# Scale (rating)

For the objectification of a graded evaluation or ranking of assessments, events, examination results, physical quantities , etc., their assignment to numbers is helpful. For this quantification , a classification as a reference or an assignment rule is required, which is often referred to as a scale (from Italian scala 'stairs, ladder', from Latin scala , to scandere ' to climb'). Instead of numbers, other characters can be used that meet an order scheme.

## application

Quantification is preferably carried out in the natural sciences and technology in that the value of a physical quantity is expressed by the product of the numerical value and the unit of measurement . All measured values are based on a scale, which in this context is also referred to as the size value scale . The scale is determined by the unit of measurement. Starting with the international meter convention of 1875, many regional units have been replaced internationally by units of the SI system of units (Système International d'Unités). In Germany, these units are also defined by the Units and Time Act and by the DIN standard . There are also historical scales, e.g. B. for pressure and temperature scales .

In addition to the associated linear assignment, there is also the logarithmic relationship. The Richter scale for describing the strength of an earthquake is derived from the decadic logarithm of the maximum deflection in the seismogram (unlimited by mathematical definition). Further examples are the sound pressure level in acoustics and the pH value in chemistry.

A scale is also used in quality assurance and statistics as the “appropriately ordered range of values ​​for a characteristic”.

## Examples

These examples are intended to show the wide range of areas in which scales are used for an assessment:

• A grading scale is established for examination results by assigning a number to certain performances. At German schools 1… 6, in Switzerland 6… 1.
• There are rating scales (for example 1… 7 or AAA… D) for evaluating and analyzing commercial enterprises, banks and states with regard to their creditworthiness .
• A rating scale for thermal comfort (−3 ... +3) can be found under ISO 7730 .
• The Beaufort scale is used to classify winds according to their speed (0… 12).
• The UIAA scale is one of many rating scales for the difficulty of climbing (I ... XII with the gradations "+" and "-").

## Demarcation

• The term scale is also used in cases that cannot be matched with an assessment, e.g. B. with colored scales .
• The scale for the order of a range of values ​​must be distinguished from the part of a display device that carries a sequence of characters and digits. This part is called a scale according to the standard .
• In other areas such as statistics or the social sciences , the term scale is also used in connection with the representation of frequencies and statistical considerations in the sense of scales as listed under scale level .

## Individual evidence

1. Renate Wahrig-Burfeind (Ed.): True. Illustrated dictionary of the German language . ADAC-Verlag, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-577-10051-6 , pp. 794 .
2. DIN 1313 : 1998 sizes
3. DIN 1319-1: 1995 Fundamentals of measurement technology - Part 1: Basic terms
4. The VIM - International Dictionary of Metrology - defines scales under No. 1.27… 1.29. As a superordinate term, the "size value scale" is explained as: "Ordered set of values ​​of sizes of one type, which is used to order sizes of this type according to increasing or decreasing value" (from German translation by VIM in ISO / IEC Guide 99; English / French original text under [1] ; PDF; 4.0 MB)
In EN ISO 80000-1: 2013 Sizes and units - Part 1: General , note on section 3.27, the translation is recommended for the term “size scale”: “ Ordered set of values ​​of characteristics of a kind, which is used to order characteristics of this kind according to increasing or decreasing value ”.
5. DIN 1301-1 : 2010 Units - Part 1: Unit names, unit symbols
6. EN ISO 80000-1 : 2013 Sizes and units - Part 1: General , No. 6
7. DIN 55350-12: 1989 Terms of Quality Assurance and Statistics , No. 1.1.3
8. The Deutsche Bundesbank presents its final credit rating “by a ranking that is on a scale from 1 to 7”. [2]
9. Standard & Poor's uses "a specific rating scale " Archived copy ( Memento from May 27, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
10. DIN 1319-2