Technical school (Germany)
Fachschulen or Fachakademien in Germany are educational institutions for continuing vocational training that offer courses with a strong practical focus. The aim of professional training at technical schools is to enable skilled workers with, as a rule, professional experience to take on management tasks in companies, companies, administrations and institutions and / or to carry out responsible activities independently. The Bundeswehr operates its own technical schools .
In 2017, the nationwide number of graduates at technical schools and technical academies was 74,200 and thus 13.7% of all vocational schools. In the 2018/2019 school year, 9585 technical schools and academies are registered nationwide.
Duties of the technical school
Fachschulen are institutions of further training for advancement , which are regarded as post-secondary educational institutions; internationally they are assigned to the tertiary education sector , provided the course has at least 2,400 teaching hours . They require initial vocational training and / or professional experience and on this basis lead to a state professional qualification in accordance with state or federal law. The International Standard Classification for Education (ISCED) assigns technical schools to Level 5B. As part of the harmonization of educational programs in the European Union, the technical college qualification has been classified at level 6 according to the DQR / EQR .
Technical schools qualify to take on extended professional responsibility and management activities: The qualification of the technical school enables professional independence and is recognized, for example, as a prerequisite for entry in the trade register . At least two-year technical college courses enable the additional acquisition of a nationally recognized higher education entrance qualification. At technical schools and technical academies there are also basic training courses that are on an equal footing with vocational training courses at vocational schools .
Technical schools emerged at the end of the 19th century. Even at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution , the shortage of skilled workers proved to be an obstacle to development. Due to the rapid development of technology, the expansion of production, the emergence of new companies with their administrations, staff were needed who were familiar with technical drawings, mathematics, chancery and bookkeeping. That is why at the end of the century the first facilities for first-trained workers were founded, who were to be given further training. The first institutions, such as the Berlin craft school built in 1880, were evening schools . Craftsmen learned mathematics, technical drawing and technology here after their working day. Only later were afternoon and day courses offered. The institutions were private schools with which engineers, construction advisors, merchants, etc. earned money. In addition, technical schools developed as the founding of companies, cities and countries. Mechanical engineering schools, building trade schools and business schools are to be distinguished from technical schools with the admission requirement for vocational training. These were forerunners of the later engineering schools and higher technical schools , which were converted to technical colleges in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1971 .
In the Federal Republic of Germany, the tradition of state technical schools of one and two years was continued. The Conference of Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs has been concerned with the coordination of a common order since the 1970s. In this context it was a question of responsibilities because the agricultural schools in some federal states were subordinate to the ministers of agriculture. In addition, there should be close coordination with the trade associations of the economy via the Board of Trustees of German Business for Vocational Education and Training in order to ensure the acceptance of the qualifications on the labor market. The first framework agreement on training and examinations in technical schools with a two-year duration was concluded on October 27, 1980. Agreements on one-year technical schools were made later.
Technical schools in the GDR
In the German Democratic Republic , technical schools were among the educational or training institutions for which at least a polytechnic high school diploma was required. They were subordinate to the Ministry of Higher and Technical Schools of the GDR. The technical schools in the GDR included, for example, institutes for teacher training , at which lower-level teachers , friendship pioneers and home educators were trained, engineering schools of various disciplines, technical schools for applied arts , technical schools for music and medical technical schools, at which nurses, pediatric nurses, dental technicians, medical-technical assistants , Medical-technical laboratory technicians and crèche teachers were trained. The technical college study lasted three years, at the institute for teacher training four years. A large part of the technical college qualifications obtained in the GDR were recognized in the FRG after the fall of the Wall and after at least three years of practical work in the profession the diploma degree (FH) was awarded.
Framework agreement on technical schools
The framework agreement on technical schools, resolution of the Conference of Education Ministers of November 7, 2002, provides for the following overarching regulations.
There are technical schools for the fields of agriculture, design, technology, economics, health and social affairs. In Bavaria, technical college training takes place partially at specialist academies .
The subject areas of agriculture, design, technology and economics are those who can provide evidence of relevant vocational training and corresponding professional activity of at least one or two year (s). The professional activity can also be carried out in the form of a managed internship during the training with a corresponding extension of the course. Alternatively, anyone who has completed vocational school and has been employed in this field for at least five years can be included. A secondary school leaving certificate and relevant three-year vocational training, which can be replaced by a vocational school and additional professional activity or internships, are required for the subject of home economics.
In the social affairs department (Fachschule für Sozialpädagogik), at least the secondary school leaving certificate and work experience gained through internships or a completed relevant vocational training (e.g. with a qualification as a nanny or social assistant ) or a qualification recognized as equivalent according to the determination of the federal states is required. In some federal states, for example in Rhineland-Palatinate, if you do not have a relevant professional qualification, you need the technical college entrance qualification .
Admission to the Fachschule für Heilpädagogik, on the other hand, requires the completion of the vocational school for social pedagogy or curative education care or an equivalent qualification and also requires at least one year of practical experience.
The training takes place in one-year, one-and-a-half-year and two-year courses, which can be followed by an internship in the social affairs department. Full or part-time forms are possible. There is a compulsory and an optional area. The compulsory area includes the subject-related and cross-subject areas, in the social affairs department also internships. The framework agreement also includes specifications for lesson tables and training requirements.
In the state examination, the overall qualification acquired in training is to be determined. It consists of a written, practical and, if necessary, an oral exam.
Acquisition of additional school qualifications
The federal states can grant a secondary school leaving certificate with a transfer to the second year of a full-time course if the training has been carried out according to the relevant standards. The acquisition of the advanced technical college or university entrance qualification is tied to content and time standards. In three learning areas - linguistic, mathematical-natural-scientific-technical and social science - additional work must be achieved. Furthermore, the federal states, in particular the school facilities, can decide whether a trainer aptitude test can be permitted and carried out.
The state qualification acquired through the state technical school examination is different in the departments. In the case of designers , technicians or business economists , the information is checked by the state and the relevant subject is listed as a job title. The degree to the state-certified business economist thus differs from the certified business economist of the Chamber of Industry and Commerce and the certified business economist according to the craft regulations of the Chamber of Crafts . In the technical area there are 89 disciplines alone. In the social affairs department, on the other hand, the designation is a state-approved educator or state-approved curative pedagogue . However, the designations state checked or state recognized are also awarded by vocational schools .
Special features of the federal states
The framework agreement on technical schools, resolution of the Conference of Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of November 7, 2002 sets the framework. The design is a matter of the state. The admission requirements can include: B. There are different country regulations on the "relevance" of previous vocational training or on the "duration and type" of previous internships. Curricula and exams also differ.
- Pahl, Jörg-Peter (2010): Technical School - Practice and Theory of a Vocational Training Institution , Bielefeld, ISBN 978-3-7639-4298-5 wbv.de
- Students, classes, teachers and graduates. Retrieved November 30, 2019 .
- publisher: General education and vocational schools. Retrieved November 30, 2019 .
- German qualifications framework
- Resolution of the Federal-State Committee for Crafts Law on the implementation of the Crafts Code of November 21, 2004 and the amendment of the ordinance on the recognition of examinations for entry in the craft register and for the master craftsman's examination in the craft of November 2, 1982, §1
- Günter Sodan (ed.), The Technical University of Applied Sciences Berlin in the spectrum of Berlin's educational history, Berlin 1988, ISBN 3-926714-00-X
- Commemorative publication on the occasion of the 250th meeting of the subcommittee on vocational training of the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany (UABBi) on 16./17. June 2005 in Potsdam, ed. v. Klaus Illerhaus
- Framework agreement on technical schools (resolution of the Conference of Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of November 7, 2002 as amended on February 27, 2013) (PDF; 190 kB)
- Training as an educator in Rhineland-Palatinate (PDF; 530 kB)
- Agreement on the acquisition of the technical or university entrance qualification in vocational training courses
- Archived copy ( Memento of the original from October 28, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Framework agreement of the KMK