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Open lessons in a school class

Education in the general sense is a process of acquiring skills and knowledge. This also includes self-teaching, for example by studying books. Normally, however, teaching is understood to be the transfer of knowledge between teachers (teachers) and learners (students) in an institution such as a school or university. The theoretical foundations of teaching are provided by the sciences of pedagogy and didactics .

The definition of teaching at the end of the nineteenth century distinguished “between formal and material teaching, the former primarily aimed at developing, practicing and perfecting one's abilities, the latter mainly aimed at acquiring certain knowledge and skills; also between the ideal and the real, of which the former is aimed at the development of ideas or the formation of reason in the narrower and higher sense, but the latter is aimed at education for the practical purposes of life. "

Modern definitions no longer follow the ideal of the educated middle class , but regard teaching as a communication process. Lessons are therefore an interactive process in which individuals, under pedagogical supervision , take up and develop selected contents of culture in systematically initiated and guided learning processes for the purpose of their qualification, personalization and socialization .

Lesson types

The most common and well known form is the classroom , which also - to distinguish the distance learning sometimes (in Germany) - close instruction and direct teaching or classroom is called. Here students are taught in a group by a teacher in the school as an institution . Other forms:

  • One-to-one tuition is often used as home tuition when the student lives in remote areas (common practice in the Australian outback, for example ).
  • Remedial instruction , sometimes also referred to as advanced instruction in order to achieve a clear distinction from tutoring , is suitable for imparting skills beyond the educational plans and expanding the areas of knowledge along the interests of the child. They are an important aspect of the general education and upbringing of the child.
  • Lessons in the form of a project help the learner to be independent. Projects can take up a more or less large space in the course of a lesson.

Educational research

In school pedagogical and learning psychological research, the results of successful learning are usually presented. However, they are ideal results, independent of the context and, above all, little or no relevance from the context of the learner in a school organization. Teachers can hardly learn from these results and cannot estimate which teaching offer triggers what for the individual learners in their structural and learning history and thus also in communication.

Lessons get their meaning from the assumption of society that one can pass on the cultural memory of a society to the next generation through teaching. The so-called navigator is still used today. Curriculum viewed and enforced. In the 1990s, lessons acquired an additional meaning: the increasing symbolization of knowledge achievements ( grades , certificates , selections) has established an education exchange market in which learners create achievements for a promised advancement or a professional qualification . These achievements are decided on the symbolic level of the grades by teachers who design the product themselves. These services are valued and consumed as educational shares for the next higher exchange market or they determine a selection downwards.

Lessons are u. a. transported in the consciousness of teachers and students either for an ascent or a descent for the future in a knowledge society and a globalized world. At the same time, the acquisition of knowledge in class is seen as a qualification for a job.

Lessons can be found at all levels of the education system : in kindergartens, schools, vocational training, in-company training, adult education and universities. The organization is related to and coordinated with one level of the education system. Teaching in the state organization is a specific form of learning and teaching.

The didactic conception of the lesson

Frontal teaching (symbol graphics)

The didactic concept of the teacher and the teaching methods used are also part of the curriculum . A didactic concept includes a number of conscious and unconscious decisions:

  • Which teaching principles do I want to implement and which not? (e.g. the principle of self-organization , principle of punishment, educational abuse, etc.)
  • Which methods are most suitable for my goals?
  • Which communication style do I want to develop and maintain in my learning culture?
  • What content and what kind of knowledge structures do I want to offer and which of them are best suited for which learners?
  • What type of performance evaluation and appraisal will I use?
  • What patterns of experience and routine decisions do I make with a particular class or a particular learner?

Lessons as a place for imparting knowledge

The transfer of knowledge in our society today is different than it was 50 years ago. Modern knowledge has two faces: the growth of scientific and technical knowledge continues unabated and is becoming more and more fragile. H. in constantly new variations. In many social and political respects, however, this complexity creates an overhang of tradition that slows down many future plans or even lets them peter out. What kind of knowledge is generated in schools? Because of the belief in tradition, uniformity and the values ​​of a society, mainly reproductive knowledge with truth claims is taught in schools through the given curriculum. However, this basis is no longer compatible with important scientific positions (Reich, Kösel Siebert, Schmidt). Here, among other things, the approach of constructivism brought about a different view of things. From the point of view of constructivism, knowledge is no longer valid as truth, but as a construction. From this point of view, knowledge today is primarily a distinction , resource , context and qualification. However, many teachers insist on the truth claim of a subject or a teacher with all the consequences for the learners. It is therefore pointed out in modern didactics that a new form of knowledge construction has become indispensable. Instead of just editing the surface structure of knowledge in the form of reproducing content, the deep structure of knowledge should be introduced much more clearly . Knowledge is then constructed through the established frame of reference , the knowledge logics used, the appropriate types of knowledge and the respective context. According to this view, the knowledge architecture should be taught in schools and universities rather than just the content itself. According to this version, the subject didactics are called upon to bring the formal structure of the knowledge area far more to the fore.

The teacher personality in class

Carl Cüppers taking music lessons in the style of the German Empire

Lessons are influenced, among other things, by the teacher : There is a decisive difference whether the teacher is an alpha type (with their own determination and energy) or an omega type (with no initiative of their own, persisting in old patterns, fear and confusion with new requirements ) and consciously or unconsciously lives out his or her basic attitude in the classroom through the choice of methods, performance assessment, preference for certain students, teaching style, etc.

Ultimately, the teacher decides in the classroom and afterwards which educational shares (certificates, grades) to distribute to the individual learner and under which conditions (consciously or covertly) he supports or hinders learners in the classroom. The performance appraisal as a basic framework for the education exchange market has become a subliminal companion in the classroom. From the learner's point of view, the teacher's gaze must always be observed everywhere: what does he count, what does he not notice about me, which performance does he evaluate and how?

The educational-psychological research. Bromme gives a basic overview, Weinert turned away from the perspective ( personality paradigm ) at an early stage , since such criteria were not used for predicting the performance success of students. This was followed by a phase of research that can be characterized as a process-product paradigm . It was about the search for individual, measurable teacher behaviors that lead to increased performance ( if-then relationships ). With such oriented external conduct behavioral research, the universally successful teacher did not capture. "The Research under the expert paradigm sees the teacher, especially in the role of the expert or expert for Education, which provides the students learning opportunities available. The more recent attempts to capture what is happening in lessons can be found in the systemically oriented resonance approach. There, the mutual resonance between teachers and learners and vice versa with the many dimensions in a learning culture is networked with one another, the basis of investigations rejected there because many factors are eliminated in the process and lead so little to productive results for teaching activities. Resonances arise when the patterns and consciousness structures among the participants come into a corresponding relationship. The opposite, the Esona nz is the divergence of psychological and energetic states between teachers and learners in the classroom (in the area of ​​knowledge acquisition, learning groups, in the design of learning cultures, etc.).

Lessons in context

As a method arrangement

Lessons are determined by the following didactic principles and methods decided by the teacher:

  • the factual level : warming up, structuring, reducing, retaining, practicing knowledge logics, knowledge contexts, etc.
  • the lesson management: set goals, plan, decide, warm up, practice. anchor, emotional connection, transfer exercises, etc.
  • the control of learning groups: methods of understanding and communication, self-organization, methods of group feedback, cooperation , group rituals, the reduction of aggression and frustration, opinion market, self-enlightenment, imaginary journeys, methods of narration, role allocation, self- and external- Expectations, leadership styles, group development, relaxation methods, interaction training
  • Methods of teaching management: warming up, intervening, consulting, specifying time structures, setting impulses, introducing norms, formulating expectations, setting frames of reference, e-learning, project learning, power point, brainstorming, clustering, metaplan technology, presentations, moderation
  • The methods for personality development: Biographical self-reflection, warming-up techniques, methods of self-control and self-suggestion, dealing with belief systems, dealing with fear and anger, training new ways of thinking, clarifying relationships, professional conversation.

Learning culture

Lessons are embedded in a specific learning culture or, in vocational training, in a company and school culture. Learning culture can be described as an overall structure of elements, such as: B. the way of structuring time, the evaluation of achievements, of convictions, rules and values, of communication behavior , the resolution of conflicts, the forms of coexistence such as recognition and appreciation , the structure of festivals and celebrations and rituals and finally the Type of performance evaluation. But it also depends on which type of learning culture prevails in a school system: a learning culture with designated options, a facade culture, a sponge culture, a learning culture with constantly changing decisions or a rigid performance orientation. The headmaster plays a decisive role in this. It depends on whether he / she is more alpha dominant or omega dominant. If the principles and decisions of a teacher do not conform to the rules and norms of the didactic community, esonances often arise and z. T. bullying . Lessons will then always be the reflection of a learning culture. A learning culture also includes marginalization: what belongs to us and what does not belong to us. Which external expectations and demands can we meet and which cannot? Lessons should be seen as a shelter from excessive expectations of others.

Location of different consciousness and behavior systems (chreodes)

Didactic activity in the classroom is aimed at very diverse systems of consciousness, i. H. The communication processes should be designed in such a way that as many learners as possible can connect with their own logic (see possibilities of self-organized learning , such as projects, experiential education, internet work, imagination and creativity projects and methods).

The so-called chreodes are the stable behavioral structures and consciousness systems of the individual learners that arose during their school days. They essentially determine the learners' learning behavior. Particularly significant are the chreodes, who cannot or do not want to follow the mediation process. There are a large number of learners who do not want to learn from the outset (doorkeeper chreodes) or who are confronted with a lot of hurts and prejudices during their school years , e.g. B. Assessment practice of teachers, learners with a migration background and school dropouts .

Place of performance interpretation

The interpretation of performance as a mathematical definition of learning outcomes is determined by a number of serious factors: grades as symbolic offsetting, education exchange market, legal framework, external and self-perception by teachers and learners, arbitrary definition of frames of reference in the interpretation, diagnostic skills of teaching, the mathematical calculation modes the grades (e.g. normal distribution), the types of teacher profiles, the questionable concept of intelligence and talent, the mechanisms of underachievement, the labeling of student behavior by teachers, learners and parents, the importance of the relevant learning culture, the influence / pressure parents from elite educational backgrounds, norms for teaching by the didactic community, etc. One can therefore assume that the actual performance of knowledge and knowledge constructions with learners are never objective.

Feature of belonging to a social status

In the German state school system, selection is no longer based on the class, but on the concept of talent . As a result of the basic state selection in the education system after the age of 10, new classes have formed (elitist educational classes , underachievers , educationally disadvantaged classes, migrant milieus), each of which has developed its own systems of consciousness. They form internal structures and behave accordingly in the field of education:

Example underachievment group:

This layer has a core that can be described as follows: Maintaining one's own semantics : insider language, dialect, jokes, sayings, defense of one's own values, such as: B. Solidarity towards strangers from outside. "We have our own pride". External perception through the formation of a fringe (enclave, ghettoization, elite awareness), neighborly recognition or rejection. The granting of protection to members against other classes and expectations, risk of changes and disorientation when leaving the shift, suspicion of treason, disregard for one's own family by leaving one's own shift, social control ("Can he or not, why does everyone today have to Gymnasium? ”) - Fear of the new“ higher milieu ”with their“ foreign fuss ”- Pronounced top-down attitude (politically highly relevant to maintaining the current conservative voter potential“ The upper always have the say ”,“ What does a little one want make a difference. The superiors will sort it out ”). Maintaining and thus internalising the above-below grammar in all educational areas (in the organization, in the knowledge orientation of the curricula, in the school types and their grading).

Parents who come from a lower social milieu have already developed an archaic script for themselves and their children: “We do not belong to the upper class. We belong to our own kind. We are also in solidarity with them, no matter how hard the fate is. ”Sociometric measurements (Kösel 1993) have shown that they are e.g. Sometimes feel about 1 km away from the superiors (the theorem of belonging to social systems).

This also makes it easier to explain that the debate about the advancement of underprivileged students, which has been going on for 30 years, can only partly be explained by the incentive structure of the tripartite school system ; rather, the cohesion of the lower and middle classes also contributes to the underachievemant. The consequences for this would be: The development of learning cultures that would dissolve this closedness of social lower and middle classes (e.g. knowledge centers with a module concept without selection in the 4th school year).

Living environment of children and young people

If one wants to describe the living world as a construction of a social reality , the dimensions of security , appreciation , solidarity, normativity, performance, pattern formation , core and edge formation, dealing with uncertainty, dealing with myths of the older generation, care mentality, hope for a job, Fear of unemployment, self-organization, personal responsibility and self-orientation are probably the most important areas in a globalized world. Learners and teachers live in a functionally differentiated society and in a postmodern consciousness in which plurality , diversity and multiplicity can be found. You will also experience this diversity in class. This creates paradoxes: on the one hand, the diversity in all areas, on the other hand, the constant pressure for uniformity in behavior and in the construction of knowledge through the curriculum and educational standards .

Teachers and learners alike often internalize the mechanisms of labeling , selection and typing during the lesson and the surrounding learning culture in relation to the dimensions desired above . They develop structures of consciousness and behavior that enable them to “survive” the lessons in everyday life. They also experience in different ways how they are perceived and interpreted by teachers and their classmates. The dimensions of perception are often linked to the social class memberships and their adoption by the teachers.

Quality of teaching

The idea of an optimal teaching method is confusing. It assumes a mechanistic basis in which one believes that a moral term “good” can determine the complex events in the classroom and its surrounding factors with moral semantics . There are many versions that promise a greater likelihood of success in the appropriate context. Of course, there are a number of quality features for a successful teaching. named: Features according to Hilbert Meyer :

  1. Clear structuring of the teaching-learning process
  2. Intensive use of the learning time
  3. Consistency of goal, content and method decision
  4. Variety of methods
  5. Smart practice
  6. Individual support
  7. Teaching climate conducive to learning
  8. Meaningful classroom discussions
  9. Regular use of student feedback
  10. Clear performance expectations and controls

Andreas Helmke suggests the following 10 quality criteria:

  1. Class management (rules / standards, time management, dealing with disruptions)
  2. Climate conducive to learning
  3. motivation
  4. Clarity and structure
  5. Student orientation
  6. activation
  7. Fuse
  8. Impact orientation
  9. Fit / dealing with heterogeneity
  10. Variety of methods

These quality criteria are justified, but they can be interpreted in many ways and should be brought to operational levels. In many cases, the lack of coherence (connection and consistency of the factors with one another) is overlooked. In addition, they omit crucial dimensions in the deep structure of the teaching, e.g. B. the processing of damaged learners through the early selection experience as labeling, hurt and resignation or a lack of appreciation and security among teachers with a functional evaluation through grades and educational shares in the education exchange market.

Educational basis

Didactics and pedagogy deal scientifically with teaching:

  • with its social significance
  • his organization
  • the construction of knowledge
  • Definition of lesson content
  • Knowledge construction by the teacher
  • Dynamics of teaching
  • Lesson planning
  • communication in class
  • the mutual perception of teachers and students
  • the performance interpretation of teachers
  • Learning success
  • scientific methods and prognoses for a successful teaching

The dynamic of the lesson can be understood as a drift zone and classroom communication in which the individual members learn or not learn according to their previous structure. It always applies that classroom communication represents a mutual interpretation of knowledge constructions and behavior. There is no 1: 1 takeover of the learning content by the learner, from the construction or prescription of the teacher to the learner. Rather, different mutual resonances arise due to the respective individual constitution. They range from highly motivated adaptation to radical rejection of the individual learner.

Communication in class

The conventional communication models of “sender” and “receiver” are also outdated for teaching. More up-to-date is the consideration of the teaching processes using systems theory .

In the course of teaching, feedback loops and constant feedback behavior must be built in so that the distinctions (e.g. when the teacher constructs knowledge in the drift zone or when the learners do their own work) can even lead to mutual resonance. For this it is helpful to differentiate between the factual level and the relationship level and to use the appropriate discussion methods.

Lessons from the perspective of teaching-learning research serve to build up knowledge , understanding and key qualifications of the students. In this teaching-learning process , depending on the quality of the teaching, 20–40% of the learning success depends on the lessons held. Andreas Helmke sees lessons as an offer to which the pupil can use it, although he does not exclude reciprocal effects.

Lessons are considered successful across the various theories if they lead to successful learning . This depends on the quality of the teaching process , which can be described using empirical quality criteria. In addition, the teacher plays an important role in the success of lessons. On the other hand, it depends on the extent to which this offer is used by the students. The active learning time actually available and the support provided by extracurricular learning activities are important factors here. Ultimately, the success of the teaching process will always depend on the one hand on the individual requirements of the student ( chreoden with family and social background, with previous knowledge, self-confidence, learning strategies, etc.), and on the other hand on the respective context of the teaching process. Above all, this includes the social context of the school, the learning culture, the school climate , the age group , the teacher personality or the class composition.

Problems in teaching reality and teaching in media perception

Classes taking place in real life have to struggle with numerous framework conditions that lead to suboptimal realities. Many schools lack teachers, adequate equipment and suitable rooms. Often the class sizes are too big. In addition, problems of the spatial and social school environment affect the classroom.

In the media, one can read (or hear or see) focal schools and untenable conditions in the classroom, especially classes that sink into chaos, deliberate, aggressive disruptive maneuvers by students (which go far beyond harmless student pranks ), overwhelmed teachers , Power struggle between pupils and teachers, truancy , pursuing non-teaching activities during class , bullying , hyperactivity , drug problems , vandalism , crime , violence in class.

The so-called fire letter in 2006 from teachers at what was then the Rütli secondary school in Berlin-Neukölln caused a stir . The media-relevant events sparked a nationwide debate about types of instruction, school types and the limits of the school educational offer, but they also led to an irrelevant polemical discussion, especially in the tabloid media. The Rütli school itself has since developed into a kind of pilot project, from which emerged the community school on the Rütli campus as the core of the "One square kilometer of education" project.

See also


  • KH Arnold, U. Sandfuchs, J. Wiechmann: Handbook of teaching. Klinkhardt, Bad Heilbrunn 2006, ISBN 3-7815-1443-9 .
  • R. Cohn, Chr. Terfurth: Lively teaching and learning. TZI goes to school. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-608-95547-X .
  • Inez De Florio-Hansen : Effective Teaching and Successful Learning. Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge / New York 2016, ISBN 978-1-1071-1261-2
  • Inez De Florio-Hansen: Learning effective teaching. A practice-oriented guide. WBG, Darmstadt 2014, ISBN 978-3-534-26379-0
  • Andreas Gruschka : How students become educators. Study on competence development and professional identity formation in a dual qualification course of the collegiate school experiment NW. Wetzlar 1985
  • Herbert Gudjons: Basic pedagogical knowledge. Overview, compendium, study book. 10th edition. Klinkhardt, Bad Heilbrunn 2008, ISBN 978-3-8385-3092-5 .
  • P. Heitkämper: The art of successful learning. Handbook of creative forms of teaching and learning. Junfermann, Paderborn 2000, ISBN 3-87387-410-5 .
  • Andreas Helmke: Quality of teaching. In: DH Rost (Hrsg.): Concise dictionary of pedagogical psychology. Beltz, Weinheim 2010, ISBN 978-3-621-27690-0 .
  • Andreas Helmke: Teaching quality: recording, evaluating, improving. Kallmeyer, Seelze 2007, ISBN 978-3-7800-1004-9 .
  • Gerd Heursen: Unusual didactics. Bergmann and Helbig, Hamburg 1997, ISBN 3-925836-34-9 .
  • Michael Jachmann: Notes or reports. School assessment practice from the perspective of students, teachers and parents. Leske + Budrich, Opladen 2003, ISBN 3-8100-3752-4 .
  • Olivier Keller: Because my life is learning. How children explore the world on their own initiative. Mit-Kinder-Wachsen-Verlag, Freiamt im Schwarzwald 1999, ISBN 3-933020-06-9 .
  • Edmund Kösel : The modeling of learning worlds.
  • Horst Küppers, Hermann Schulz, Peter Thiesen: Errweg learning field conception in the teacher training. In: small & large. 12/2014, Verlag Oldenbourg, Munich 2014.
  • W. Sacher: Developing, checking and assessing services. Bad Heilbronn 2001.
  • N. Luhmann: The society of society. Frankfurt 1997.
  • Peter Menck: Lessons - What is it? universi, Siegen 2016, ISBN 978-3-936533-80-4 Online = [1] .
  • MD Olweus: Violence in School. What teachers and parents should know and can do. 1996.
  • U. Schaarschmidt, U. Kieschke: Equipped for everyday school life. Psychological support offers for teachers. Weinheim 2007.
  • Schulz v. Thun .: Talk to each other. Reinbek 1991-1998.
  • Norbert Seibert: Childlike worlds. Bad Heilbrunn 1999.
  • Kurt Singer: The student's dignity is inviolable. Munich 1998.
  • E. Stiller: Dialogical Subject Didactics Pedagogy. Paderborn 1997.
  • Peter Thiesen: Teaching social pedagogy. Small compendium of teaching at training centers for social education / social work. Beltz, Weinheim 1991, ISBN 3-407-55743-4 .
  • J. Uhlig, H. Solga, J. Schupp: Unequal educational opportunities. What role do underachievement and personality structure play. WZB, Berlin 2009.
  • F. Winter: Performance evaluation. A new learning culture needs a different approach to student performance. Hohengehren 2004.
  • Arthur Thömmes: Productive lessons. 100 motivational methods for secondary schools. Verlag an der Ruhr , Mülheim 2005
  • Arthur Thömmes: Successfully complete the teaching units. 100 result-oriented methods for the secondary publishing house an der Ruhr, Mülheim 2006.
  • Arthur Thömmes: Productive work phases. 100 methods for secondary education. Verlag an der Ruhr, Mülheim 2007.

Web links

Wiktionary: Lessons  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wikiquote: Lessons  - Quotes

Individual evidence

  1. Meyers Konversationslexikon. 4th edition. 1885-1892, p. 1031.
  2. ^ Draft of a law for the protection of participants in distance learning - Distance learning protection law - (FernUSG) , on November 3, 1975.
  3. L. Haag: Diagnostic competence of teachers. In: U. Stadler-Altmann, J. Schindele, A. Schraut: New learning culture-new performance culture. Bad Heilbrunn 2008.
  4. N. Luhmann: The society of society. Volume I and II, Frankfurt 1997.
  5. E. Kösel: The theory of subjective didactics. 2002.
  6. W. Sacher: Developing, checking and assessing services. Bad Heilbronn 2001.
  7. N. Stehr: The fragility of modern societies. Frankfurt am Main 2000.
  8. ^ H. Siebert: Pedagogical Constructivism. New 2003.
  9. Delphi survey 1996 / 1998.bmb + f, final report
  10. ^ W. Klafki: Categorical Education. 1985.
  11. E. Kösel: Didactic epistemology. 2007.
  12. ^ U. Schaarschmidt, U. Kieschke: Equipped for everyday school life. Psychological support offers for teachers. Weinheim 2007.
  13. ^ Rainer Bromme: Competences, functions and teaching activities of the teacher .
  14. ^ Franz E. Weinert (ed.): Psychology of teaching and school. (= Encyclopedia of Psychology. Subject Area D, Practice Areas: Ser. 1, Educational Psychology. Volume 3). Hogrefe, Verlag für Psychologie, Göttingen et al. 1997, ISBN 3-8017-0539-0 , pp. 177-212.
  15. Andreas Schelten: Teacher personality - an elusive term. In: The vocational school. 61, 2009, pp. 39-40.
  16. KMK standards for teacher training, area "teaching": standards for teacher training, pdf , in the literature about Herbert Gudjons: Pedagogical basic knowledge. Overview, compendium, study book. 10th edition. Klinkhardt, Bad Heilbrunn 2008, especially chap. 9.6: The new role of teachers.
  17. E. Kösel: The modeling of learning worlds. Volume 3, 2007, ISBN 978-3-00-020794-5 , chap. 9. Methods of school culture research.
  18. ^ R. Arnold: Change of the learning culture. Ideas and building blocks for lively learning. Darmstadt 1998.
  19. E. Kösel: The modeling of learning worlds. Volume II, Bahlingen 2007.
  20. ^ P. Heitkämper: The art of successful learning. Handbook of creative forms of teaching and learning. Paderborn 1995.
  21. U. Stadler-Altmann: Effects of school assessment practice on the ability concept of students. 2008.
  22. T. Bohl: Performance assessment in reform pedagogy. In: U. Stadler-Altmann, J. Schindele, A. Schraut: New learning culture-new performance culture. Bad Heilbrunn 2008.
  23. K. Ingenkammp: The questionability of the censorship. Weinheim 1971.
  24. L. Haag: Diagnostic competence of teachers. In: U. Stadler-Altmann, J. Schindele, A. Schraut: New learning culture-new performance culture. Bad Heilbrunn 2008.
  25. J. Uhlig, H. Solga, J. Schupp: Uneven education opportunities. What role do underachievement and personality structure play. WZB. Berlin 2009.
  26. N. Seibert: Kindliche Lebenswelten. Bad Heilbrunn 1999.
  27. Stadler-Altmann, Schindele, J. Schraut, A .: New learning culture-new performance culture. Bad Heilbrunn
  28. Hilbert Meyer: What is good teaching? 2nd Edition. Cornelsen Scriptor, Berlin 2005, chap. 1.4, 2.1.
  29. Andreas Helmke: What do we know about good teaching? In: Pedagogy. 58, 2006, pp. 42-45.
  30. E. Jürgens: What is good teaching? In: U. Stadler-Altmann, J. Schindele, A. Schraut: New learning culture-new performance culture. Bad Heilbrunn 2008, pp. 68-89.
  31. E. Jürgens: What is good teaching. In: U. Stadler-Altmann, J. Schindele, A. Schraut: New learning culture-new performance culture. Bad Heilbrunn 2008.
  32. Kösel, 1993, 2002.
  33. see also autopoiesis : the theory of living systems
  34. Niklas Luhmann has constructed three system levels of communication: life , communication and consciousness . These three self-contained systems operate independently of one another. Consciousness cannot communicate, only communication can generate communication, etc. The basis of communication is the selection of meaning . Selection means that every piece of information is already a distinction between what is and what is not meant. The information is constructed as a specific selection in communication (teaching offers), it is given meaning, e.g. B. as structure, context, as teaching content or as educational share. Then it is passed on as a message to the learners. There, the selection made by the teacher must prove itself in the selection of the learners. A message is z. B. communicated by the teacher and understood by the learner or not. “Understanding” does not imply that the authenticity of the teacher's motives, feelings and action patterns in communication with the learner is recorded. “ Understanding ” only implies that a message and information can be distinguished as a selection and something can be ascribed to. The empathic understanding of a teacher towards his students belongs e.g. B. this area. Communication in class is a comparison of the differences between teachers and learners, whereby this comparison does not necessarily have to lead to the same results. It is a process of correspondence, but it does not mean a similarity or a linear repetition of the previously produced meaning, but only complementarity . Communication in class is different from everyday communication. It is determined by intentionality (a product is always expected from the learner), by a top-down attitude (the teacher has a knowledge advantage , power and sanctions), by an assessment or performance interpretation (the teacher's power of definition) by the teacher and by a low recursiveness (the relationship level is mostly asymmetrical). See: Niklas Luhmann: Die Gesellschaft der Gesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main, 1997.
  35. See the specific communication structure in the context of the learning through teaching method .
  36. Schulz von Thun: Talking to each other. Reinbek 1991/92.
  37. Hilbert Meyer: What is good teaching? 2nd Edition. Cornelsen Scriptor, Berlin 2005, p. 155.
  38. See Andreas Helmke: Teaching quality: recording, evaluating, improving. 4th edition. Seelze 2006.