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A trainer is defined as someone who conveys the training content of an apprenticeship in the training facility directly, responsibly and to a significant extent and who also fulfills the suitability requirements.


Training in Germany

In Germany, every company that trains according to the dual system must have at least one trainer in accordance with the trainer suitability ordinance (AEVO), who is both the contact person for the trainees and is responsible for the training as a whole within the company . The majority of trainers in Germany have a qualification according to AEVO.

An exception to this is the training professions in the liberal professions : Doctors, dentists, veterinarians, tax consultants, lawyers, experts, notaries, pharmacists, etc. These do not have to prove training aptitude according to AEVO in order to be allowed to train, but achieve the professional aptitude due to their approval or Order for the respective freelance profession.

However, the field of activity of a trainer does not only extend to the training of trainees with an apprenticeship contract. According to the Vocational Training Act (BBiG) Section 1, Paragraphs 4 and 5, the field of activity includes professional training and vocational retraining. The professional training includes all professional qualification measures that serve to maintain, adapt and expand professional ability to act. While vocational retraining is used to qualify someone who is not part of the job for a job, maintenance training is used to maintain certain knowledge and skills, extended training is intended to convey additional knowledge typical of the profession, and adaptation training is used to adapt to changed working conditions. The field of training thus also extends to trainees with an employment contract.

In order to ensure that the trainers are qualified in terms of occupational and work-related pedagogy, the trainers must demonstrate occupational and work-pedagogical skills, knowledge and abilities. This proof of training qualification according to BBiG § 30, paragraph 1 is regulated in the trainer suitability regulation (AEVO). As a rule, refer to the training testing is to be completed by the Trainer Aptitude Regulation, which is colloquially referred to as AdA bill, as this frequently performed qualification measure also A ducation d it A usbilder is called. In the Works Constitution Act (BetrVG) Section 98, Paragraph 2, the necessity of a professional and work-pedagogical suitability is explicitly required for the implementation of in-company training measures.

Prerequisite for the examination according to AEVO

The trainer suitability regulation (AEVO) does not provide for a legal requirement for participation in the examination according to the regulation ("AdA examination"). A completed vocational training or a completed degree is also not required, d. H. everyone who has successfully passed the AdA exam has "automatically" the training qualification. A certain minimum age is not required (formal legal).

Passing the test according to AEVO does not automatically entitle you to train. Responsible training is given to those who have passed the trainer aptitude test (which means they are suitable for professional and work-related pedagogy), who can prove their professional competence and are personally suitable. In Germany, authorization is granted by the responsible Chamber of Commerce and Industry (IHK) or Chamber of Crafts (HWK) as the approval authority.

Difference between training qualification / training authorization

In principle, everyone who has passed the AdA exam has the training qualification. The training authorization is only granted to those who have completed vocational training or a completed degree or, alternatively, have received the award of professional aptitude from the competent Chamber of Commerce and their training company at the competent chamber (e.g. IHK or HWK and all other chambers) is registered. Only those who have a training qualification and training authorization are therefore recognized as a trainer in Germany.


If you have the appropriate vocational training, you are entitled to advanced training to become a certified training and further education pedagogue if you have successfully passed the training of the trainer .

The public law qualification of the trainer (IHK) - AEVO is thus the first advanced training level in the IHK system.

Contents of the examination according to AEVO

In 2009 the contents were shortened, the structure tightened and aligned with the operational processes. In the design, the focus was on implementation in the company, namely in the agricultural, craft, industry, trade and service companies as well as in the public sector. The following four fields of action are intended to ensure this:

  • HF 1: Check training requirements and plan training
  • HF 2: Prepare training and help recruit trainees
  • HF 3: Carry out training
  • HF 4: Complete training

Not everyone is actually allowed to train immediately after passing the AEVO exam, because Section 30 (2) of the Vocational Training Act requires the necessary professional skills, knowledge and abilities as well as personal aptitude. Passing the AEVO exam no longer automatically leads to the “trainer certificate”, but is only one of several proofs that must be provided.

The execution of the examination remained unchanged. There is also a written and a practical part, and both parts must be passed. In the practical test, the examinee has the choice between a presentation or the implementation of a training situation. The exam is passed when fifty percent of the maximum possible number of points is achieved. The necessary qualification can be proven in an examination before the professional chambers . There are preparatory courses in which the necessary legal as well as professional and work-pedagogical knowledge are to be imparted; However, participation in a course is not mandatory for admission to the examinations. There is also the possibility of completing training as a trainer at a university or vocational academy . In practice, the trainer qualification should enable the planning, implementation, control ( quality assurance ) and completion of vocational training.

Another possibility exists in the course of studying business education, engineering education or technology education (trade teacher). There you can also get the trainer certificate in the context of educational lectures and exercises, but not automatically here either. As a result of the study reform and the accreditation of the individual study programs, only those studies meet the requirements of a public-law degree for which the content and proof of professional and work-pedagogical suitability have also been accredited. Otherwise, these are only private certificates from the university that are not recognized by the responsible authorities. In the technical master craftsman training, the trainer aptitude test is always integrated into the master craftsman examination . The corresponding qualification is also part of the training profile for a number of other qualifications, such as the industrial foreman or the commercial training qualification as a certified personnel specialist .

Personal aptitude

Anyone who wants to hire and / or train apprentices or who is entrusted with the training must be personally suitable. The Vocational Training Act (BBiG) and the Crafts Code (HwO) do not contain any positive definition of the concept of personal suitability. In principle, every entrepreneur, trainer or training officer is personally suitable unless there are special reasons to the contrary.

BBiG (§ 29) and HwO stipulate that personally, in particular, who is not suitable

  • May not employ children and young people,
  • has repeatedly or seriously violated the BBiG or HwO or the rules and regulations issued on the basis of these laws.

The Youth Labor Protection Act (§ 25) contains prohibitions on employing children and young people. They primarily affect people who z. B.

  • have been sentenced to at least two years' imprisonment for a criminal offense,
  • have been convicted of violating the Narcotics Act,
  • were convicted of the dissemination of writings harmful to minors,
  • Have been fined three times for improper employment of children and young people.

The limitation period is five years, i. H. an employment ban is disregarded if five years have passed since the date on which it became legally effective.

The role of the instructor

During the training, more and more projects are being carried out, which means that the trainees become self-determined and self-organizing actors in the learning process. The trainer can largely leave his classic roles of instructor and instructor, assessor and decision maker and is also no longer the main source of information for the learners. He takes on a new role and becomes an organizer, learning advisor, moderator and informator. The main focus of the work is on preparation and follow-up, as well as accompanying and supporting the learners (learning process facilitator) . His tasks include the development of professional competence , methodological competence , personality competence and social competence .

Suspension of the obligation to provide evidence from 2003 to 2009

For apprenticeships between August 1, 2003 up to and including July 31, 2009, trainers were exempt from providing evidence of the trainer examination according to § 7 of the trainer suitability regulation.

With effect from August 1, 2009, proof of professional and work pedagogical suitability must be provided again. The new trainer suitability regulation (AEVO) has been revised in terms of content and structure and applies to all training companies, with the exception of the area of ​​the liberal professions. All "old" trainers will continue to be exempt from providing evidence of professional and work pedagogical suitability, but only if no complaints have arisen and no conditions have been issued. This applies to the registered (!) Trainers who trained during the suspension period from 2003 to 2009 and did not take the AEVO exam.



In Switzerland, the requirements are anchored in the Vocational Training Ordinance (BBV) and in the Vocational Training Act (BBG).

The vocational training course is necessary in order to be able to train apprentices in the company on a permanent basis and is valid throughout Switzerland.

Another formal requirement is a relevant degree (apprenticeship, study, further education) and / or several years of professional experience in the field of the profession to be trained. The relevant information can be found in the relevant regulation for the profession.

The formal designation is vocational trainer, colloquially, however, teacher is common.

Vocational training course

The course normally lasts five days (40 hours), there is compulsory attendance. The course is identical for all professions, except for commercial vocational training. There are specific vocational training courses for commercial vocational training, but these differ only slightly from normal.

The courses are offered by various providers, including higher technical schools , associations and similar institutions. The vocational courses are often subsidized by the cantons.

Some professional examinations and higher technical examinations require the completed professional profile course as an admission requirement.

Vocational trainer in inter-company courses

Full-time vocational trainer for inter-company courses and third-party learning locations. The training comprises 600 hours of learning. The prerequisite is the completed vocational training course. The course includes five certificates of competence in the form of a written work on the seminar topic.

Instructor with a federal certificate

The professional examination for trainers with a federal certificate is aimed at trainers in adult education.

Training manager with federal diploma diploma

Trainers with a federal certificate can become a training manager with a federal certificate. Diploma further education. The exam is a higher subject exam . Training manager with federal diploma Diplom are also active in adult education.


  • W. Birkholz, G. Dobler: The way to a successful trainer. 6th edition, Edewecht / Vienna 2001
  • E. Crisand, HJ Rahn: Psychology of the trainees. 3rd edition, Hamburg 2012
  • HP Freytag, F. Gmel, F. Grasmeher: The trainer in the company. 33rd edition, Kassel 2005
  • H. Groß, S. Hüppe: Learning to train. 1st edition, Cornelsen, Berlin 2010
  • W. Küper, H. Stein: The trainer suitability. , 12th edition, Hamburg 2007
  • HJ Rahn: Competencies of training managers. In: Personal. 53rd vol., 2001, pp. 106-109
  • A. Ruschel: The instructor aptitude test. 4th edition, Ludwigshafen 2009
  • A. Ruschel: Work and professional education for trainers in fields of activity. Ludwigshafen 1999 (new edition spring 2008)
  • RH Schaper, R. Schreiber, W. Seyd: The professional trainer. 5th edition, Hamburg 1995
  • A. Eiling, H. Schlotthauer: Field of Action Training. 3rd edition, Hamburg 2006
  • A. Eiling, H. Schlotthauer: Examination check instructor aptitude . 1st edition, Hamburg 2007
  • W. Küper, A. Mendizabal: The trainer suitability. , 19th edition, Hamburg 2014

Web links

Wiktionary: Instructor  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations




Individual evidence

  1. Definition according to the German Vocational Training Act (BBiG).
  2. cf. Section 30 Paragraph 4 Point 3 of the Vocational Training Act
  3. Adaptation training is correctly defined with on-the-job training.
  4. Instructor Certificate - The ultimate guide to the AEVO exam
  5. Who is allowed to attend a vocational training course? , accessed November 13, 2012
  7. trainer with federal diploma Qualification / trainer with federal Qualification , accessed on November 13, 2012