School grade

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A school grade ( Latin nota "feature character") or censorship (lat. Censura ) is used for performance evaluation of students . It is usually expressed in a graded word evaluation (e.g. “very good” to “unsatisfactory”) or in a corresponding number (e.g. 1 to 6 or A to F). However, the “school grade system” is also used outside of schools , in particular for assessing the performance of exams , for example at universities , or on evaluation portals or in surveys .

School grades are given in the individual subjects , but are also used as so-called top grades for the general assessment of behavior and cooperation. Different grading systems are used depending on the country and type of school . These differ

  • in the numerical range: range of the grading scale
  • In increments: Allocation of whole-number grades or with decimal places
  • in the direction of: using the larger number for better or worse performance.


The school grade should reflect the current level of performance or knowledge of a student or examinee in a certain area. It also serves for comparability as well as feedback or recognition of the performance (and thus also the motivation ). According to the stipulations of the Grading Ordinance (NVO), for example from Baden-Württemberg or the curricula of the federal states, the grading is based on the degree to which the learning target is achieved . You have the task of documenting the learning progress of the individual student as objectively as possible. The yardstick for the assessment by the teacher is the objectives of the course and the corresponding assessment of the individual performance level, not the comparison of students. In the pedagogical sense, the grading also serves to provide feedback on the established performance level to the learner and their parents. In the wording of the grade (e.g. “good” or “poor”) it contains an evaluation and thus also praise or criticism, signs of success or failure and is intended to motivate further efforts. It helps the teacher by recording the individual student performance and that of the learning group, to follow the learning process, to determine their own teaching success and to decide on appropriate measures for the further educational process. The school grade offers the opportunity to evaluate a performance briefly and in a generally understandable manner.


Although the grading ordinance does not provide for any differentiation or even discrimination between students and, in accordance with today's pedagogical maxims, it is not about creating a competitive situation in the class, the school grades are used outside of school, for example when used within the framework of the numerus clausus for access at universities or when selecting applicants in companies, sometimes used in this sense. This in turn leads retrospectively in schools to the well-known school grade inflation , which aims to prevent one's own pupils from being disadvantaged when starting their careers compared to other schools, which censor more moderately. This creates a discrepancy between the original purpose of giving grades and their use outside of school. Problems with the award of grades can also arise if, instead of the required best possible objectivity, so-called “courtesy grades” are awarded, which gloss over the actual level of performance or incorporate irrelevant considerations.

School grades make performance comparable, both in terms of individual performance development and in the social structure, for example in a class . In the wake of the grading, it is usually inevitable that students and parents make comparisons with the level of performance of their classmates beyond the narrow understanding of grades in the individual assessment and sometimes even emphasize this point of view. Creating a competitive situation, however, is not the task of grading.

Another problem when dealing with school grades is the misunderstanding that these are only rough estimates (= grades) expressed in words (“good”, “satisfactory”, “insufficient” etc.). If converting them into numerical values ​​is not unproblematic, then calculating with them, even in tenths or hundredths after the decimal point, leads to "over-mathematizing" and to unrealistic number games that no longer do justice to the original material. This is due to the extra-curricular need for a (simplified) classification of student performance. The consequence is a devaluation of the meaningfulness of the school grades, which the universities and companies counter with their own aptitude tests . Every school grade has a meaning in terms of content. It becomes “abstract” when this meaning is lost and only numbers are used. This can lead to misunderstandings if (as in Germany or Switzerland) the grades are based on a different sequence of numbers or if, purely arithmetically, real differences in performance are constructed.


Elementary school discharge certificate (anonymized) from 1923 with four-stage predicates

Historical staves

The first demonstrable censorship system in Germany was defined in the Saxon school regulations of 1530. Students should take an exam twice a year in the presence of the pastor and mayor. Good performance was rewarded with rolls or something similar.

Around 1850 were Prussian three grade levels common schools in the second half of the 19th century on four predicates (1 very good; 2. good 3. sufficient 4. unsatisfactory), were later expanded to five. Also in the GDR one was five-stage system common.

The six-level censorship system common in Germany today was introduced in 1938.

Lower and intermediate level

The grading system most frequently used in Germany has six levels. The definition of grades is laid down in the KMK resolution of October 3, 1968 and in the Hamburg Agreement and is used in all federal states as follows:

number grade Points description
1 very good 15-13 if the performance meets the requirements * to a particularly high degree.
2 Well 12-10 if the service fully meets the requirements *.
3 satisfying 09-7 if the performance generally meets the requirements *.
4th sufficient 06-4 if the service has defects, but still meets the requirements * as a whole.
5 inadequate 03–1 if the service does not meet the requirements *, but shows that the necessary basic knowledge is available and the deficiencies can be remedied in the foreseeable future.
6th insufficient 00 if the performance does not meet the requirements * and even the basic knowledge is so incomplete that the deficiencies cannot be remedied in the foreseeable future.

A work is also in non-service has been provided or embezzlement with insufficient graded.

* The term “requirements” relates to the scope and the independent and correct application of knowledge, skills and abilities as well as the type of presentation.

Today the school system is a matter of the state. Each federal state regulates the grading independently (e.g. in Baden-Württemberg with the grading ordinance ).

In the case of final examinations, the examination is considered passed if you get a grade from very good to sufficient, otherwise you have not passed.

In some federal states, grading the full grade values ​​by means of intermediate grades is officially permitted. The numbers can be upgraded or downgraded with a plus (+) or a minus (-) in individual performance assessments, but not in certificates. This can also be expressed using decimal places:

So 2+ is “fully” good and 2− is “just about” good . When using decimal places, z. B. a 1.7 of a 2+ and a 2.3 of a 2−. In some federal states (e.g. Baden-Württemberg) the “+” or “-” is given an exact quarter note; a “2+” then corresponds to 1.75 and a 2− to 2.25. A “1 to 2” (also “1–2” or “1/2”) corresponds to a decimal grade of “1.5”. At some types of schools (e.g. vocational schools in Baden-Württemberg) decimal numbers with one decimal place may be assigned as a grade.

In some federal states, the plus is also indicated by the term “full” and the minus by the term “weak” or “still”. A 2− then corresponds to “still good” or “poorly good”, a 2+ to “completely good”.

The individual school grades are awarded in different performance measures depending on the federal state , the type of school and the school subject . For this purpose, the performance is usually converted into the percentage performance and then assigned to the corresponding grade. The conversion is often facilitated by performance tables developed for schools.

Upper secondary school, vocational high school, technical high school

From the upper level , an upward-counting point system applies in Germany, which is used in the Abitur and serves to make it easier to compare and calculate the final grade. Since the 2006/2007 school year, the point system (depending on the federal state) has also been used at technical colleges and vocational colleges :

  • 15 points correspond to the school grade 1+ ( very good );
  • 14 points correspond to the school grade 1 ( very good );
  • 13 points correspond to the school grade 1− ( just under very good );
  • 12 points correspond to the school grade 2+ ( fully good );
  • 11 points correspond to the school grade 2 ( good );
  • 10 points correspond to the school grade 2− ( just good );
  • 9 points correspond to the school grade 3+ ( fully satisfactory );
  • 8 points correspond to the school grade 3 ( satisfactory );
  • 7 points correspond to the school grade 3− ( just under satisfactory );
  • 6 points correspond to the school grade 4+ ( fully sufficient );
  • 5 points correspond to the school grade 4 ( sufficient );
  • 4 points correspond to the school grade 4− ( just enough );
  • 3 points correspond to the school grade 5+ ( completely unsatisfactory );
  • 2 points correspond to the school grade 5 ( poor );
  • 1 point corresponds to the school grade 5− ( just poor );
  • 0 points correspond to the school grade 6 ( insufficient );

Note: The allocation of “just about” and “completely unsatisfactory” is misleading in common usage, since the weaker performance (only 1 point) is rated as “just about unsatisfactory” than the better one (with at least 3 points) . “Slightly poor” linguistically indicates a better performance than “completely poor” , see also criticism.

It should be noted that 4 points are no longer rated as sufficient (4 points or worse = " underperformance " or "under-course") and can also lead to a non-transfer. A really sufficient performance is only achieved from 5 points. The reason for this is that 4 points correspond to a 4− and the grade is thus below 4. The last remark does not apply to Bavarian Vocational high schools (technical and vocational schools ). In addition, a 0 in front of the decimal point is always rounded down to 0 points. The calculation of the absolute grade based on the number of points can also be done by the formula:

be performed.

Vocational college

At vocational colleges , for example, the performance table developed by the German Chamber of Commerce and Industry (DIHK) is common:

  • 100% up to and including 92%: grade 1
  • below 92% up to and including 81%: grade 2
  • below 81% up to and including 67%: grade 3
  • below 67% up to and including 50%: grade 4
  • below 50% up to and including 30%: grade 5
  • below 30% up to and including 0%: grade 6


Diploma, Bachelor and Master courses

The assessment of academic achievements and theses is usually carried out with grades from "1" to "5", whereby third grades, e.g. B. 1.33 and 2.66 or rounded third notes (1.3 and 2.7) can be used. There are also colleges that use a school-like system. A grade that is worse than 4.0 usually leads to a failure.

Likewise, academic achievements with a similar assessment of the upper secondary school, vocational school, technical college can be made. The conversion of the grade points follows, for example, the following scheme:

Grading system
Grade points
15th 0.7 excellent
14 to 13 1.0 and 1.3 very good
12 to 10 1.7, 2.0 and 2.3 Well
09 to 07 2.7, 3.0 and 3.3 satisfying
06 to 05 3.7 and 4.0 sufficient
04 to 00 4.3, 4.7 and 5.0 unsatisfactory

Dissertation and postgraduate studies

One of the following two systems is used to evaluate the dissertation for doctorates at universities and equivalent colleges and also for postgraduate studies :

  • Summa cum laude (= with the highest praise = performance with distinction )
  • Magna cum laude (= with great praise = a very good performance )
  • Cum laude (= with praise = an above-average performance )
  • Rite (= correct = still sufficient performance despite defects )
  • Non rite / Non probatum (= an unusable , insufficient performance )


  • very good (1)
  • good (2)
  • passed (3)
  • failed (4)
  • possibly there is also the additional rating “with distinction”, which does not, however, represent a separate grade.

The second system is used particularly at technical universities ( former technical universities ) or in natural and engineering subjects.

Legal training

Since the ordinance on a scale of grades and points for the first and second legal examinations of December 3, 1981 ( Federal Law Gazette I p. 1243 ), an 18-point system has been in place in university legal training and in legal traineeship is used, which cannot be converted into conventional school grades. When classifying a performance in the 18-point system, a distinction is made between the grades for individual examinations (e.g. written exams, oral partial exams ) and the overall grade for the state examination .

Single grades:

  • 18–16 points: very good
  • 15–13 points: good
  • 12–10 points: completely satisfactory
  • 9–7 points: satisfactory
  • 6–4 points: sufficient
  • 3–1 points: poor
  • 0 points: unsatisfactory

Exam grades:

  • 18.00–14.00 points: very good
  • 13.99–11.50 points: good
  • 11.49–9.00 points: completely satisfactory
  • 8.99–6.50 points: satisfactory
  • 6.49–4.00 points: sufficient
  • 3.99–1.50 points: poor
  • 1.49–0.00 points: unsatisfactory

For prospective lawyers , a “ fully satisfactory ” is already considered an outstanding performance, which is achieved only by approx. 15% of the candidates, a “good” is achieved by less than 5% of the candidates, a “very good” is achieved extremely rarely (less than 1%). Therefore, a state examination with a grade of 9.00 or more points is also known as a “ distinction ”.


An objection can be lodged against grades or non-transfer because these decisions are part of an administrative act (certificate). In most federal states, no objection can be lodged against individual decisions. However, it is possible that, after a complaint, the superior school supervisory authority will order a new correction.

Objections in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia to grades, non-promotion etc. must first be addressed in writing to the school in question, which will review the decision based on the reasons for the objection given in the objection. If the school accepts the objection, it remedies it and accordingly changes the grade or the decision about not being promoted. If the school does not accept the reason for the contradiction, it does not help and forwards it to the school supervisory authority. In the case of secondary schools, comprehensive schools and grammar schools, this is the district government, in the case of secondary schools it is the responsible education authority (if the education authority cannot resolve the objection, it forwards it to the district government). The district government then decides on the basis of the objection and the reasons given in writing by the school concerned for the grade or the transfer whether it remedies the objection, i.e. changes the grade or reverses the non-transfer.


There is a five-level grading system. The Performance Assessment Ordinance defines the grades in § 14. Four grades are always used to assess behavior: very satisfactory, satisfactory, slightly satisfactory, unsatisfactory. In most elementary schools, the so-called amount grades are not used.

Grammatically, school grades are male like all numbers in Austria . So it is not called “the one”, but “the one”. Discussions arise regularly about partially abolishing school grades and evaluating them through verbal assessments. So far, however, this has only been carried out in the lower classes of elementary school .

Up until the 1970s there was still a grade of 4E in schools from the fifth grade , which meant something like four with a warning, i.e. an intermediate grade for insufficient . These were only found in the interim reports (including school news), not in the year-end reports.

Intermediate grades (e.g. 2–3 ) as well as raised and lowered grades (e.g. 2+, 3− ) are often used informally , with 1+ often being used as 1! (Ones with callsign) or I (Roman ones) is written. 5+ and 5− are uncommon. These intermediate grades are not permitted in school work or in certificates, but are limited to relativizations in the collaboration.

The school grading system is also used by universities, whereby the grade 5 means that the course examination was not passed.


In Austria, the Ministry of Education's performance appraisal regulation regulates the assessment of grades by teachers. In § 3 (1) forms of performance assessment are described, in § 14 (1) to (7) the grades:

  1. Very good (1)
  2. Good (2)
  3. Satisfactory (3)
  4. Sufficient (4)
  5. Not enough (5)

Points key

Depending on the clef used, 50%, 60% or 67% of the achievable points are necessary for a positive assessment. In many cases all sub-areas must be positive so that a positive overall assessment can be made. As a rule, around 90% of the points are necessary for a very good.

Ascending with a negative testimony

An upgrade to the next class with a maximum of a Not enough is generally allowed when the teacher in the class council so decide. Advancement with an insufficient is only possible once in the same level (primary level, secondary level 1 and secondary level 2) in a subject (see promotion clause). If the school year is completed in 1 or 2 subjects with insufficient, there is also the possibility of repeating the test at the beginning of the next school year to improve the performance and still move up to the next class. If a fail was awarded in three or more subjects, the class must be repeated.


In Switzerland , grades 6 to 1 are given in most of the cantons. 6 is the best grade, 1 is the worst, and 4 is sufficient.

  • 6: very good
  • 5: good
  • 4: sufficient
  • 3: insufficient
  • 2: weak
  • 1: bad

Half marks are also permitted in the certificates (e.g. 4.5). The following statements are exemplary; Different regulations apply depending on the canton, location and school level.

Half notes like a 5.5 are often written in another form, e.g. B. as 5-6 (five-to-six) or 5½ (five and a half).

For intermediate grades that do not appear in the certificate, further gradations can be used in many places:

  • 5.25: 5+ (five-plus) or 5– (five-to)
  • 5.75: –6 (to-six) or 5½ + (five and a half-plus, which is rarely used)
  • A 6+ (6.25) is possible and can be given from time to time, but a 6-7 (6.5) is extremely rare (e.g. if the task was not only “completely correct”, but also solved better than the teacher would have expected at all)

When writing with dashes only, pay close attention to the position of the dash (not: minus sign). Thus –5 corresponds to a 4.75 (this corresponds to a “to-five”), 5– on the other hand a 5.25 (which corresponds to a “five-to”,).

A common calculation method is the formula:

In the case of intermediate examinations, the result is then rounded to a quarter grade or a grade with 1 or 2 decimal places, depending on the teacher.

Another system is to simply calculate the percentage of full marks obtained and then apply the grading table. There are z. B. mostly depending on the teacher only with whole and half or even with quarter notes.

In practice, the following table is often used: (The percentages are usually rounded according to mathematical rules, with quarter notes the gradation takes place every 5%.)

  • 6.00: 100%
  • 5.50: 90%
  • 5.00: 80%
  • 4.50: 70%
  • 4.00: 60%
  • 3.50: 50%
  • 3.00: 40%
  • 2.50: 30%
  • 2.00: 20%
  • 1.50: 10%
  • 1.00: 0%

A special feature of the Swiss grading system is that there are more half grades that are unsatisfactory (6 from 1 to 3.5) than sufficient (5 from 4 to 6). When calculating the average of several exams, a single very bad grade (<2) can no longer be compensated for by a single good grade and can influence the result so much that the subject as a whole is no longer passed. Attempts at fraud ( copying ) are usually given a grade of one. In colloquial language it is also called a nail .

other European countries


In Bulgaria there are grades 1 to 6, with 6 being the top grade:

  • 6: Отличен "excellent"
  • 5: Много добър "very good"
  • 4: Добър "good"
  • 3: Среден "satisfactory"
  • 2: Слаб "insufficient"
  • 1: is never granted

The grades usually have up to two decimal places. This is often the case when assessing written performance or when calculating the final grade from the arithmetic mean of the partial grades from the performance in the semester.


In Denmark , the so-called 7-trins-scale “7-step scale” was introduced in 2005/2006 in order to better represent ECTS grades. The system replaced the 13-point scale, which had been in use since 1963 and contained 10 different notes. In both systems, the gaps between some grades are greater than between others, in order to raise the importance of these, especially the good and bad grades, compared to the average. The notes 02 and 00 have two digits to prevent counterfeiting of 12 and 10 respectively. 12 to 7 are considered good grades, 4 is mediocre, 02 just passed, 00 failed, −3 completely unacceptable.

  • 12: top grade
  • 10
  • 7th
  • 4th
  • 02: passed
  • 00: failed
  • −3

The University of Flensburg and the University of South Denmark in Sønderborg have developed the following conversion table for their cross-border courses: 12 = 1.0–1.3; 10 = 1.7-2.0; 7 = 2.3-3.0; 4 = 3.3-3.7; 02 = 4.0; 00, −3 = 5.0


In Estonia there are grades from 5 to 1, with 5 being the best possible result.

  • 5: väga hea "very good" (90-100%)
  • 4: hea "good" (70-89%)
  • 3: rahuldav "satisfactory" (45-69%)
  • 2: middle rahuldav "not satisfactory" (20–44%)
  • 1: puudulik "insufficient" (0–19%)

At least grade 3 must be achieved to pass.

In addition, in Estonia there is the following assessment standard for pupils in speech therapy treatment in language-related subjects, as well as for pupils with general learning difficulties (if in the tutoring- like parandusõpe program) in all subjects:

  • 5: väga hea "very good" (85–100%)
  • 4: hea "good" (65–84%)
  • 3: rahuldav "satisfactory" (45–64%)
  • 2: middle rahuldav "not satisfactory" (20–44%)
  • 1: puudulik "insufficient" (0–19%)


In Finland , points are given from 4 to 10, with 10 (in elementary schools and upper secondary schools) being the best possible result. In technical schools, colleges and universities, points are awarded from 0 to 5, with 5 being the highest number of points. In many technical colleges, points from 0 to 3 are awarded, with 3 being the highest number of points.

  • 10: erinomainen (excellent)
  • 9: kiitettävä (very good)
  • 8: hyvä (good)
  • 7: tyydyttävä (satisfactory)
  • 6: kohtalainen (sufficient)
  • 5: välttävä (insufficient)
  • 4: heikko / hylätty (weak / insufficient)


The French school system uses a 20-point grading scale, with 20 being the highest and 0 being the lowest. The pass mark is usually 10. In contrast to the US school system, grades between 12 and 13 are usually not considered bad. 15 is already described as good, 16 and 17 as “very good”.

The same grading system is used in Belgium, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, the French-speaking part of Cameroon and Iran.


At many schools in Georgia , grades from 0 to 10 are used instead of the Russian principle. So actually 0 is the worst and 10 the best grade. The Russian system is still used in South Ossetia and Abkhazia .


In Greece , a grade scale from 0 to 10 is used in primary school (Dimotiko, grades 1 to 6), with 10 being the highest, 0 being the lowest and 5 being the pass level. In the secondary schools (Gymnasio and Lykio), on the other hand, a grading scale from 0 to 20 is used, with a grade of 10 (sometimes also 9.5) as the pass limit. At Greek universities, 10 is the highest, 0 the lowest and 5 the pass mark.

At secondary schools and universities, individual written examinations are assessed using a point scheme; the number of points achieved is almost always converted into the grade to be awarded in an analogous and undistorted manner. A grade of exactly 10 at universities or exactly 20 at secondary schools is therefore only awarded if the written work is actually free of errors.

At secondary schools the grades are:

  • 18-20: άριστα (excellent)
  • 16-18: λίαν καλώς (very good)
  • 13-16: καλώς (good)
  • 10-13: σχεδόν καλώς (almost good)
  • 5-9.9: ανεπαρκώς (not sufficient)
  • 0-5: κακώς (bad)

The following grades are awarded at universities:

  • 8.5-10.0: άριστα (excellent)
  • 6.5-8.49: λίαν καλώς (very good)
  • 5.0-6.49: καλώς (good)
  • 0.0-4.99: ανεπιτυχώς (unsuccessful)

Great Britain

In the UK , letters are used to assess what can be seen in the following excerpt from the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS). The percentages relate to the total number of test items that have passed. In addition, there is an F grade for those who have failed:

  • A: the top 5%
  • B: the next 10%
  • C: the next 35%
  • D: the next 30%
  • E: the worst 20%

However, since 1987 the letters have not been linked to percentile ranks in the school system. GCSEs (usually completed with 16) are rated on a scale with A *, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, U (with U for failed). Although grades A * - G are technically considered passed, employers often only accept grades A * - C as passed.

In 2009/2010, the previously unassignable A * grade was introduced for the A levels corresponding to the German Abitur in order to better differentiate between the best students. The grades F and G are not awarded.

The Scottish school system is different from other countries in the UK. The local school leaving certificate (Advanced) Highers is graded with the letters A to D.

The bachelor's degree is in turn classified using a different system, which is usually awarded as follows:

  • First (1st) : 70-100%
  • Upper second (two-one "2: 1") : 60-69%
  • Lower second (two-two "2: 2") : 50-59%
  • Third (3rd) : 40-49%
  • Fail "not passed": 0-39%

In the master there are mostly following grade levels:

  • Distinction : 70-100%
  • Merit : 60-69%
  • Pass : 50-59%
  • Fail : 0-49%

It should be noted, however, that especially at British elite universities such as Oxford, Cambridge and LSE, even the merit grade is often very difficult and scores of over 80% are practically impossible to achieve.


The Italian school system has grades from 0 to 10, with 0 being the worst and 10 being the best. All school grades below and including 5 are negative and therefore not sufficient. If a student has only one negative grade on the evaluation sheet (regardless of the subject, except in religion), he will not be transferred to the next school level, unless the negative grade (in elementary and middle school) is decided by the class council Rounded up with three stars (***) or improved (in high school) by passing re-exams in the respective subjects. Since there are more negative than positive grades and it is therefore difficult to raise a negative grade point average back into the positive range, in some elementary and middle schools, with the approval of the teaching staff of the entire school and the school council, the number of negative grades is reduced to two ( 4 and 5). The grade 0 is not considered assessable and is therefore only awarded if the performance assessment is extremely poor (e.g. written illegibly) or, in the case of a written test, was given empty.

  • 0: non classificabile "not assessable"
  • 1: estremamente scarso "extremely inadequate"
  • 2: decisamente scarso "decidedly inadequate"
  • 3: molto scarso "very inadequate"
  • 4: scarso "insufficient"
  • 5: insufficiente "not enough"
  • 6: sufficiente "sufficient"
  • 7: Discreto "satisfactory"
  • 8: distinto "good"
  • 9: ottimo "very good"
  • 10: eccellente "excellent"

The grades 9 and 10 are very rarely given, however: a comparison with the systems of the German-speaking countries is therefore not possible. Usually, exams are rated with an 8 as the best possible grade; grades 9 and 10, on the other hand, are only used in exceptional cases or for final exams.

The grades can also be increased or decreased by half a point (e.g. by writing 5 1/2 for the grade 5.5) or a quarter point (by adding + e.g. 5+). So a 5+ is calculated as 5.25 and a 5/6 as 5.5. The grades can also be decreased by a value of 0.25 (by adding -). So a 5− is calculated as 4.75. In addition to the technical grades, there is also a grade in amount ( voto di condotta "amount grade "), which is covered by grades 5 to 10, whereby the grades fulfill other statements: The grade 5 in amount leads to irrevocable non-promotion.

At the university in Italy grades from 0 to 30 are given, with 0 being the worst and 30 being the best. All school grades below and including 17 are negative and therefore not sufficient. Negative grades are rarely given, however, as it is possible to reject a grade and repeat the exam. 30 can also be increased by adding an award: a “30 e lode” is usually calculated as 32.

The bachelor's or master's degree is in turn classified using a different system in which grades between 77 and 110 are usually provided and in which 77 is the lowest number of points required to pass the final examination. Since Italian students are admitted to the final examination and admission only takes place if all examinations have been passed, an average set by the faculty (usually at least 20.1) has been achieved and the thesis has been assessed as satisfactory by two different professors it is almost impossible for anyone to fail that final exam.


  • 10: Izcili (excellent)
  • 9: Teicami (almost excellent)
  • 8: Ļoti labi (very good)
  • 7: Labi (good)
  • 6: Gandrīz labi (almost good)
  • 5: Viduvēji (sufficient)
  • 4: Gandrīz viduvēji (almost sufficient)
  • 3: Vāji (weak / insufficient)
  • 1-2: Ļoti vāji (very weak)


In Luxembourg , a 60-point grading scale is used, with 60 being the highest and 01 being the lowest. The limit for passing is usually 30. However, there is the possibility of passing one subject or two subjects with an average of 20 or more, if an annual average grade of 38 resp. 36 was reached.

Grade distribution:

  • 50–60: très bien "very good"
  • 40–49: bien "good"
  • 30–39: satisfaisant "satisfactory"
  • 20–29: Insufficient "insufficient"
  • 10–19: mauvais "bad"
  • 01–09: très mauvais "very bad"

North Macedonia

In North Macedonia, the scale ranges from 1 to 5, with 5 being the best grade.

  • 5: odličen "excellent"
  • 4: mnogu dobar "very good"
  • 3: dobar "good"
  • 2: dovolen "sufficient"
  • 1: nedovolen "insufficient"

A scale from 5 to 10 is used in higher education. 10 is the highest grade and 5 is insufficient. The grades are not referred to literally here and a distinction is mainly made between "passed" (6-10) and "failed" (5). The 5 is almost never entered in the study book.


A scale from 1 to 10 is used at Dutch universities. Grades 1 to 5 are usually considered unsatisfactory. O / NVD or F is often used when a grade below 5 is achieved. The grades 9 and 10 are very rarely given. The rarity of the grades 9 and 10 can also be recognized by the fact that in many degree programs the 8.0 or 8.5 for the attribute cum laude or with distinction (“excellent”) is sufficient. Some universities already give a “cum laude” with an average grade of 7.5, but in such a case the student must not have used more than 1.5 times the study time and also not have completed any examinations with a grade lower than 7. The awards “cum laude”, “magna cum laude”, “summa cum laude” are rarely or extremely rarely given. This fact is rooted in the Dutch valuation culture, which goes back well into the 19th century. During this time it was decided that a 10 should only be given if it was absolutely perfect; however, this could hardly be achieved among critical Dutch academics. Like the 10, the 9 in the Netherlands is rarely given in colloquia, essays and presentations with open questions.

The conversion of grades into other national grades should only be done in exceptional cases. A conversion of grades from the Netherlands into z. B. German grades through the use of the Bavarian formula leads to inaccurate results, among other things due to conversion problems, unequal linearities and distributions. Even the modified Bavarian formula does not represent a "... universal instrument for the simple conversion of grades from different grading systems ...".

Grading at universities (universities and technical colleges)

At some universities, an examination with a grade of 5 is considered passed, but at most universities at least a 5.5 must be achieved (similar to the school grading system). When assessing examinations, it is important to recognize that most of the grades awarded lie between a 5.5 and a 6.5.

Nuffic (Netherlands Organization for International Cooperation in Higher Education) is comparable to the German Academic Exchange Service and works closely with various other exchange services. Based on several studies in the United States and Great Britain, Nuffic recommends the following grade conversion. The conversion into American and British grading systems again harbors the risk of inaccurate measurements. Nevertheless, the following table was created based on the de facto note distributions in the countries and is therefore a reference point as a concrete comparison tool.

Netherlands United States UK distribution
10 A + A + first
9.5 A + A + first
9 A + A + first
8.5 A + A. first
8th A. A / A- first
7.5 A / A- B + upper 2nd
7th B + B. upper 2nd
6.5 B. C + lower 2nd
6th B- / C CD lower 2nd
5.5 D. D. third
<5.5 E / F E / F

The university landscape in Germany has already drawn up various comparison tables. Because of the difficult comparability of z. This became important, for example, for examinations that were completed in semesters abroad and potential applications for a master’s degree. For German students who want to study in the Netherlands or vice versa, a specific guideline for the conversion of university grades can be helpful.

Netherlands Germany
9-10 ~ 1.0
8th ~ 1.2
7.5 ~ 1.7
7th ~ 2.0
6.5 ~ 3
6th ~ 3.7
5.5 ~ 4
5 ~ 4- / 5
Grading in school

In the Netherlands, a rating scale from 1 to 10 is used. Grades 1-5 are considered unsatisfactory, 6-10 as sufficient. At the university, 5.5 is usually the limit for passing.

  • 10: uitstekend "excellent"
  • 9: zeer goed "very good"
  • 8: goed "good"
  • 7: ruim voldoende "satisfactory"
  • 6: voldoende "sufficient"
  • 5: bijna voldoende "almost enough"
  • 4: onvoldoende "insufficient"
  • 3: Zwaar onvoldoende "strongly insufficient"
  • 2: bad "bad"
  • 1: zeer bad "very bad"

Top grades are not included in the ratings for the subjects.

A second system, which is mainly used in vocational training and university teaching, often in combination with the above-mentioned system, is the following:

  • G: goed "good"
  • V: voldoende "sufficient"
  • O: onvoldoende "insufficient"

At the upper end, this scale can be expanded to include the assessment ZG ( zeer goed “very good”).

In the Frisian language area , the short forms can be replaced by the Frisian variants G ( goed ), F ( foldwaande ), U ( ûnfoldwaande ).


In Norway , the following grades are awarded in secondary school (8th to 13th grade):

  • 6: The student has excellent competence in the subject
  • 5: The student has very good competence in the subject
  • 4: The student has good competence in the subject
  • 3: The student has fairly good competence in the subject
  • 2: The student has low competence in the subject
  • 1: The student has very low competence in the subject (= failed)

In the non-official grades, the scale looks like this: 6, 6−, 6/5, 5/6, 5+, 5, 5−, 5/4, 4/5, 4+, 4, 4−, 4/3 , 3/4, 3+, 3, 3−, 3/2, 2/3, 2+, 2, 2−, 2/1, 1/2, 1+, 1

At universities, the ECTS grades from A to F are used with roughly the same descriptions as for the secondary grades. No grades may be given to students in grades 1 to 7.


In Poland there are grades 1 to 6:

  • 6: celujący (cel) "excellent"
  • 5: bardzo dobry (bdb) "very good"
  • 4: dobry (db) "good"
  • 3: dostateczny (dst) "satisfactory"
  • 2: dopuszczający (dop) "sufficient"
  • 1: niedostateczny (ndst) "insufficient"

Polish universities

  • 5: bardzo dobry (bdb) "very good"
  • 4.5: dobry plus (db +) "completely good"
  • 4: dobry (db) "good"
  • 3.5: dostateczny plus (dst +) "completely satisfactory"
  • 3: dostateczny (dst) "satisfactory"
  • 2: "unsatisfactory"
  • 1: does not exist


In Portugal , grades range from 5 to 1, with 5 being the best grade.

  • 5: Excelente "very good"
  • 4: Satisfaz bastante "good"
  • 3: Satisfaz "satisfactory"
  • 2: Não satisfaz "not satisfactory"
  • 1: Fraco "insufficient"

In the upper school ( ensino secundário ) and at universities, a scale from 0 to 20 is used, with at least a grade of 10 (equal to 50%) being required to pass.


In Romania today a point scale from theoretically 0 to 10 with two decimal places is used. This also applies to the Abitur. For example, the grade 7.38 corresponds to a 3+, i.e. “ fully satisfactory ”. The Romanians originally adopted the French grading system (at that time 10 was the best grade in France too). The pass mark is usually 5.00. The 1 is awarded when using unauthorized aids or unauthorized helping others. The lowest grades are then either 2 or 3, depending on the good nature of the teacher.


In Russia the scale goes from 1 to 5, with 5 being the best grade. 5, 4 and 3 mean passing, 2 mean failing. A 1 is very rarely given.

  • 5: отлично (otlitschno) "excellent"
  • 4: хорошо (choroscho) "good"
  • 3: удовлетворительно (udowljetworitelno) "satisfactory"
  • 2: неудовлетворительно (neudowljetworitelno) "unsatisfactory" (is mostly used as the worst grade, and also as a "penalty mark", e.g. for bad behavior of the student etc.)
  • 1: очень плохо (otschen plocho) "very bad"

Serbia, Bosnia, Croatia and former Yugoslavia

  • 5: odličan / izvrstan (одличан / изврштан) - excellent
  • 4: vrlo dobar (врло добар) - very good
  • 3: dobar (добар) - good
  • 2: dovoljan (довољан) - enough
  • 1: nedovoljan (недовољан) - insufficient

Slovakia and the Czech Republic

In Slovakia and the Czech Republic , the grading system is similar to that in Austria due to the common past (see: Austria-Hungary ):


  • 1: výborný "excellent"
  • 2: chválitebný "commendable"
  • 3: dobrý "good"
  • 4: dostatočný "sufficient"
  • 5: nedostatočný "insufficient"

Czech Republic:

  • 1: výborný "excellent"
  • 2: chvalitebný "commendable"
  • 3: dobrý "good"
  • 4: dostatečný "sufficient"
  • 5: nedostatečný "insufficient"

Slovenia and former Yugoslavia

In Slovenia , the note names can be compared with the Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian, but here, too, 5 is the best grade:

  • 5: odlično "excellent"
  • 4: prav dobro "very good"
  • 3: dobro "good"
  • 2: zadostno "sufficient"
  • 1: nezadostno "insufficient"


In Spain there are grades 0 to 10:

  • 10: Matrícula de honor "Honorary grade"
  • 9-10: Sobresaliente "excellent"
  • 7–8: Notable "remarkable"
  • 6–7: Bees "good"
  • 5–6: Suficiente "sufficient"
  • 3–5: Insuficiente "insufficient"
  • 0–3: Muy deficiente "very poor"

Above 5 is aprobado "passed". Below 5 is suspenso "not passed".

The 10 would correspond to a 1 with distinction in the German system and is only given for outstanding performance. At the university, it leads to the reimbursement of the tuition fees paid for the course.


In Turkey there were grades 1–5, with 5 being the best and 1 being the worst.

Grading system up to and including 2012–2013

0-24 0 etkisiz not effective
25-44 1 geçmez insufficient
45-54 2 geçer enough
55-69 3 orta medium
70-84 4th iyi Well
85-100 5 pekiyi very good
  • The average grade is calculated using the scores and not the grades.

Scores up to and including 100 are currently used. These scores correspond to the ratio of correct answers to total answers (%).

0-50 geçmez insufficient
51-59 orta medium
60-69 geçer enough
70-84 iyi Well
85-100 pekiyi very good


In Ukraine , grades from 1 to 12 are used in schools. Up until 2005, a 5 was the best grade here too; A theoretically possible 1 was not awarded, as in the former Soviet Union, so that a 2 was the worst grade.

  • 10–12: відмінно "very good", earlier 5
  • 7–9: добре "good", earlier 4
  • 4–6: задовільно "sufficient", earlier 3
  • 1–3: незадовільно "insufficient", earlier 2


There is a five-level system in Hungary , but here 5 is the best grade:

  • 5: jeles "commendable"
  • 4: "good"
  • 3: közepes "mediocre"
  • 2: elégséges "sufficient"
  • 1: elégtelen "insufficient"

The symbol 5d is only used in the semi-annual report, which is not considered a report in Hungary, since only literary names may be entered in the annual report. When evaluating excellent school work, 5 * ("5 with asterisk") is used, which is very rarely given informally in colleges / universities.

Intermediate grades are also used to assess individual school work (i.e. only in elementary and secondary schools). Examples: 3/4 ( háromnegyed , literally “three quarters”), 4, ( négy alá “under 4”, corresponds roughly to “still good”). These happen quite often. Grades such as “4 '” (“over 4”) and “5 ,,,” (“5, but only very close”) are curiosities that are only given by a few teachers. In most cases, the expanded grading scale with intermediate grades looks like this: 5d 5 * 5 5, 4/5 4 4, 3/4 3 3, 2/3 2 2, 1/2 1 (“1,” exists in usually not either)

School grades in America


The grading scale in Argentina ranges from 1 to 10, with ten being the best grade. The grades are often expressed in decimal numbers. An examination is generally considered passed with 6.0 points or more.


In Brazil today the grades are from 0 to 10 (previously to 100). 10 is the best grade. Usually you have to achieve a grade of at least 5 to pass, and in some schools even a 6.


The grades 1 to 4+ are awarded in primary schools, with 4+ being the highest grade. There is a so-called percentage grade in grammar schools and universities. The highest number of points actually achieved corresponds to 100% and is the best grade. With less than 50% you failed. The GPA ( Grade Point Average ) system is used at universities , often in combination with the letter system. However, there are differences between universities. At the University of Waterloo, grades are given from 0 to 50 and correspond to half the percentage grade. At the University of Toronto, which uses the American system, the range is from 1.0 to 4.0, with the best grade being 4.0. But caution is advised, because there is an essential difference to the American grading system: while in the USA usually 90–100% = A, 80–89% = B, 70–79% = C, 60–69% = D, and below 60% = F ("failure"), the system in Canada is very different. In Canada the following applies: 80–100% = A, 70–79% = B, 60–69% = C, 50–59% = D and below 50% = F (“failure”). This means that in the humanities it is extremely seldom the case that you get a grade above 90%, whereas in the USA it happens much more often. Intermediate grades with plus (+) and minus (-) are also used and officially recognized (see under USA).


In Mexico it is graded from 5 to 10.

  • 9-10: Excellent
  • 8–9: Very good
  • 7–8: Good
  • 6-7: Sufficient
  • 5-6: Unsatisfactory

United States

The grading system in the United States is not uniform. Most often, a discrete letter system is used. Since the determination of the grading system is a matter for the states and universities, there are various variations.

In most cases, a five-letter system is used: A (top grade, excellent), B (above average, good), C (average, mediocre), D (fair), and F (failure, fail, failed) ). In certain states and institutions, E is written instead of F. Plus (+) and minus (-) may be appended to A, B, C, and in most institutions also D. Such intermediate grades are usually officially recognized and therefore appear in certificates and academic records.

The grades are usually assigned a grade value, which also enables the average of different subjects to be calculated. Most often, A = 4, B = 3, C = 2, D = 1, and E or F = 0, with plus and minus usually corresponding to an appreciation or depreciation of 0.3. A B− has e.g. B. a grade of 2.7 and a C + has 2.3.

The proportion of correctly solved tasks in a paper to get a certain grade varies, the most common grade table looks like this:

grade Percent fulfilled Grade Points
A. 90-100 4.0-3.5
B. 80-89 3.49-2.5
C. 70-79 2.49-1.5
D. 60-69 1.49-1.0
F (partly E) 0-59 0

With plus and minus terms the following results:

grade Percent fulfilled Grade Points
A + 97-100 4.0 or 4.3
A. 93-96 4.0
A− 90-92 3.7
B + 87-89 3.3
B. 83-86 3.0
B− 80-82 2.7
C + 77-79 2.3
C. 73-76 2.0
C− 70-72 1.7
D + 67-69 1.3
D. 63-66 1.0
D− 60-62 0.7
F (partly E) 0-59 0

Whether the grade that fails someone is called F or E typically depends on the place and time. Some have been using E since WWII, while the majority are still using F. A U for “unsatisfactory” is also sometimes used. The F probably comes from the times when there was only P for passed and F for failed .

The following table can be used to convert notes from the German system to the American system:

Convert to US notes
percent German notes US notes
(Changes with the type of school / subject) Lower level

(1st - 10th grade)

Upper school

(11th-13th grade)

University grade Note value definition
90-100% 1+ 15 points 1.0 A + 4.0 Extraordinary
1 14 points A. Superior
1− 13 points 1.3 A– 3.7
80-90% 2+ 12 points 1.7 B + 3.3 Good
2 11 points 2.0 B. 3.0
2− 10 points 2.3 B– 2.7
65-80% 3+ 9 points 2.7 C + 2.3 Fair
3 8 points 3.0 C. 2.0
3− 7 points 3.3 C– 1.7
50-65% 4+ 6 points 3.7 D + 1.3 Poor
4th 5 points 4.0 D. 1.0
0-50% 4− 4 points 5.0 D– 0.7
5+ 3 points F. 0.0 Fail
5 2 points
5- 1 point
6th 0 points

There is no uniform conversion system - these values ​​are only guidelines.


The Cuban school system comprises twelve school years up to the secondary school diploma, which provides the university entrance qualification.

It is divided into:

  • six years of primary school education (Educación Primaria)
  • the six-year secondary school education (Educación Secundaria), divided into a three-year lower level and a three-year upper level, which takes place in general schools

Secondary school grading system:

GRADE SCALE heading description
95-100 Excelente Maximum grade
85 - <95 Muy bien Very good
70 - <85 Bees Well
60 - <70 Regular Sufficient
60 Aprobado Lowest passing grade
0 - <60 Desaprobado Failed

Grading system of universities:

Grading scale: 2 - 5 Maximum grade: 5 Lowest passing grade: 3


The state grading system (for college and university) has 12 grades, namely:

  • 1 (GDR)
  • 2 (RRD)
  • 3 (RRR)
  • 4 (RRB)
  • 5 (BBR)
  • 6 (BBB)
  • 7 (BBMB.)
  • 8 (MB.MB.B.)
  • 9 (MB.MB.MB.)
  • 10 (MB.MB.S.)
  • 11 (SSMB.)
  • 12 (SSS)

in which:

  • D deficiente = insufficient
  • R regular = sufficient
  • B bueno = good
  • MB muy bueno = very good
  • S sobresaliente = excellent

Exams at the (state) university are passed with a grade of at least 3. Examinations at the university are passed with a grade of 5 (two last years) or 6 (four first years).

Uruguay's private universities have different grading systems (Catholic University: D, R, B, BMB, MB, S - ORT University: 0-100)


The grading scale in Chile ranges from 1 to 7, with seven being the highest grade. The grades are often expressed in decimal numbers, so that you can achieve a grade of 6.6 or 3.7 in exams, for example. An examination is generally considered to be passed from 4.0 points.

  • 7 (no errors)
  • 6 (very good)
  • 5 (good)
  • 4 (sufficient)
  • 3 (poor)
  • 2 (unsatisfactory)
  • 1 (very bad / cannot be graded)

Other countries


The grade scale in Israel is percentage and ranges from 0 to 100, with 100 being the highest grade.

grade description
95-100 מצוין ("excellent")
85-94 טוב מאוד ("very good")
75-84 טוב ("Well")
65-74 כמעט טוב ("Just about good")
55-64 מספיק ("satisfying")
45-54 מספיק בקושי ("Just about satisfactory")
<45 בלתי מספיק / נכשל ("Unsatisfactory" / "failed")

As a rule, school exams are passed with a grade of at least 55%, universities with 60%.

Criticism and alternatives


The German philosopher and publicist Richard David Precht criticizes the system of school grades for the fact that numbers from 1 to 6 do not do justice to the personalities of the children. In his opinion, grades are neither meaningful nor differentiated and therefore not helpful. For example, the questions whether a student has become more motivated, is more interested in a topic, has learned to deal better with failure and whether he has developed new ideas can be answered with grades. Instead, Precht suggests a differentiated written assessment of the students' learning and development path. In his opinion, the grading system comes from a psychologically and educationally uninformed era and does not belong in the 21st century.

The educational innovator Margret Rasfeld criticizes the system of grades and the resulting competitive thinking in schools and says: "School is there to organize success and not to document failure".

The concept of grades is criticized for being difficult to compare nationwide, since the ratio of written and oral grades, which make up the overall grade in a subject, differs depending on the federal state. Furthermore, it is criticized that the awarding of grades is not objective and that students are preferred or disadvantaged because of their name, prejudices , social origin or their liking, etc. In the 1970s, for example, scientists demonstrated that teachers who assessed an identical exam again after months sometimes gave different grades. It is also criticized that teachers have too much leeway in assigning grades and that they apply different standards, which means that certain performance assessments can be weighted differently than others depending on the teacher.

It is criticized that school grades are only short-term snapshots of how much a student has learned in a given period of time, which only partially reflect the actual performance and does not take sufficient account of the individual development of students. Likewise, poor grades over a long period of time would give students the impression that they would learn little or nothing, which jeopardizes the innate intrinsic motivation of every child to learn. Children who have already lost their desire to learn and only study for their grades have no reason to continue learning after they have achieved the best possible grade. In addition, poor grades represent destructive feedback for students, as they do not provide any constructive assistance, but only absolute key figures. Furthermore, it is criticized that the way of thinking, which can often be traced back to the grading system, that bad grades lead to poor future prospects, leads to helplessness, pressure and stress among parents and children.

It is criticized that students often do not learn for their future life or out of interest in the material, but only for the grades and the associated status, which promotes bulimia learning .


On the one hand, verbal assessment is considered the best alternative to the school grade. It is used in elementary schools and in much of the private school system.

On the other hand, if you take a closer look at the phraseology, such assessments - just like numerical grades - correspond to the same effective selection criteria, only without a clear hierarchy. The deficits or high performance are outlined along with character strengths and weaknesses. Since these are personal value assignments without a purely professional performance reference, negative statements in verbal assessments can make the students more personal than pure performance assessments.


  • Hans Brügelmann u. a .: Are grades useful and necessary? Digit censorship and its alternatives in an empirical comparison . A scientific expertise of the primary school association, prepared by the primary level working group at the University of Siegen. Primary School Association e. V. Frankfurt 2006 (new edition 2014).
  • Karlheinz Ingenkamp: On the questionability of the censorship . Beltz-Verlag, Weinheim 1965.
  • Matthias von Saldern: School achievement in Germany . Schneider Verlag, Hohengehren 1999.
  • Nils Hübinger: The grading system under criticism: Under what conditions can school performance assessment do justice to the "new learning culture"? . GRIN Verlag ISBN 978-3656421177

See also

Web links

Wiktionary: School grade  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. ↑ Mark formation regulation of the Ministry of Culture of Baden-Württemberg, § 6 (from May 5, 1983, current version from September 23, 2015)
  2. ↑ Mark formation ordinance of the Ministry of Culture of Baden-Württemberg, § 3, § 8, Paragraphs 1 and 2 (from May 5, 1983, current version from September 23, 2015)
  3. ↑ Mark formation ordinance of the Ministry of Culture of Baden-Württemberg, § 1, § 5, Paragraph 3, § 8, Paragraph 1 and 2 (from May 5, 1983, current version from September 23, 2015)
  4. Oliver Brunotte: Ways to improve performance appraisal in school . GRIN Verlag, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-638-69757-6 .
  5. Stefan Kuß: In these days there are testimonials: To the history of notes . In: FAZ . July 6, 2003.
  6. Netzwerk Pro Beruf Halle: Investigation into the possibilities of a comprehensive competency assessment , PDF file, p. 8
  7. Johannes Jung: Recognize, measure, evaluate student performance, Kohlhammer Verlag , p. 75
  8. Johannes Jung: Recognize, measure, evaluate student performance, Kohlhammer Verlag , p. 75
  9. IHK notation key (decimal) (PDF; 55 kB), status: January 24, 2006
  10. General examination and study regulations for bachelor's and master's degree courses at the Faculty of Technology and Computer Science at the Hamburg University of Applied Sciences. (PDF) Presidium of the University of Applied Sciences Hamburg , November 16, 2016, accessed on October 6, 2017 .
  13. ^ Ministry of Education Vienna - School Law
  14. Performance Assessment Ordinance, Federal Law Gazette No. 371/1974 .
  15. ECTS Users' Guide. (PDF; 643 kB) p. 42
  17. ( Memento of the original from February 2, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  18. Rules and guidelines Bachelor / Master . Maastricht University
  19. a b c Dutch grading system. (PDF) Nuffic
  20. Bremer. Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, 2003.
  21. ^ Sulk. Stralsund University of Applied Sciences, 2003.
  22. ECTS grades . Augsburg University of Applied Sciences
  23. Grade conversion Netherlands . Otto von Guericke University
  24. ^ Minutes of the results of the 11th meeting of the Advisory Board for the Central Office for Foreign Education on November 9, 2010 in Bonn
  25. Forskrift til opplæringslova. § 3–4. Character i fag mv. In: September 17, 2013, accessed September 20, 2013 ( Nine-Norwegian ).
  26. Alexander Rathenau: School and vaccination law in Portugal (PDF; 430 kB) p. 2
  27. US notes. (No longer available online.) World Education Services , archived from the original on September 5, 2012 ; accessed on September 14, 2012 (English). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  28. Grading System in Germany. ForeignCredits, accessed October 10, 2012 .
  29. US notes. (PDF; 198 kB) (No longer available online.) University of Mannheim , formerly in the original ; Retrieved August 10, 2013 .  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /  
  30. Grades table. (PDF; 13 kB) University of Erfurt , accessed on September 14, 2012 .
  31. Information on the education system in Cuba ( Memento of the original from June 3, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  32. ^ A b c d e Richard Precht: Principles for an educational reform: Attending kindergarten should be compulsory . In: The time . April 11, 2013, ISSN  0044-2070 ( [accessed February 13, 2020]).
  33. Ken Jebsen : Positions 18: "Academic" - Free thinking undesirable! In: KenFM . August 18, 2019, accessed on February 28, 2020 (German).
  34. a b FOCUS Online: Teacher unpacks: How grades are really awarded in classrooms. Retrieved February 13, 2020 .
  35. a b Why school grades are not objective | Quarks. June 26, 2018, accessed on February 13, 2020 (German).
  36. a b Intermediate certificates : Are school grades useful - and necessary? February 13, 2020, accessed February 13, 2020 .
  37. a b c d e n-tv NEWS: The dilemma with the school grades. Retrieved February 28, 2020 .
  38. a b c d FOCUS Online: Why grades in school are not sustainable. Retrieved February 28, 2020 .
  39. Rainer Ammel: Good grades without stress: A teacher reveals the best tips and tricks to successfully pass high school . Heyne Verlag, 2017, ISBN 978-3-641-19728-5 ( [accessed June 7, 2019]).