University of Applied Sciences (Germany)
The Fachhochschule (FH) is a type of university that conducts teaching and research on a scientific basis with an application-oriented focus. Universities of applied sciences are increasingly using the names University (HS), University of Applied Sciences (HAW), Technical University (TH) and the corresponding English-language name University of Applied Sciences (UAS).
The range of courses offered by universities of applied sciences extends over engineering, natural, social, economic and legal as well as technical and design courses as well as courses in the field of health care. Studies at a university of applied sciences conclude with a “university degree” or “academic degree”; initially it was the academic graduation of the job title, e.g. B. Graduated Engineer (Ing. (Grad.)), Graduated Business Economist (Business Economist (grad.)), Later graduated with a diploma , e.g. B. Graduate engineer (University of Applied Sciences), Dipl.-Ing. (FH). With the Bologna Process and the higher education reform , technical colleges and universities are offering graded academic bachelor's and master's degrees in accredited study programs, the degrees of which are of equal rank regardless of the university attended.
Studying at a university of applied sciences requires a university entrance qualification, usually the general university entrance qualification ( Abitur ), the subject-related higher education entrance qualification or a (general or subject-related) technical college entrance qualification .
Since 2009, a professional qualification has also been an entry requirement for studying at a university , e.g. B. as a master craftsman , as a graduate of two-year technical schools or through a special entrance examination as well as various equivalent advanced training professions . Further details are regulated by the decision of the Conference of Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs entitled University Admission for Professionally Qualified Applicants Without a Higher Education Entrance Qualification .
In addition, depending on the course of study, evidence of a relevant pre-study internship, a completed subject-specific vocational training or a one-year professional internship, e.g. B. in the 11th grade of a technical college .
The special universities of applied sciences for public administration (FHöV) were previously only accessible to the public service ( candidates for the higher service ), but some FHöVs have now opened up to all applicants (e.g. Saxony-Anhalt, Berlin, Brandenburg) .
The university of applied sciences initially had a standard period of study of 6 to 7 semesters, at the end of 8 semesters, and in exceptional cases standard periods of 6 or 7 semesters were also possible. Upon completion of the course, an academic diploma was awarded with details of the subject and finally with the addition (University of Applied Sciences) or (FH), e.g. Diplom-Ingenieur (University of Applied Sciences), Dipl.-Ing. (FH) . The academic degree may only be used in accordance with the wording in the diploma certificate.
The technical college course includes at least one practical semester ; a pre-study internship before the start of the course is mandatory in order to get to know operational processes in practice. The thesis ( diploma thesis or bachelor thesis ) can also be developed in cooperation with a company or an authority.
In the context of overall university models (Hesse, North Rhine-Westphalia), there were graded courses, the technical university could be acquired within the framework to then conclude with a Diploma II degree (university degree).
Bachelor and master courses
According to Higher Education Framework Act (HRG), "tiered study programs" with the qualifications Bachelor and Master can be introduced since 1998 . These must be accredited by independent accreditation agencies at all universities for quality assurance . As part of the accreditation process, the courses are checked for minimum technical and content standards and professional relevance. In the meantime, the " Conference of Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs decided on common structural specifications for the accreditation of Bachelor's and Master's courses" in accordance with (2) HRG .
The requirements and qualifications are the same for all types of university and there is no differentiation according to the type of university for degree programs, standard period of study or degree titles.
The standard period of study is 6 to 8 semesters for all types of universities in a bachelor's degree, and 2 to 4 semesters for a master's degree. Master’s degree programs are predominantly coordinated as a consecutive degree program with a suitable bachelor’s degree, the standard period of study then amounts to a total of 10 semesters.
Master's graduates from a university of applied sciences can in principle do a doctorate and habilitation at a university or other universities with the right to award doctorates . The master’s degree from a university of applied sciences does not differ formally from that of a university and, as a standard requirement, basically enables admission to a doctorate at a university without additional requirements. In individual cases, it must be checked whether the corresponding doctoral regulations of the university make special conditions for graduates of a master’s degree from a university of applied sciences.
Current developments, in particular the switch to bachelor's and master's degree programs, mean that universities of applied sciences are also starting to deal with their own right to award doctorates. The Catholic University of Social Sciences Berlin (KSB) set up the doctoral program “Social Professions and Human Rights” to promote young academics. The college started in January 2010. The University of Applied Sciences in Fulda was the first university to be granted the right to award doctorates.
Graduates from universities of applied sciences of all types are also admitted to doctoral studies in many cases. As a rule, additional course work has to be achieved in advance as part of an individually designed "aptitude assessment procedure" and aptitude tests must be passed, which can take several semesters.
Professors at universities of applied sciences can act as supervisors, experts and examiners for doctoral degrees at universities in most federal states. The respective doctoral procedures are country and university-specific.
Some universities of applied sciences work together with universities and other universities with the right to award doctorates in order to offer so-called cooperative doctorates. The research takes place in facilities of the university of applied sciences and is accompanied by resident professors. The actual doctorate (examination of the scientific work, official supervision and awarding of the doctoral degree ) is formally carried out by the cooperating university.
The Schleswig-Holstein state government planned to give universities of applied sciences the right to award doctorates from 2015, which critics saw as a weakening of the science system.
Research at universities of applied sciences
Universities of applied sciences were originally conceived as pure teaching institutions, so that research was not initially provided for in university laws. However, this has changed since the 80s and 90s. The research assignment for universities of applied sciences is now anchored in every state university law.
In contrast to universities, the research assignment is not aimed at every professor, but at the university as a whole. The professors have the choice of fulfilling their full teaching load (in most federal states 18 hours per week, SWS) or soliciting research projects and reducing the teaching load accordingly. In some federal states, such as Baden-Wuerttemberg , this “deputate reassignment” can be up to 9 hours per week, which means that the university professors would have the same deputation as their university colleagues. In practice, however, such a reassignment is not always easy, since replacement lecturers (colleagues or lecturers) cannot always be found for the duration of a research project. University professors interested in research therefore often carry out their projects in addition to their full credits.
The technical colleges are worse off than the universities in terms of equipment (large-scale equipment, laboratories) and technical staff (also due to the lack of mid-level academic staff and the previously non-existent right to award doctorates ). Thus, in many areas of science, research is not as intensive as it is at universities. Many universities of applied sciences therefore concentrate on a few but high-performing research areas. In the case of permanent research activities, these are operationalized in the form of institutes at the university, faculty or department level. It is estimated that around 20% of university professors take part in research (the number varies considerably from university to university and from state to state); In addition, however, there are around a further 30% who carry out direct research and development contracts for industry as a sideline or who work in an advisory capacity in innovative fields.
Due to their application-oriented scientific approach, the universities of applied sciences are interesting as research partners for innovative small, medium-sized and in some cases also large companies and are successful in this area. Projects have been and will be a. supported by programs of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) . Some federal states (Baden-Württemberg, Lower Saxony , Saarland , North Rhine-Westphalia ) also run or have their own funding programs for the universities of applied sciences. In addition, the universities of applied sciences also participate in large federal and EU joint projects . Only the DFG , which is one of the most important sources of funding for university research, has so far not played a major role in the universities of applied sciences. This is u. a. because the DFG predominantly supports basic research, which in turn is very seldom found at universities of applied sciences. In addition, the universities of applied sciences are not yet member universities of the DFG.
The fields in which the universities of applied sciences have been particularly successful in research in recent years include: a. Automation technology , biotechnology , molecular technical medicine , energy technology and the energy industry, vehicle technology , industrial information technology , medical informatics , medical technology , micro and nanotechnology , robotics , software technology , process engineering (including environmental technology ), materials science and applied social and economic sciences . In addition, some universities of applied sciences are characterized by very intensive research activities in areas that are hardly or not at all dealt with at German universities, e.g. B. foundry technology at the University of Aalen , radiometry at the University of Ravensburg-Weingarten or musical instrument construction at the West Saxon University of Zwickau .
In the course of the implementation of the Bologna process, in particular the introduction of master’s courses , research at universities of applied sciences will become increasingly important, since master’s degrees must be linked to current scientific issues.
Recognition in politics, business and public service
In order to remain competitive in international competition, the German economy demanded better qualified employees as early as the 1960s, who should be able to solve practical tasks quickly and successfully on the basis of an academic education. The question of the recognition of qualifications within the European Economic Community was also unresolved, especially for the engineering school graduates at the time, as engineering training in most of the EEC countries of the time only took place at university level.
However, the two-year deadline of two years prescribed by the University Framework Act of 1976 for the equality of universities of applied sciences was considerably exceeded because competencies in educational policy had to be transferred from the states to the federal government. It also took a very long time until the FH diploma was generally recognized and no longer massively discredited by university and technical college graduates in politics, administration, business, industry and the media.
Bachelor's degrees lead to a career qualification for the higher service in public administration, just like the previous diploma degree at universities of applied sciences. Upon successful completion of a master’s course at a university or technical college, the graduates acquire the right to access the higher service , just like with the previous university diploma.
The assignment of university degrees to careers in the public service is carried out in accordance with §§ 13 ff. Civil Service Framework Act (BRRG), generally in accordance with Directive 89/48 / EEC of December 21, 1988 of the Council of the European Communities and based on a successful accreditation procedure for a Course. Section 13, Paragraph 3, Clause 2 of the BRRG reads: "The educational prerequisites must be suitable, in conjunction with the practical training or activity prescribed for the career, to meet the qualification requirements for the career."
The agreement “Access to careers in higher service through a master’s degree at universities of applied sciences” (resolutions of the Conference of Interior Ministers and Culture Ministers Conference of 2007 and their predecessors in 2002) and the “Key points for the mutual recognition of Bachelor and Master’s degrees in study programs must be observed who are taught the educational requirements for a teaching post ”.
College - University
The term university is an umbrella term for universities , technical colleges and other colleges, i.e. a part of the institutions of the tertiary education sector. The English-language name University does justice to the structure of the Anglo-American education systems. In these institutions of the tertiary education sector that award postgraduate degrees are referred to as universities , which corresponds to the universities in Germany. The high school , as a literal translation of the term secondary school , on the other hand, is to be assigned to the secondary education area and is more likely to be equated with the term secondary school .
Many universities of applied sciences have renamed themselves universities or universities of applied sciences . This name is given in agreement between the university of applied sciences and the respective federal state and its legislative competence. In Baden-Württemberg, Berlin, Bremen, Hamburg, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Saarland, Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt, almost all state universities of applied sciences have renamed themselves universities in this way , in the other federal states not yet (as of November 2010). With the exception of the four newly appointed technical universities , all Bavarian state universities of applied sciences bear the name “University of Applied Sciences”. For some years now, technical colleges have also been using the English term University of Applied Sciences or just University , e.g. Reutlingen University . In Bavaria the colleges will not allow their names to sole University to expand, for example. Forbade the Bavarian Ministry of Science of the University of Deggendorf (HD U ) in 2011, the use of the additive University . Universities had complained about the misleading, improper use.
Because in Germany only one “ university ” or one of its equivalent universities has the right to award doctorates as the most obvious differentiation from universities of applied sciences. However, some former universities with the right to award doctorates later, mostly for traditional reasons, do not want to use the term university in their name, for example technical universities such as the Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen or equivalent universities . The term "scientific university", with which the universities with the right to award doctorates were previously used as a formal demarcation from the universities of applied sciences, is predominantly no longer used in higher education policy, as this could otherwise imply that there are also "non-scientific" universities.
The Federal Constitutional Court ruled in a ruling on April 13, 2010 that the university professors are equal to the university professors with regard to the constitutional freedoms. There are also no longer any different regulations in the laws (judgment, paragraph 44). The Federal Constitutional Court no longer intends to maintain the distinction made by the same court in 1982 and 1983 between academic training goals at universities and preparation for professional activity through application-related teaching at universities of applied sciences (para. 45). In addition, it refers to the fact that the universities of applied sciences have meanwhile also been commissioned by the state university laws to research practice (para. 51).
The history of the universities of applied sciences in the Federal Republic of Germany can be divided into three phases: the first and conceptual phase until 1969, the second and expansion phase until 1999, the third phase from 2000.
Predecessor and conceptual phase (until 1969)
As with many universities, many predecessor institutions were state engineering schools , higher technical schools for ..., academies for ... and similar institutes. Around a third of the universities of applied sciences have their origins in these predecessor institutions, which were founded before 1969. Georg Picht had a signal effect with his documentaries "The German Educational Catastrophe ", which were published between 1963 and 1965. Furthermore, comparisons of the education system in the European Economic Community (EEC) were made.
On July 31, 1967, the Baden-Württemberg Minister of Education, Wilhelm Hahn, presented a Baden-Württemberg University Master Plan, which had been drawn up under the direction of Ralf Dahrendorf and is therefore also known as the Dahrendorf Plan. Thereafter, the tertiary school sector was grouped as follows: scientific colleges ( universities ), teacher training colleges (including vocational colleges and other teacher training institutes), study seminars, art colleges, engineering schools, higher technical colleges. A uniform university landscape and a tiered study model (short and long study) were already proposed in this plan.
Further essential impulses for the restructuring of the higher education sector in the Federal Republic of Germany developed among the education ministers of other federal states (e.g. Carl-Heinz Evers / Berlin, Johannes Rau / North Rhine-Westphalia). The unification of the eleven prime ministers of the states can be a certain end point and simultaneous starting point of the Federal Republic of Germany of July 5, 1968 and the "Agreement of the Laender in the Federal Republic of Germany for the standardization of the field of technical colleges" passed by the same on October 31, 1968, which defined the universities of applied sciences as independent institutions of the educational system in the higher education sector and with where the conversion of (most) higher technical schools into technical colleges was decided and initiated. One consequence of this decision was the change in the entry requirements, another consequence was the drafting of technical college bills in the federal states.
Expansion phase (1969–1999)
The passing of the technical college laws and the establishment of the technical colleges by the individual federal states took place between 1969 and 1972.
At the same time, efforts were made to achieve greater uniformity and integration of the higher education sector in the Federal Republic. Joint tasks of the federal and state governments were defined by an amendment to the Basic Law of May 12, 1969:
- Rights of participation u. a. in the expansion and construction of universities including university GG ). (
- It was also passed that the federal and state governments can work together through agreements on educational planning and the promotion of institutions and projects for scientific research ( GG).
- Furthermore, the federal government received a framework competence for the general principles of higher education and competing legislative competence for the regulation of training grants.
It was not until the Federal Higher Education Framework Act (HRG) of 1976 raised the universities of applied sciences to the same legal “tertiary level” as universities and comparable institutions; freedom of research and teaching and academic self-administration at universities of applied sciences was guaranteed. The federal states had two years to adapt their state university laws to the HRG, which happened more or less hesitantly, depending on the party-political majority of the state governments.
With the amendment of the University Framework Act of 1985, application-oriented research and development is one of the tasks of the universities of applied sciences. In the meantime, it has been laid down as an institutional task in all state laws , but it is anchored with different weighting from state to state (e.g. only optional in Bavaria).
While the universities of applied sciences often took over the old state qualifications in the 1970s and awarded them to their graduates in the form of degrees , such as engineering (grad.) Or business economist (grad.) , After the implementation of the University Framework Act of 1976 in the 1980s as the academic degree diploma stating the subject area, such as graduate engineer , -Kaufmann or -Betriebswirt . The award of the diploma degree took place in some federal states with the addition "FH", for example Diplom-Ingenieur (FH) , since 1987 in the entire federal territory.
In a specific higher education model in North Rhine-Westphalia, Hesse and several other states, were universities , teacher training colleges , other universities and colleges to polytechnics merged with university and corresponding UAS degree programs, but different school entrance requirements and degree titles such. B. the "Dipl.-Maschinenbauing." For the application-oriented FH course of study and the "Dipl.-Ing." For the scientific university course. The comprehensive colleges have now been converted into universities and technical colleges.
After the accession of the GDR , the recommendations of the Science Council were implemented in the new federal states , and from 1992 all engineering colleges (IHSen), the majority of technical universities and some engineering schools were transferred to technical colleges. A special feature of this transfer was that the former East German technical universities had their own doctorate and habilitation rights, but the newly founded universities of applied sciences did not.
In a renewed wave of start-ups in the 1990s, another third of the universities of applied sciences emerged, primarily in the new federal states, but also in some of the old federal states.
"Bologna Process" (from 2000)
Since 2000, in a third phase, the universities of applied sciences have been changing through the new Bachelor and Master degrees to be set up within the framework of the Bologna Process and in accordance with HRG . Their degrees are fully equivalent to those of the universities and therefore have the same wording - the addition “(FH)” is no longer permitted here - and are also given the same status with regard to the possibilities for further studies (Bachelor> Master> PhD program).
At the beginning of the year 2000 there were 151 universities of applied sciences, 47 of which were non-state sponsored , according to figures from the Science Council . At the end of 2002 there were 523,000 students at universities of applied sciences, which corresponds to a share of 26% of all students in Germany. The number of students at German universities of applied sciences varies greatly: from a few hundred to more than 21,000 students.
In the course of promoting the scientific profile of universities of applied sciences, for example, the universities of applied sciences in Bavaria founded the Verein Hochschule Bayern e. V. founded. This is to promote science, research and art in Bavaria by coordinating the scientific development of the member universities and their strategic positioning.
In recent history there have been mergers of previously independent universities and technical colleges. Examples of this are the merger of the University of Lüneburg with the University of Applied Sciences Nordostniedersachsen to Leuphana University of Lüneburg , which took effect on January 1, 2005, and the merger of the Brandenburg Technical University of Cottbus and the Lausitz University of Applied Sciences to form the Brandenburg Technical University of Cottbus-Senftenberg on July 1, 2013 .
Comparison with other European countries
In other German-speaking countries there are also educational institutions known as universities of applied sciences , such as the Austrian universities of applied sciences and the Swiss universities of applied sciences . In their organization and tasks, they differ significantly from the universities of applied sciences in Germany. There is no longer a university of applied sciences in Liechtenstein since the former Liechtenstein University of Applied Sciences was renamed the Liechtenstein University of Applied Sciences in 2005 and subsequently transformed into the University of Liechtenstein in 2011 .
The universities of applied sciences in the German-speaking countries differ considerably from the universities of applied sciences in the rest of Europe. In Germany, for example, teaching is now predominantly carried out by lecturers who usually have a doctorate. In the Netherlands z. For example, "Hogescholen" also offer courses (e.g. associate degree) or degrees (bachelor's) that may not include academic lecturers. a. be carried out in Germany and Austria in the dual training system.
The Bologna Process , initiated by the Bologna Declaration of 1999 , had the goal of achieving greater compatibility (compatibility) and better comparability ( comparability ) in the European system of higher education and study systems by means of the European Credit Transfer System ECTS by 2010 . The universities of applied sciences in the German-speaking area have switched to the new system and are offering accredited Bachelor and Master courses .
Lists of universities of applied sciences
- University Framework Act of 1976, amended seven times by 2005
- University laws of the federal states of the Federal Republic of Germany
- West German Rectors' Conference (Hrsg.): Laws on the universities of applied sciences of the states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Bonn-Bad Godesberg 1972 (documents on university reform XX / 1972)
- Lothar Beinke, Fritz Stuber: University of Applied Sciences and further studies. Bad Honnef 1979.
- Johann Ludwig Atrops: The emergence and development of a university - the Cologne University of Applied Sciences is of age. Business publisher Bachem, Cologne 1990.
- Hajo Köppen: Genesis and Perspective of the Universities of Applied Sciences. In: Friedrich-Karl Feyerabend, Klaus Schmidt (Hrsg.): Hochschulstadt Friedberg - The FH introduces itself. Friedberg 2003, ISBN 3-00-012575-2 .
- Andreas Greulich: From the Electoral Academy to the University of Applied Sciences, the Mainz University of Applied Sciences as reflected in its history. Kehrer Verlag, Heidelberg 2002.
- Georg Picht: The German educational catastrophe. 1963 and 1965.
- Werner Mayer: Educational potential for economic and social change. The emergence of the university type Fachhochschule in North Rhine-Westphalia 1965–1971. 1st edition. Essen 1997, ISBN 3-88474-648-0 .
- Christian Bode et al. (Ed.) Fachhochschulen in Deutschland - Fachhochschule Institutions in Germany. Prestel, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-7913-1844-6 .
- Science Council: Recommendations on the tasks and position of the universities of applied sciences. Cologne 1981.
- Science Council: Recommendations for the development of universities of applied sciences. Cologne 1991.
- Science Council: Theses on the future development of the science system in Germany. Drs. 4594/00, Berlin July 7, 2000.
- Science Council: Recommendations for the development of universities of applied sciences. Drs. 5102/02, Berlin January 18, 2002.
- Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF): Universities of applied sciences in Germany. 4th edition. 2004.
- Potential study: research map of universities of applied sciences. Final report. Fraunhofer Institute for System Technology and Innovation Research, Bonn / Berlin 2004.
- Helmut Kahlert: Forgotten Actions. How the college came into being.
- cf. the German higher education laws of the federal states. E.g. BerlHG i. d. F. of July 12, 2007, § 4 (3); also: Hannes Berger, Lukas C. Gundling: University Policy and University Law. Using the example of the state of Thuringia. Dr. Kovac, Hamburg 2015, ISBN 978-3-8300-8622-2 , pp. 86f.
- see e.g. B. http://www.bachelor-and-more.de/
- Access to universities for professionally qualified applicants without a higher education entrance qualification
- Conference of the Rectors and Presidents of the Universities in the Federal Republic of Germany, Permanent Conference of the Ministers of Education of the Federal States in the Federal Republic of Germany: Resolution on model framework for diploma courses, universities of applied sciences i. d. F. of October 13, 2000 . February 17, 1998 ( kmk.org [PDF; accessed September 29, 2009]).
- cf. University Framework Act (HRG)
- cf. E.g. State University Act Baden-Württemberg i. d. F. from January 1, 2005 , § 35
- Standing Conference of the Ministers of Culture of the Federal States in the Federal Republic of Germany: Resolution on common structural specifications according to § 9 Paragraph 2 HRG for the accreditation of Bachelor and Master courses of October 10, 2003 i. d. F. dated February 4, 2010 . February 4, 2010 ( online [PDF; accessed December 11, 2014]).
- cf. E.g. State University Act Baden-Württemberg i. d. F. of January 1, 2005 , § 28 or Bavarian Higher Education Act i. d. F. of May 23, 2006 , Art. 64.
- Doctoral college on the website of the Catholic University of Social Sciences, accessed on February 14, 2012.
- award doctorates: The first university of applied sciences may award doctorates. In: Spiegel Online . October 10, 2016, accessed June 9, 2018 .
- Overview in: Ansgar Keller: PhD guide for university graduates. 10th edition. Univ-Verlag der TU, Berlin 2010/2011, ISBN 978-3-7983-2228-8 .
- E.g. Press release of the University of Paderborn on the cooperation between the HS OWL and the Uni PB for doctorates. ( Memento from April 25, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- E.g. http://www3.fh-swf.de/soest/presse_so2008_08077.htm
- Fraunhofer Institute for System Technology and Innovation Research (ISI): Research map of universities of applied sciences, potential study . Ed .: Federal Ministry for Education and Research. 2004 ( online [PDF; accessed December 11, 2014]).
- Resolution of the Conference of Interior Ministers of December 7, 2007 and the Conference of Ministers of Education of September 20, 2007.
- Resolution of the Conference of Interior Ministers of June 6, 2002 and the Conference of Ministers of Education of May 24, 2002.
- Resolutions of the Conference of Ministers of Education of June 2, 2005 and April 27, 2006.
- Werner Mayer: Educational potential for economic and social change . Klartext, 2001, ISBN 3-88474-648-0 , p. 21st ff .
- Raymond Poignant: The education system in the countries of the EEC . Diesterweg, 1966, DNB 457826932 .
- Ministry of Culture Baden-Württemberg (Ed.): University Baden-Württemberg . Row A No. 5. Villingen October 1967.
- Carl-Heinz Evers, Johannes Rau (ed.): Upper level reform and comprehensive university. Frankfurt am Main 1968.
- Peter Fränz, Joachim Schulz-Hardt: On the history of the Conference of Ministers of Education 1948–1998 . In: Standing conference of the culture ministers of the federal states in the Federal Republic of Germany (Hrsg.): Unity in the diversity. 50 years of the Conference of Ministers of Education 1948–1998 . Luchterhand, 2001, ISBN 3-472-02952-8 , p. 177–227 (Chapter III) ( online [accessed December 11, 2014]).
- Werner Mayer: Educational potential for economic and social change . Klartext, 2001, ISBN 3-88474-648-0 , p. 218 .
- Cologne University of Applied Sciences , status: WS 2012/2013.