Vocational school

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The term vocational school (also vocational school ) is a collective term for a large number of different types of school. It is often used to refer to vocational schools and vocational schools , which today only represent a part - albeit a large part - of vocational schools.

The use of the term in the singular and plural is often inconsistent in state schools. So (the community in general), organizational structure, school forms (such. As vocational school, in many states by the school Berufsoberschule , vocational school, vocational extension school , technical school , Vocational School ) as a vocational school (singular) because the building complex and the municipal staff are managed as a functional unit. From the school or cultural administration and in its own name, however, this organizational unit is referred to in the plural as vocational schools , thus expressing the variety of legally independent school types. The usual abbreviation is "BBS", more rarely "BbS".


School types

Depending on the federal state, the individual types of vocational schools are named differently. There are training courses for young people without a school leaving certificate with a vocational preparation character ( vocational preparation year ). If the young person has a secondary school diploma , he or she can attend the basic vocational training year (called a vocational school or commercial school in some federal states ), which, depending on the federal state, can be credited towards regular training and leads to secondary school leaving certificate.

If the young person has a secondary school leaving certificate , he can attend vocational school, which leads to a state or state-recognized school- leaving qualification. Other names for this are higher vocational school, vocational college or higher commercial school . Additional lessons can be used to take an examination to acquire the university entrance qualification .

Full-time schools for acquiring general educational qualifications are the vocational high schools in Bavaria ( vocational high school and technical high school ), vocational college or vocational school , which lead to a technical college entrance qualification or, in some cases, to the Abitur .

In the state of Bavaria there are a total of seven types of vocational schools (vocational school (BFS), vocational school (BOS) , vocational school (BS), technical academy (FA) , technical college (FOS), technical school (FS) and business school (WS) ), these cover Across schools from grades 7 to 13 ( middle and upper grades ), which corresponds to an age of 13 years and over. The training of teachers ( vocational teaching post ) takes place in university studies and is designed for all these types of schools.

The vocational grammar school is partly designed as an advanced grammar school or college and is referred to in Germany by the conference of ministers of education as a technical grammar school.

In addition, many vocational schools take over the tasks of the presence Telekolleg .

In North Rhine-Westphalia , the vocational schools have been developed into vocational colleges for a number of years, at which the subject-related or general (subject) higher education entrance qualification ( Abitur or technical diploma ) with vocational subjects can be taken at the same time as professional qualification .

In contrast, vocational colleges in other federal states are only special types of vocational schools. Not to vocational schools include vocational colleges , academies , universities and administrative and business schools . In most federal states, technical schools are also outsourced.

Private schools

Private schools that provide vocational qualifications are also part of the vocational schools. In private schools , a distinction is made between substitute schools and supplementary schools :

Substitute schools offer courses or degrees that are offered in state schools. They “replace” a state school. By attending a substitute school, pupils fulfill the statutory schooling requirement. The qualifications obtained are equivalent to those of a state school. Substitute schools are under the legal supervision of the state and must adhere to the applicable state curricula. Any substitute school must be approved by the state. Substitute schools receive financial compensation from the state for each student. A distinction is also made between “recognized” and “approved” substitute schools. Recognized substitute schools can award state qualifications themselves. Approved substitute schools are not allowed to award these degrees themselves.

Complementary schools offer courses or degrees that are neither offered nor intended in state schools. They “complement” the state school system. By attending a supplementary school, compulsory schooling can be fulfilled under certain conditions and a state qualification can be obtained. The schools do not receive any financial compensation from the state. You don't have to stick to curricula; there are usually none for their courses. The establishment of a supplementary school does not require approval, but it must be reported to the state.


In the Austrian school system there is traditionally a very well diversified vocational school system. In addition to the vocational schools of the dual training courses (apprenticeship training), there is a wide range of vocational middle schools (BMS; usually 2 to 3-year schools without matriculation examination) and the vocational higher schools (BHS; five-year), which today more than the Half of the Austrian high school diplomas and thus enable university entrance qualifications in addition to vocational training. All vocational schools are located in the upper secondary level. In addition to many state schools, there is also a wide range of private offers in this educational sector (e.g. in Vienna the schools of the Vienna Business School HAK / HAS).

The most important of these are the higher technical institutes (HTL; with different subject areas) and the commercial academies for higher commercial training (HAK). A third major branch is the somewhat more general high schools for business professions (CPR). There are also smaller types of schools, each organized as higher education institutions and as technical schools for the fields of agriculture and forestry, tourism, and social professions. These school types also offer so-called college courses for AHS (= Gymnasien) graduates, where the vocational parts can be made up in a few semesters. BHS graduates are also credited with partial areas of certain technical college courses.


There are vocational schools and vocational schools in Switzerland .


Vocational schools provide a large number of both vocational qualifications and general school qualifications. They range from a vocational preparatory qualification to journeyman or skilled worker to the state-certified or state-recognized vocational college degree and from the secondary school certificate to the Abitur .

The majority of the training courses are in the area of vocational schools , but vocational qualifications are also imparted that can only be acquired at schools, for example at vocational schools .

In the area of dual training , final, journeyman or skilled worker examinations are held by a committee of the chambers . If this exam is passed, the schools will also provide additional general school qualifications up to the extended secondary qualification I if certain school achievements have been made .


Individual evidence

  1. Vocational schools. State Institute for School Quality and Educational Research , accessed October 9, 2016 .
  2. Study of teaching at vocational schools. Bavarian State Ministry for Education and Culture, Science and Art , accessed on October 9, 2016 .
  3. studies; Teaching at vocational schools. Free State of Bavaria , March 24, 2016, accessed October 9, 2016 .
  4. ^ Definitions catalog for school statistics 2015 (2) (PDF; 1.1 MB), accessed on January 13, 2016.
  5. ^ Ministry of Education Vienna ( Memento from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
  6. abc.berufsbildendeschulen.at ( Memento from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive )