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Training includes the imparting of skills and knowledge by an authorized institution, for example a state school , university or private company. As a rule, at the end of an institutional training there is a final examination of the graduate who, after successful participation, receives a document that certifies the positive completion of the training and proves his acquired skills, for example a certificate in web programming, a doctorate in philosophy or a master's degree in the roofing trade. Education differs from the term education in its perfection and purpose.

Vocational training

In contrast to the broader concept of education, vocational training pursues practical purposes. Your educational objective is less in general and personal development than in the standardized teaching of applicable skills, which is mostly used for commercial professional practice .

In dual vocational training, training companies and vocational schools (vocational schools; vocational colleges) in particular fulfill these tasks in accordance with the requirements of the Vocational Training Act (BBiG). The Federal Ministry of Economics and Labor or the relevant specialist ministry issues training regulations as the basis for orderly and uniform vocational training. For a recognized training occupation, training may only take place in accordance with the training regulations. Young people under the age of 18 may not be trained in other than recognized occupations . The Vocational Training Act does not set any requirements for completed school training or other advanced training as a prerequisite for training in a recognized profession.

The application for an apprenticeship position includes an interview and usually an aptitude test. The applicant should prepare for both in order to be able to highlight his strengths as much as possible. The preparation certainly also means that information can be given about current events. In some cases, so-called assessment centers are also used to select applicants.

The duration of the training varies between two and three and a half years, depending on the occupation. For example, the regular training duration for training to become an industrial mechanic or mechatronics technician is stipulated by the legislator in the current training regulations; a reduction can usually be applied for and granted in the case of good performance.

Another option for vocational training is at state vocational schools or colleges, which are full-time schools . As a rule, however, the apprentices do guided internships ( internship ) or recognition internships ( educators ) of different lengths (depending on the profession and federal state) in very different institutions or companies, depending on the profession. Examples of such training: electrical engineering assistant, educator and so on.

Often there is the possibility of combining this vocational training with the certificate of the technical college entrance qualification (FOR; intermediate level), technical college entrance qualification , the subject-related higher education entrance qualification or general higher education entrance qualification (Abitur). The opportunities for double qualification are primarily used in commercial, media-technical and socio-pedagogical training courses.

One element of vocational training is instruction . Shall invite § 12 para. 1 of the Labor Protection Act that the insured are adequate and appropriate under this item. Triggers for instruction are e.g. B. Hiring or transferring, changes in the area of ​​responsibility or changes in work processes.

Some employers use apprenticeships to reduce labor costs.


Students go to secondary school first and finish at the age of 15 or 16. The apprenticeship contract is limited in time and cannot be terminated normally. A termination without notice is only possible in two cases - either by mutual agreement or for important reasons, for example because the training company and the trainer determine that the apprenticeship will not be successfully completed or because the learner has committed a serious act that led to a loss of confidence Has. The cantonal office for vocational training must approve the termination of the apprenticeship contract.

Fair play; This is a gentlemen's agreement from 1989, which contains the principle that one should wait until November 1st of the third year of secondary school before placing apprenticeships. This agreement has been used less frequently in recent years, which has led to higher dissolution of the apprenticeship relationships.

Part-time training

As a supplement to full-time training, with the amendment to the Vocational Training Act (BBiG) of April 1, 2005 , the legislature created the possibility of undertaking in - company training on a part-time basis . Thus, if there is a legitimate interest, there is also the possibility of shortening the training by reducing the number of hours per week.

A legitimate interest exists if the trainee is unable to complete full-time training either because of caring for their own children or for caring for close relatives. Personal restrictions, for example health restrictions, which do not permit activity of more than six hours per day, also represent a legitimate interest.

In principle, all professions that are regulated by the Vocational Training Act (BBiG) and the Crafts Code (HwO) can be learned part-time . The prerequisites are a corresponding agreement between the training company and the trainee as well as the approval of the responsible chamber.

The minimum number of hours is 20 hours per week including attendance at the vocational school. With this variant, the duration of the training is either extended by a minimum of six months or a maximum of twelve months. If a training period of 25 or more hours per week is agreed, the training can be ended in the regular duration. These 25 hours per week were set by the DIHK (German Chamber of Industry and Commerce) and the ZDH ( Central Association of German Crafts ) as reaching 75 percent of the full weekly training time.

It is still possible to complete an apprenticeship part-time if this apprenticeship was interrupted after pregnancy due to maternity protection and, if necessary, parental leave . Here it is advisable to speak to the employer in good time and to reach a part-time agreement in coordination with the responsible chamber. This should be recorded in writing and should be added to the original training contract as a contract change.

See also

Portal: Education  - Overview of Wikipedia content on education


  • Küppers, Bert, Dieter Leuthold and Helmut Pütz: Handbook of professional training and further education. - (Munich :) Vahlen 2001.
  • Winfried Böhm , Martin Lindauer (ed.): “Not much knowledge saturates the soul”. Knowledge, recognition, education, training today. (= 3rd symposium of the University of Würzburg. ) Ernst Klett, Stuttgart 1988, ISBN 3-12-984580-1 , passim.

Web links

Wiktionary: Education  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Sabri Deniz Martin: Exploited instead of trained . In: Jungle World . No. 2020/01 , January 2, 2020 ( ).
  2. Florian Gehm: Don't feel like it - the German apprentice model is shaking . In: . August 29, 2019 ( ).