague reached. The Ems Lateral Canal from Emden to Oldersum, downstream of the Ems, serves to supplement the Dortmund-Ems Canal and to relieve the locks in the Emden harbor . Emden is connected to Aurich and Wilhelmshaven via the Ems-Jade Canal . Apart from the transport of building materials to Aurich, it is only used for sport shipping .
Stadtwerke Emden has its own waterworks in Tergast in the neighboring municipality of Moormerland. The western parts of the urban area are supplied by the waterworks of the Oldenburg-Ostfriesischer Wasserverband (OOWV) in Siegelsum ( joint municipality Brookmerland ). The electricity supplies in the west of Emden are not made by the municipal utilities either, they are rather in the EWE AG concession area . This is due to the local government reform in 1972 , when districts such as Twixlum and Wybelsum were only incorporated after Emden. EWE AG also supplies the VW plant with electricity. The main sewage treatment plant in Emden is located in the Larrelt district.
Daily newspapers that appear in Emden (except Sundays) are the Emder Zeitung (market share in the city of Emden, according to its own information, around 70%) and the local edition Emden / Norden of the Ostfriesen-Zeitung, which is published throughout East Frisia . Advertisements appear twice a week: on Wednesdays the Heimatblatt and on Sundays the Sunday paper . The monthly advertising papers are Der Delftspucker and the Emder Bürgerzeitung .
The main editorial office of the radio station Radio Ostfriesland is located in Emden , further editorial offices are located in Aurich and Leer. The Bürgerradio is one of the 15 public broadcasters in Lower Saxony , is financed by public funds and is based in Emden in the building of the adult education center.
The Emden / Leer University of Applied Sciences has its headquarters in Emden. The Ostfriesland University of Applied Sciences (including Leer ) was founded in 1973. The current buildings in the Constantia district were erected in the early 1980s, as was the entire district itself. The Emder FH is designed as a campus university . Shortly before the merger with the universities of applied sciences in Oldenburg, Wilhelmshaven and Elsfleth on January 1, 2000, almost 3,000 students were already enrolled. On September 1, 2009, the Oldenburg / Ostfriesland / Wilhelmshaven University of Applied Sciences was merged and divided into two independent universities of applied sciences (Emden / Leer University and Jade University ). The departments at the Emden location are technology, social work and health as well as economics (the maritime department is located in Leer). Around 4600 students are enrolled in Emden and Leer (as of SS 2016).
There are nine primary schools in Emden , one primary and one secondary school, two secondary schools and one integrated comprehensive school . There are also two high schools : the Johannes-Althusius-Gymnasium (JAG) and the Max-Windmüller-Gymnasium (Max). Then there are the vocational schools (BBS) I and II, the largest of their kind in East Frisia. Vocational high schools are located at the BBSen . There is also a special school with the areas of learning, intellectual development and language. The city of Emden has a clear in-commuter surplus of several thousand students, the lion's share comes from the Aurich district. In Emden there is also an adult education center and a music school , both of which are run by the city of Emden. There is also a painting school, which is located in the rooms of the Kunsthalle Emden .
There is a lively sport life in Emden. The proportion of memberships in sports clubs is significantly higher than the average for the state of Lower Saxony. The most popular sport is football . Due to the proximity to the water (at sea and on inland waterways) there are a large number of water sports clubs of all stripes and with appropriate infrastructure such as marinas . The Frisian sports Boßeln and Klootschießen are also practiced in Emden. Cycling is not necessarily part of club life, but rather traditionally a part of everyday life. There is an extensive network of cycle paths in Emden.
The largest stadium in the city is the East Friesland Stadium of BSV Kickers Emden with 7200 seats . The stadium used to be called simply Kickers Stadium , later Dr. Helmut Riedl Stadium after a former president of the club and Embdena Stadium after a sponsor. There are boat harbors and marinas in the outer harbor, in the old inner harbor, on the Kleiner Meer ( Hieve ) and on the Uphuser Meer, as well as along canals, such as the Ems Lateral Canal and the Emder Stadtgraben. Since the construction of a new, combined indoor and outdoor pool ( Friesentherme Emden , opening in December 2006), Emden has three outdoor pools and one indoor pool. One of the outdoor pools ( van Ameren-Bad ) is run by a non-profit sponsoring association that took over the pool from the city when it was about to be closed in the 1990s.
The more popular sporting events include the home games of BSV Kickers Emden and three running events: the Matjes run, which takes place during the Matjes festival, and the New Year's Eve run. Both lead through the port of Emden. In addition, Emden is the starting point of the Ems-Jade-Lauf about 72 kilometers to Wilhelmshaven. The route along the Ems-Jade Canal is considered to be Germany's “flattest” ultramarathon because of the barely developed topography .
As part of the Delft Festival , Emden was the venue for the second run of the German championships of the German Jetsport Club (DJSV) in 2008 and 2010 .
According to a survey by the Lower Saxony State Office for Statistics , Emden has the highest density of memberships in sports clubs among the urban districts of Lower Saxony. The rate is also significantly higher than the national average. Membership in this case is not the same as members , since one and the same person can be, of course, a member of two or more sports clubs.
In 2001 (year of the survey) there were 19,679 memberships in sports clubs in Emden. In relation to the number of inhabitants, the membership density is 384.47 per 1000 inhabitants. The corresponding comparison values are 362.59 (national average) or, for example, 250.85 (City of Oldenburg), 193.84 (Hanover) and 273.24 (Delmenhorst). Even some districts, in which the membership density is usually higher due to the more village-like structures, are exceeded. In the period from 1991 to 2001, the number of memberships in Emden increased by 2.5 percent.
- Kickers Emden - football , table tennis . Founded in 1946, more than 900 members since the merger with the district club Blau-Gelb Barenburg in May 2008. The first men's football team from Kickers Emden played in the nationwide third league in the 2008/09 season . Due to the withdrawal from the 3rd division due to financial difficulties, the club currently plays in the sixth class national league .
- Integrated sports club Emden - disabled sports, dancing, gymnastics, gymnastics, athletics , swimming. Founded in 1989, the club has grown enormously over the past 20 years and has now replaced MTV Aurich as the largest sports club in East Friesland with more than 3500 members. The ISV was founded at the time to be able to offer people with disabilities an adequate sports program. In the club, disabled and non-disabled people play sports together.
- The community for sport and health e. V. Emden, as a professional association for popular, handicapped, fitness, rehabilitation and preventive sports has committed itself to joint sport for handicapped and non-handicapped people.
- Blau-Weiss Borssum - football, handball, volleyball, table tennis, athletics. BW Borssum is the second largest sports club in Emden with around 1800 members.
- Emden Turnverein - gymnastics, fencing, basketball, volleyball, badminton, bowling, modern pentathlon, fistball, ballet, disabled sports, gymnastics, dancing, table tennis, weightlifting, gymnastics. Founded in 1861 and thus the oldest sports club in Emden. With 1729 members, the ETV is the third largest sports club in the city. BSV Kickers emerged from the former football department of ETV (since the 1920s) after the Second World War. Footballers from other clubs joined the founding of the BSV in 1946.
- District Fisheries Association Ostfriesland (BVO) - fishing. Founded in 1914. Measured by the number of licenses issued, the BVO is the largest district fishing association in Germany with more than 9,000 members. The catchment area includes all of East Frisia, some members even come from the northeast of the Netherlands. The head office is in Emden. Casting is also carried out . The Emder Wiebold Visser won the gold medal with the German national team at the Casting World Championship in Ireland.
The clubs are united in the Stadtsportbund Emden, which represents the interests of the clubs towards the city of Emden.
The city's best-known international son is probably the film director Wolfgang Petersen ( Das Boot , Der Sturm , Troja ), who grew up in a barracks camp in Emden harbor after the Second World War. In his youth he moved to Hamburg and started his career there. The comedian Otto Waalkes also made his breakthrough in the Hanseatic city . Otto comes from the Port Arthur / Transvaal district of Emden , where an Ottifanten sculpture stands in his honor today. Another comedian also comes from Emden, namely Karl Dall , who grew up in the neighboring town of Leer .
The journalist and founder of Stern magazine , Henri Nannen , has left his mark on the German media landscape . He also bequeathed the art gallery in Emden , which is supported by a foundation, to his hometown, to which he returned after retirement .
In the political arena, diplomat Georg Boomgaarden , State Secretary of the Foreign Office from 2005 to 2008 , and SPD politician Gitta Trauernicht , Minister of Social Affairs of Schleswig-Holstein from 2004 to 2009. Johann Bruns was the former state chairman of the Lower Saxony SPD .
In the field of sport, the boxing world champion Heidi Hartmann (boxer) , the seven-time world champion in full contact karate Uwe Boden and the Iranian national soccer player Ferydoon Zandi, who was born in Emden, should be mentioned.
Born in Emder, Ludolf Backhuysen , an eminent marine painter who was one of the leading representatives of this genre in Amsterdam in the 18th century, was also born. The architect, painter and cartographer Martin Faber had a decisive influence on the cityscape of his hometown in the first half of the 17th century. The important landscape painter Frederik de Moucheron was born in Emden in 1634; he died in Amsterdam in 1686. Max Windmüller was a German-Jewish resistance fighter against National Socialism in the 20th century.
The legal scholar, politician and Calvinist Johannes Althusius (1563-1638) was not born in Emden. In the first half of the 17th century, from 1604 to 1637/8, in Emden's heyday, he was town councilor. Althusius, who came from the Calvinist-reformed county of Sayn-Wittgenstein, is considered one of the most important state theorists of the early modern period of the 16th and 17th centuries and of political Calvinism.
Already a few decades before Althusius, the Polish theologian and reformer Johannes a Lasco was working in the seaport city.
Leo Fürbringer , who came from Thuringia and was Lord Mayor from 1875 to 1913, was one of the initiators of the expansion of the Emden harbor and thus laid the foundation for the industrial development of Emden and for the modern day seaport.
- The survivors of the last battle of the small cruiser SMS Emden , named after this city, were given the right to use the heritable suffix "-Emden".
- "Emden" is also the name of a sea depth in the Philippines Trench . The Emdentief was sounded in 1926 by the light cruiser Emden of the Reichsmarine and named after the ship (and ultimately after the city). Up until 1945, the Emden Deep was considered the deepest point in the oceans; according to current knowledge, it is the tenth deepest of all ocean lows.
- Emden was an extremely prosperous city around 1600, due to the sea trade of the Emden merchants and the influx of Dutch religious refugees, including many merchants and shipowners. At that time Emden was considered one of the most important ports in Northern Europe. According to some sources (though not proven), the merchant fleet registered in Emden is said to have temporarily exceeded that of Great Britain in size. However, evidence from that time is that the English poet Christopher Marlowe worked on the Faust theme . In 1592 he wrote his Dr. Faustus and let him express a wish:
The signiority of Emden shall be mine!
"I wish the glory of Emden!"
- The village of Emden in the US state of Illinois was named after the German city, as many of the settlers came from Emden and other Ems cities.
- Kurt Asche: Town houses in East Frisia. Soltau-Kurier, Norden 1992, ISBN 3-922365-39-6 . The work offers further information on the few remaining residential buildings in Emden from past centuries.
- Marianne Claudi, Reinhard Claudi: Golden and other times - Emden, city in East Frisia. Gerhard, Emden 1982, ISBN 3-88656-003-1 . One of the standard works on the history of the city of Emden up to the end of the Second World War.
- Marianne Claudi, Reinhard Claudi: Those we have lost - life stories of Emden Jews. Verlag Ostfriesische Landschaft, Aurich 1988, ISBN 3-925365-31-1 . One of the standard works on the former Jewish community in the city of Emden.
- Reinhard Claudi (Ed.): Stadtgeschichten - Ein Emder Reading Book 1495/1595/1995. Gerhard, Emden 1995, ISBN 3-9804156-1-9 . A work published on the 500th anniversary of the award of the city's coat of arms with contributions by several authors, some of which highlight chronological, some thematically important aspects and times of the city's history.
- Gunther Hummerich: On the trail of an Emder street. Cosmas and Damian, Emden 2000, ISBN 3-933379-02-4 . As an example, the author describes the development of this quarter (especially in terms of urban development) using a street in the preserved district of Klein-Faldern.
- Gunther Hummerich, Wolfgang Lüdde: Reconstruction - The 50s in Emden. Soltau-Kurier, Norden 1995, ISBN 3-928327-18-6 . Based on a (fictional) family history, but with historically proven facts, the reconstruction of the heavily destroyed city after the Second World War is described - including many details on the economic life of that time.
- Dietrich Janßen: September 6, 1944: Emden goes under - destruction and end of the war 1944–1945. Wartberg, Gudensberg-Gleichen 2004, ISBN 3-8313-1411-X . Using interviews with contemporary witnesses and documents from the Allies and the Wehrmacht, the bombing war, the day Emden was destroyed in World War II and the capture by Allied troops are described.
- Bernd Kappelhoff: History of the City of Emden. Volume 2: Emden as a quasi-autonomous city republic 1611–1749 (= East Frisia under the protection of the dike. Volume 11). Edited by Deichacht Krummhörn, Pewsum. Rautenberg, Leer 1994, . The work deals with the position of the city of Emden within East Frisia and within the empire at that time.
- Eberhard Kliem: The city of Emden and the navy. E. S. Mittler Verlag, Hamburg, 2008, ISBN 978-3-8132-0892-4 . Until the end of the 20th century, Emden was one of the most traditional German naval bases. Its importance from the beginnings in the 16th century to the closure of the naval base is described in detail.
- Eckart Krömer: Small economic history of East Frisia and Papenburg. Soltau-Kurier, Norden 1991, ISBN 3-922365-93-0 . The book provides information on the Emden economy in past centuries, but especially for the period from industrialization to around the mid-1980s.
- Gustav Palmgren: Emden, Germany's new sea ethos in the west, its sea importance then and now. Haynel, Emden 1901, urn : nbn: de: hbz: 6: 1-135638 .
- Eberhard Rack: A little regional study of East Frisia. Isensee Verlag, Oldenburg 1998, ISBN 3-89598-534-1 . For the present article, the work provides (among other things) background information on aspects of geography covered.
- Axel von Schack, Albert Gronewold (1994): Working alone, you won't get tired of it! - On the social history of the city of Emden 1848–1914. Edition Temmen, Bremen 1994, ISBN 3-86108-233-0 . The authors have shed light on the industrialization of the city and the beginnings of the Emden workers' movement.
- Eduard Doering: Handbook of coin, exchange, measure and weight. 2nd, completely reworked, improved and increased edition. J. Hölscher, Coblenz 1854, p. 175 f. ( Preview in Google Book Search - Historical Emder Weights and Measures).
- Official website of the city of Emden
- Search for Emden in the SPK digital portal of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation
- The Emder Hafen - Emder Hafenförderungsgesellschaft e. V.
- Literature from and about Emden in the catalog of the German National Library
- Link catalog on the subject of Emden at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- State Office for Statistics Lower Saxony, LSN-Online regional database, Table 12411: Update of the population, as of December 31, 2019 ( help ).
- Emden recognized as a European city of the Reformation. In: landeskirche-hannovers.de, accessed on January 21, 2014.
- On the importance of Emden in the history of the Reformation see the sections Early Modern Age , Christianity , Libraries and Personalities as well as the city portrait of the project Reformation Cities of Europe: Reformation City of Emden. Germany. Traces of the Reformation are present. In: reformation-cities.org/cities, accessed on August 9, 2016, as well as the city portrait of the European Station Path project : Emden ( Memento from August 17, 2016 in the Internet Archive ). In: r2017.org/europaeischer-stationweg, accessed on August 9, 2016.
- Lower Saxony Ministry of Food, Agriculture, Consumer Protection and State Development (ML) : Ordinance on the State Spatial Planning Program Lower Saxony 2008. P. 14 ff. ( Ml.niedersachsen.de ( Memento from June 3, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) [PDF; 4 , 5 MB; accessed March 2, 2013]).
- Eberhard Rack: Small regional studies of Ostfriesland . Isensee Verlag, Oldenburg 1998, ISBN 3-89598-534-1 , p. 115. In the following rack: Landeskunde.
- Stadtwald ( memento from June 29, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on August 12, 2016.
- Information in this and the following paragraphs originate, unless otherwise referenced, from Heinz Voigt: Die Boden Ostfrieslands. In: Karl-Heinz Sindowski, Heinz Voigt, Peter Schmid, Waldemar Reinhardt, Harm Wiemann: Geological development of East Friesland (= East Friesland in the protection of the dike. Volume 1). Edited by Deichacht Krummhörn, Pewsum. Schuster, Leer 1969, , pp. 51-106, here p. 96 with cartographic supplement.
- For the following explanations cf. the soil overview map 1: 50,000 of the Lower Saxony State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology : map server. In: nibis.lbeg.de, accessed on July 14, 2013.
- According to: Geoklima 2.1. In: w-hanisch.de/geoklima, accessed on August 12, 2016.
- Emder newspaper . November 3, 2006.
- State Office for Statistics and Communication Technology Lower Saxony : Emden, City. Area survey (actual use). In: nls.niedersachsen.de, accessed on August 13, 2016.
- District. Distribution of residents (HWS) across the districts (PDF; 63 kB). In: emden.de, accessed on April 15, 2019 (as of June 30, 2017).
- Statistics Info 03/2015. District information ( memento of December 8, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) (reference date in each case: June 30, 2015). In: emden.de, accessed on May 11, 2017 (PDF; 56 kB).
- The information could be viewed on an interactive map ( Memento from July 23, 2016 in the Internet Archive ). In: Meine-umweltkarte-niedersachsen.de, accessed on August 13, 2016.
- Walter Deeters : Emden ( Memento from October 29, 2013 in the Internet Archive ). On the website of the Residences Commission of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen, accessed on October 27, 2013.
- See the self-portrayals of the Royal Air Force on their history websites: Bomber Command No. 7 Squadron. ( Memento from August 17, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) In: raf.mod.uk, accessed on August 13, 2016: “Among other early targets [i. e. in 1941] were Brest, Rotterdam, Emden (this was the target when the squadron made its first daylight raid, on April 28th), Hamburg and Mannheim. ” - Royal Air Force : Bomber Command No. 12 Squadron. ( Memento from September 24, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) In: raf.mod.uk, accessed on August 13, 2016: “On 10 / 11th April 1941, it used them [i. e. the Wellingtons ] for the first time when a raid was made on Emden. " - Royal Air Force : Bomber Command No. 608 Squadron. ( Memento of August 17, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) In: raf.mod.uk, accessed on August 13, 2016: “between 5 / 6th August 1944 and 2nd / 3rd May 1945, [it] flew 1,726 operational sorties against key German industrial centers and ports, including Berlin, Frankfurt, Hanover, Essen, Stuttgart, Nuremberg, Hamburg, Emden and Kiel. " - German key industrial centers and ports are highlighted as targets of attack; the attack on inner cities, here: the Emdens, is not mentioned.
- Bunker Museum Working Group: Fallen Soldiers, Emden. In: bunkermuseum.de, accessed on April 22, 2020. See the list of names (PDF; 2.1 MB). In: bunkermuseum.de, accessed on April 22, 2020.
- Bunker Museum Working Group: Welcome to the Bunker Museum. In: bunkermuseum.de, accessed on December 8, 2017 (local museum at the time 1933–1945, reconstruction and culture of remembrance in Emden).
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 260 .
- Heiko Müller: Emden starts naturalization campaign. In: Ostfriesen-Zeitung . Retrieved February 26, 2013, same day.
- Zweckverband Kommunale Datenverarbeitung Oldenburg (KDO): Local election September 11, 2016. Overall result. In: kdo.de. September 29, 2016 / 3:03:24 pm, Retrieved October 24, 2016.
- City history. Mayor of the city of Emden - 1442 until today
- KDO IT for municipalities - Mayor election 2011 in Emden , accessed on April 19, 2018
- Nordwest-Zeitung: Bundestag election: These members represent our region . In: NWZonline . ( nwzonline.de [accessed September 29, 2017]).
- Zweckverband Kommunale Datenverarbeitung Oldenburg (KDO): Election to the German Bundestag. City of Emden In: wahlen.kdo.de, accessed on September 29, 2017.
- See City of Emden: The city coat of arms "Engelke up de Muer". In: emden.de, accessed on August 14, 2016.
- The city coat of arms "Engelke up de Muer". In: emden.de, accessed on August 14, 2016.
- Emder newspaper. June 4, 2008, p. 3.
- Heiko Müller: Divorce came after a golden wedding. In: Ostfriesen-Zeitung . January 28, 2012, accessed August 5, 2012.
- Alex Milkert: Economic interests alone are not enough for the mayor ( Memento from February 3, 2016 in the Internet Archive ). In: Emder newspaper. June 12, 2010, archived in: fdp-emden.de, accessed on August 5, 2012.
- City of Emden: Statistics Info 3/2017. Denominations in the districts. (PDF; 85 kB). In: emden.de, accessed on April 9, 2019.
- City of Emden: Statistics Info 3/2015. Denominations in the districts ( Memento of February 5, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 66 kB). In: emden.de, accessed on August 14, 2016.
- Janine Schaller: Mosque should be a place of dialogue and integration ( memento of April 8, 2012 in the Internet Archive ). In: Emder newspaper. October 5, 2009.
- Lower Saxony State Office for Statistics: Monthly Statistical Issues 5/2004 (PDF; 1.4 MB), accessed on August 5, 2012.
- Südbrookmerlander and Brookmerlander win literature prize. In: Ostfriesische Nachrichten. February 8, 2013, accessed on August 17, 2016 (beginning of article freely available).
- Johann Friedrich Dirks Prize. ( Memento from April 2, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) In: emden.de, accessed on February 11, 2015.
- Johann Friedrich Dirks Prize presented. In: emden.de, February 13, 2017, accessed on April 9, 2019.
- Werner Scholze-Stubenrecht, Duden editorship (Bibliographical Institute), scientific advice: The Duden in twelve volumes - the standard work on the German language. Volume 9: Correct and good German. Dictionary of linguistic cases of doubt. 4., on the basis of the official revision of the German spelling, newly edited and extended Edition. Dudenverlag, Mannheim 1997, ISBN 3-411-04094-7 , p. 237. - In the online version of Dudens, both variants, “Emder” and “Emdener” , are listed with the same frequency, 2 out of 5; accessed on August 17, 2016.
- East Frisian Courier . June 3, 2005.
- German Bundestag. 16th legislative term: printed matter 16/12228. Draft law of the federal government of March 12, 2009: Draft of a law to repeal the free ports of Emden and Kiel, accessed on August 17, 2016 ( bundestag.de [PDF; 90 kB; accessed on April 22, 2020]).
- General-Anzeiger : New top mark in car handling in Emden. In: ga-online.de, January 4, 2013, accessed on January 4, 2013 (beginning of article freely available).
- How we work. Working on the coast. At Volkswagen Emden. ( Memento from February 3, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) In: volkswagen-karriere.de, accessed on August 17, 2016.
- Volkswagen AG: Chronicle. In: volkswagenag.com, accessed on August 17, 2016.
- Private investors acquire Emden shipyard and dock operations . In: bundeswehr journal . February 5, 2015 ( bundeswehr-journal.de [accessed October 2, 2017]).
- Peter Kleinort: Emden has the most modern terminal · Gassco puts the facility into operation after three years of construction. In: Daily port report . May 25, 2016, p. 3.
- Statkraft : Brochure Emden (PDF; 951 kB). In: statkraft.de, accessed on August 17, 2016.
- Statkraft: Statkraft is adjusting German generation capacities. Press release. February 16, 2012. In: statkraft.de, accessed on February 3, 2016.
- Emden is now voting for the central clinic. In: ndr.de, May 27, 2019, accessed on April 23, 2020.
- No central clinic - criticism from Rundt. In: NDR. June 12, 2017, accessed April 23, 2020.
- KomSIS.de: Location profile Emden. In: komsis.de, accessed on February 10, 2017.
- GDP in Emden, statistical offices .
- Future Atlas 2016. (No longer available online.) In: prognos.com. Archived from the original on October 2, 2017 ; accessed on March 23, 2018 .
- State Office for Statistics Lower Saxony: District-free city of Emden. Retrieved July 17, 2019
- Employment Agency Emden-Leer: Dupák: "Training and qualification are the be-all and end - all." Press release from June 1, 2019. Accessed on July 17, 2019
- Ute Kabernagel: Rental companies also lack skilled workers. In: Ostfriesen-Zeitung . April 21, 2011, accessed on July 31, 2012 (beginning of article freely available).
- Lower Saxony State Authority for Road Construction and Transport : Relocation of the federal highway 210 south of Emden. First groundbreaking on December 10, 2015. In: strassenbau.niedersachsen.de, accessed on August 5, 2012.
- At the beginning of 2012 , the MTV Aurich had 3059 members ( memento from July 23, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on August 9, 2016, while the ISV Emden had 3567 . Data from the MTV homepage and the online presence of the Ostfriesen-Zeitung, accessed on February 20, 2012.
- On-board community of Emden drivers: The suffix "Emden". In: fregatte-emden.de, accessed on August 9, 2016.
- Quotation n .: Marianne Claudi, Reinhard Claudi: Goldene und other Zeiten - Emden, city in Ostfriesland. Gerhard, Emden 1982, ISBN 3-88656-003-1 , p. 69 f.