Under study ( Latin studere "to strive for something, to strive [for something]") is primarily understood to mean scientific learning and research at universities and other colleges and academies that are equivalent to these . The equivalent universities in Germany also include dual universities and art academies (which have been considered universities in Austria since 2005).
Most of the time, courses of study outside of the universities are also referred to as studies, especially training and further education in the tertiary education sector at vocational or specialist academies . To study at universities, prior matriculation (enrollment) is required, which is linked to certain requirements.
Colloquially, the term study is now also used for training courses at technical schools , vocational schools or at correspondence schools , administrative and business academies and other educational institutions in the Quaternary education sector.
A course of study consists of attending lectures , supplemented by exercises (in some cases also field exercises ), tutorials , seminars , revision courses , colloquia , internships and self-study . The knowledge acquired is queried either in partial examinations during the semester or in final examinations through written exams or oral exams . As a rule, a scientific thesis concludes the course.
The responsibilities of universities differ from state to state. In Germany, for example, it is at the federal state level ; in Switzerland , with the exception of the two federal technical universities, responsibility lies at the cantonal level; in Austria , all education is the responsibility of the federal government. Depending on the state, a tuition fee is charged for the course .
Situation in different countries
The admission requirements for studying at a university in Germany depend on which university it is. So that is for studying at a university in general high school or an equivalent degree expected, while for attending a technical college , the college entrance enough. For some subjects there are admission restrictions ( numerus clausus ). The application for a study place is made either via the Foundation for University Admission or directly to the respective university.
Since the start of the standardization of European higher education as part of the Bologna Process (since 1999), a distinction has also been made in Germany between undergraduate studies ( Bachelor , Diplom , Magister , first state examination , licentiate , Baccalaureus / Bachelor) and postgraduate studies based on this ( Master ). A doctorate can be built on the latter . A special feature in Germany is the dual course of study , in which extensive practical components are woven into the university course and are completed in companies.
Universities have existed in the United States since the 17th century. The oldest is Harvard University , which dates back to 1636. In 2017 there were 4,298 universities in the USA, including 2,672 private universities. 14.56 million students were enrolled here. The proportion of students in the USA is very high. In 2018, 59.7% of all young people in the “Class of 2018” (including school dropouts) started studying.
The universities offer courses with up to four different degrees: Associate, Bachelor, Master and Doctoral. A distinctive feature of tertiary education in the United States is the extremely high tuition fees.
Australia has 43 universities as well as other colleges and technical schools. The prerequisite for studying is at least a school leaving certificate from high school, a Certificate III or Certificate IV. A distinction is made between 6 different academic courses: bachelor's degree, master's degree, graduate certificate and graduate diploma, bachelor's degree honor and doctoral degree. The bachelor's and master’s degree programs correspond in terms of duration, sequence and scope to the corresponding degree programs in Germany. The Graduate Certificate and Graduate Diploma are postgraduate courses that last 6 to 12 months and can be attended as a supplement to an already completed course. Doctoral programs in Australia can only be undertaken at universities and typically last 3–4 years.
As in the United States, tuition fees are extremely high in Australia. Depending on the degree program, fees can also exceed the $ 100,000 mark.
Study of individual subjects
- Archeology courses
- Architecture studies
- Biology degree
- Chemistry degree
- Digital media (course)
- Energy management (course)
- Horticulture (degree course)
- Geodesy studies
- Study of geomatics
- History studies
- Computer science studies
- Cultural engineering course
- Course in culture management
- Plastics technology (subject)
- Studied mechanical engineering
- Mathematics degree
- Study of medicine
- Degree in meteorology
- Molecular Medicine (major)
- Studied horse management and equine science
- Pharmacy degree
- Physics degree
- Degree in psychology
- School music (subject)
- Security technology (subject)
- Statistics (subject)
- Business Law (Degree)
- Studied dentistry
- Study abroad
- Promotion of the gifted
- German-language course
- Faculty (University)
- Faculty development
- Study book
- Senior studies
- Category: Subject , overview of individual subjects
- www.studienwahl.at (Austrian Federal Ministry for Science and Research)
- What to study where with one click (Austrian Federal Ministry for Science and Research)
- www.fachhochschulen.ac.at (Austrian University of Applied Sciences Conference)
- www.studienplattform.at (Austrian Students' Union)
- See the guide for economists and social scientists by Hans-Otto Schenk: Die Examensarbeit , Göttingen 2005, UTB 2657, ISBN 3-8252-2657-3 , with instructions for both the preparation and supervision of examination papers.
- A Guide to the Changing Number of US Universities. Retrieved October 15, 2019 .
- US college enrollment statistics for public and private colleges from 1965 to 2016 and projections up to 2028. Retrieved October 15, 2019 .
- High School Graduation Rates By State 2019. Retrieved October 15, 2019 .
- Tertiary Education System - Higher Education in Australia. Retrieved November 16, 2019 .