The dual training is a system of vocational training . The formation of the dual system is carried out in two places, the operation and the professional school , and is characterized by learning location across learning processes ( Dual learning off). The person in dual training is referred to as a trainee or trainee, or out of date as an apprentice .
The prerequisite for vocational training in the dual system is a vocational training contract in Germany and an apprenticeship contract with a company in Austria, Switzerland and South Tyrol (Italy) . The vocational school to attend depends on the location or the regional affiliation of the company. Most of the practical part of the training is imparted to the trainees in the company, while the theoretical part is mostly done by the vocational school. In addition, in many places it is also possible to acquire additional qualifications at vocational schools .
When attending a vocational school (school with a vocational qualification), dual training is ensured through general / theoretical lessons and practical workshop lessons.
The basis for in-company training is the respective training regulations for the profession.
Training focal points according to § 1 and § 14 BBiG are:
- Imparting technical skills, knowledge and skills. The so-called "professional ability to act". This results from the content of the training regulations for each profession
- Provide first work experience
- character development
- Avoidance of hazards (e.g. avoiding physical hazards by complying with UVV )
Training in the companies takes place three to four days a week, on one to two days (state regulations: depending on the occupation and year of training) vocational training days are offered. Alternatively, so-called block lessons are also carried out. This means that the trainee or apprentice is entirely in school for up to eight weeks at a time. It is often supplemented by cross -company training that takes place in the workshops of the craft guilds and chambers (Germany). These inter-company courses are intended to compensate for the training deficits that have arisen due to the specialization of many companies. Such courses can last three to four weeks per year. Depending on the occupation, some courses are stipulated in the respective training regulations (e.g. welding courses for car mechanics), others are voluntary. In Austria, theoretical training is carried out one day a week, as in Vienna , or in blocks for up to two months a year in vocational schools.
Training in the vocational school is subject to the school supervisory authorities of the federal states - cantons in Switzerland - and the applicable curricula, which in turn are based on the framework curriculum . The framework curricula are not nationwide in contrast to the training regulations and the training framework plans contained therein. Framework curricula are approved by the superordinate KMK (Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education of the Länder), but the basic right exists that the respective federal states can adapt the framework curricula individually to the given circumstances. Therefore, for a good coordination between vocational school and in-company training, it is important to request the respective framework curriculum of the federal state or the corresponding vocational school.
General key tasks of vocational schools are:
- imparting theoretical specialist knowledge
- the deepening of general education
- and the award of career qualifications (educational qualifications)
In addition to the "normal" compulsory vocational school, the vocational schools also fulfill other tasks:
- Years of vocational primary school
- Vocational school
- University entrance qualification
- High school entrance qualification
Attendance at the vocational school usually comprises twelve hours of lessons per week, which would correspond to two school days. However, since it is not generally possible to give full lessons, lessons are often limited to eight hours taught over a day or two. The training in the vocational school comprises a theoretical and a general part. The general part of all professions includes the subjects German (communication), politics (social theory), sport (health promotion) and, in some cases, religion (questions of life, values, norms).
Vocational school lessons are organized either part-time (one or two days a week) or in block form (combined into several weeks "in a row"). Occupations with only a few apprenticeships (so-called splinter occupations) are grouped into state or federal subject classes.
During the vocational training, an intermediate examination must be taken to show the success of the previous training. This takes place roughly in the middle of the training. At the end of the training, there is the final examination , in which the candidates to be examined must prove their professional competence. In the trades, the final examination is traditionally called a journeyman's examination . The examinations are to be carried out by the responsible bodies, e.g. B. by the chambers of crafts and chambers of industry and commerce (IHKs) to organize. They are approved by the (“appointed”) examination boards set up by the chambers . Registration for the examinations is carried out in accordance with the applicable examination regulations either by the training company or by the trainee himself. The documents required for registration also differ depending on the examination regulations, but must at least contain:
- Copy of the vocational training contract
- Copy of the last vocational school certificate
- Proof of training or report books
- Certificate of participation in further measures outside and outside the company
The company is fundamentally obliged to prepare the trainee for an examination. He decides at his own discretion.
The written IHK intermediate and final exams are (with the exception of the Baden-Württemberg IHKs in the final examination) nationwide uniform, i. H. they are carried out at the same time and with sets of tasks that are identical for the respective profession. The tasks are divided up by three task creation institutions of the IHKs in an elaborate process in which three-dimensional specialist committees made up of employer and employee representatives and teachers play a central role. For commercial and business-related training occupations, these are the task center for final and intermediate commercial examinations (AkA) in Nuremberg and the Central Office for North-West Examination Tasks (ZPA North-West) in Cologne, and for the commercial-technical training professions the examination tasks and Teaching material development center of the Stuttgart Region Chamber of Commerce and Industry (PAL) . Exam questions for the graphic industry are prepared by the ZFA Druck-Medien in Kassel.
The main advantage of the unique central IHK exams is that all trainees in a particular occupation are tested nationwide with the same tasks. This ensures that the tests are objective and that the respective test results are comparable across Germany. The average results by IHK district, federal state and nationwide can be viewed on every IHK homepage, so that every candidate, but also every training company, can classify their results.
Between 2003 and 2007 there was a change in the examination procedure. In some newly organized or new apprenticeships, the intermediate and final examinations were replaced by an "extended" examination as part of a pilot project . In detail, this means that examination part 1 (formerly the intermediate examination) accounts for up to 40% of the overall result and examination part 2 (formerly the final examination) corresponds accordingly to 60 or more percent of the overall examination.
After passing the exam, the "former" trainee receives three certificates:
- Certificate from the training company
- Vocational school certificate
- Graduation certificate or journeyman or skilled worker certificate
The training company is obliged to issue the company certificate.
If the final exam is not passed, the trainee can repeat the exam twice. At the request of the trainee, the apprenticeship can be extended until the next repeat examination, but by a maximum of one year.
Advantages of dual training in Germany
An advantage is that training in the company guarantees practical relevance. The trainees are made familiar with the latest technical developments. You can build a reputation for yourself in the company, which has a positive effect on being hired after your training. The training phase is also shortened by the experience gained from trainees. The apprenticeship allowance enables the apprentices to concentrate on their training.
Attending the vocational school ensures a basic education and provides the theoretical background for the company's activities. The vocational school makes it possible to reduce compulsory schooling in general education, as subjects such as German, social studies, religion and sport complete the schooling of young people. A minimum level of education is guaranteed by the state.
Disadvantages of dual training in Germany
The participation of three partners means that more coordination is required.
Since the curricula for the vocational schools are issued by the respective federal state and the training framework plans are issued by the federal government, they are not always compatible.
In some of the companies, apprentices are viewed as cheap workers without a minimum wage and are not trained comprehensively, only partial areas are taught. Due to the specialization of the company, not all aspects of the profession can be mapped. This must be cushioned with the help of inter-company training or through partnerships with other companies with organizational and financial costs. As an example, when can dental nurse apply that not every dental office Dental implants are introduced. But this is part of a comprehensive training in this profession.
Newer technical developments are only considered with a delay in the vocational school.
Situation outside of the German-speaking area
In the United States, for example, the concept of dual training has not gained a foothold. The most frequently chosen vocational training paths are university studies and employment with on-the-job training, which begins immediately after graduating from high school . Many professions that can be learned in German-speaking countries as part of dual training are learned in the USA at vocational schools ( Trade Schools , Technical Schools ), a type of trade schools .
In 2013, the Ifo Institute for Economic Research explained the persistently low youth unemployment in Germany compared to other European countries by saying that the dual vocational training system had been established here for decades. This is therefore a "model of success" that other countries should copy. However, serious mistakes would often be made when adopting the model. Above all, there is often a lack of understanding of what makes a dual system a "successful model":
- The system of dual vocational training is often misunderstood as a socio-political event to care for poor students. Its main purpose, however, is to train the skilled workers for tomorrow in future-oriented professions. Only under these conditions are companies willing to invest in vocational training even without government coercion.
- The economy into which young people are to be integrated is often not innovative enough; their work organization is not based sufficiently on qualified workers.
- Vocational training does not enjoy a high level of prestige among the population of problem countries, so that it is mainly the weakest students who apply in the context of the dual system.
- Companies have to think more long-term than is often the case in problem countries, as investments in vocational training often only pay for themselves after a few years.
- In Germany, employers' associations, trade unions, chambers and works councils work closely with the state, so that there is a close link between in-company and school-based training. Without such forms of cooperation, systems that only superficially imitated the German model would find it difficult to be successful.
The Ifo Institute generally considers vocational training that takes place exclusively at state schools without reference to the current practice of the companies to be ineffective, since employers highly value professional experience in times of crisis, but usually only about it in countries without the institution of teaching their permanent staff. Such countries primarily made school leavers without company-specific experience available to companies. In Germany, on the other hand, those who have been trained in a certain company are often taken on by “their” company, or at least by a similarly structured company, at the end of their professional training.
Problems of dual training
At the same time there is a shortage and oversupply of training places
The range of in-company training positions (see training quota ) varies greatly from one sector to another, so that, on the one hand, vacant training positions cannot be filled, and on the other, many young people are still being trained in school and external measures instead of in companies. It is becoming increasingly problematic that many young people are certified as having a lack of training maturity. Even young people with a general school leaving certificate often do not meet the high requirements of the dual training regulations of many three and three-and-a-half-year vocational training courses.
In the past, Germany has tried several times to overcome the deficits mentioned by making changes to the dual system. In particular, the "contract training" and the "nationalized training courses" were discussed. However, this approach was not able to convince in the long term.
In the case of "contract training", large corporations make their capacities such as their training workshops (for training industrial metal occupations) available and train them beyond their own needs. However, this does not ensure that the trainees are taken on in a permanent employment relationship. This variant is therefore only suitable to a limited extent for reducing the weaknesses of the dual system as a result.
In the “nationalized training courses” (the so-called “assistant” professions), young people in upper-level colleges and in independent schools are trained “bypassing” the dual system. In addition to theoretical instruction, these training courses also offer practical internships. However, operational practice is often neglected here. This makes the transition of graduates into working life more difficult.
For those whose problem is that there is a high probability that they will fail at the level of the written vocational qualification examination, a kind of “teaching light” is offered. In particular, young people who are considered to be “ learning disabled ” within the meaning of (1) SGB III are given the opportunity to become skilled practitioners (or workers ). Almost all relevant training courses are organized by public-law institutions due to a lack of interest from the private sector.
Since 2006 - based on an “Innovation Group Vocational Education” of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research - a modularization of dual education has been discussed. Similar to modern university courses, the training should be structured with standardized training modules that can be combined within a professional group and that allow partial credits to be credited. In contrast to tiered models that certify recognized qualifications, training modules would be certified for themselves, but a vocational final exam would remain. From the Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training 2007 training modules have been developed for 14 professions to finish. Proponents expect better flexibility and permeability from the transition system through a modularization of dual training , while critics fear a lowering of the quality level of training.
Vocational training at a glance
Switzerland prides itself on its vocational training and apprenticeship - as is commonly known in German-speaking Switzerland as vocational training or dual training. In manual, technical, administrative or service professions - from simple to highly qualified - it forms one of the foundations of the Swiss economy and public administration.
- for further details see: Vocational training> Switzerland
Problems arise especially in the areas that offer low wages, can offer.
Depending on the subject and field of activity, there is a shortage of apprenticeships or interested parties from time to time.
This situation also led to bizarre excesses - in 2004 a resourceful entrepreneur advertised IT apprenticeships in his newly established training company. For the first time, the apprentices should not receive an apprenticeship wage, but pay a training fee. The outrage was so great that this company was never able to start.
In order to get an apprenticeship, one increasingly has to pass an aptitude test . For coveted professions there are often several applicants, with which the companies can choose "comfortably".
One possible cause of this situation is the “upgrading” of many apprenticeships and the associated higher qualifications that are required for these apprenticeships. In fact, it is almost exclusively the less gifted students who can no longer find an apprenticeship position, while many more gifted people switch to a Matura school.
According to reports, around 5,000 apprenticeship positions would still be vacant as of August 2009 (of 82,000), but more and more young people would not find a job after completing their apprenticeship. Around half of the 147,000 young people who were faced with an apprenticeship choice last April opted for basic vocational training.
- Apprenticeship and high school diploma
- dual study
- Vocational Training Act (Germany)
- Vocational Training Act (Switzerland)
- Federal Institute for Vocational Training
- Presentation of the training models - website of the IHK North Westphalia
- I do it! - Information page of Bavarian television on the subject of training and work with video clips on all training professions
- Brochure: Training and Career . (PDF; 2.17 MB) Federal Ministry of Education and Research
- bfz trainer network
- Dual vocational training in the craft
- Training modules (PDF; 1.27 MB)
- Ronny Gert Bürckholdt: Should everyone become an academic? In: Badische-zeitung.de , March 7, 2015; Report from a symposium The future of the work of the Walter Eucken Institute and the Freiburg School Action Group
- Louis Maag: Dual learning in commercial vocational training: an empirical analysis in accounting . Hohenheim 2019 (dissertation).
- 15 Alternatives To College That Make Complete Sense. Retrieved October 16, 2019 .
- Austrian Chamber of Commerce: Youth unemployment rate. wko.at, accessed on August 14, 2020 .
- Dual training, ›youth guarantee‹ or additional aid funds: What can be done against youth unemployment in Europe? Ifo Institute for Economic Research, August 2013, accessed on August 14, 2020 .
- Jungkunz: The dual system of vocational training - as bad as its reputation? Logos Verlag, 2008
- Franz-Josef Sauer: SGB III § 19 Disabled people / 2.4 learning disabilities . haufe.de
- (de, fr, it, en) Berufsbildung.ch - The portal for vocational training - A service of the SDBB in cooperation with the State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation SERI , on berufsbildung.ch
- (de, fr, it, en) The dual system of vocational training in Switzerland . State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation , at sbfi.admin.ch
- Kathrin Hoeckel, Simon Field, W. Norton Grubb: Learning for Jobs - OECD Study on Vocational Education and Training: Switzerland . (PDF) OECD , April 2009
- (de, fr, it) Association for dual vocational training Switzerland . on pro-duale.ch
- Trained and underpaid / (fr) Apprentis, se lever tôt pour gagner peu , documentary by Florence Fernex and Christophe Ungar, Temps présent, RTS 2016, 28 min - online (de) in the 3sat media library: ( page no longer available , search in web archives: www.3sat.de/mediathek/?mode=play&obj=62431 ) / (fr) on RTS : https://pages.rts.ch/emissions/temps-present/economie/7389119-apprentis-se-lever -tot-pour-gagner-peu.html? anchor = 7507240
- Note: a "conference, Federal - parties '" does not exist - Questions: Was it one of the " Von-Wattenwyl talks "? Or one of the numerous other discussions? And how about the other, also numerous, discussions?
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- Neue Zürcher Zeitung of October 27, 2009 - please, add reference: Which NZZ article? Other sources?