A ranking order (also ranking , ranking list , ranking [ ˈræŋkɪŋ ]) is a sequence of several comparable objects, the sorting of which determines a rating . Popular examples are world rankings in sports and music charts .
The one-dimensional arrangement of a ranking simplifies the comparison and the making of a selection: in search engine ranking, results of a search query are sorted according to their relevance . Rankings can be created according to simple, even controversial, criteria or as the result of complex comparative studies. Often their sequences represent components of hierarchies . A specific position in a ranking is also referred to as a placement .
- The pecking order is mostly used synonymously with ranking in behavioral biology when it comes to describing the hierarchy in animal groups. The word pecking order goes back to the Norwegian zoologist and behavioral researcher Thorleif Schjelderup-Ebbe , who introduced this term after studies on the dominance behavior of chickens.
- The protocol-based ranking of the individual states classifies the holders of public offices according to their nominal importance. As a rule, the head of state stands at the top , followed by the highest representatives of the three state powers .
- Legally prescribed hierarchies in the case of foreclosure or bankruptcy determine which creditor is preferred over other creditors in the distribution of the proceeds from the sale .
- In university rankings , the quality of research and teaching at universities is assessed and mostly published in magazines in the form of rankings sorted by subject. In Germany, for example, the university ranking compiled annually by the Center for University Development is well known.
- In magazine reviews the quality of scientific journals is evaluated.
- The search engine ranking of results from a search engine is important in information retrieval . In order to achieve the highest possible position, various search engine optimization methods have been developed.
- City and nation rankings are created by numerous organizations in order to compare cities or countries according to certain criteria. Examples of this are the corruption perception index from Transparency International and the ranking of German company locations compiled by the Bertelsmann Foundation .
- Based on certain survey methods , music charts also determine a ranking according to certain criteria ( single , LP or pop music , soul , etc.)for a specified period of time.
- the social status in sociology
- the rank in the military
- the ranking of warships
- the ranking of the placements in a competition
- the art compass in the visual arts
Statistical analysis of rankings
The investigation of rank orders with the help of statistics ( rank order statistics , for example with the help of the Wilcoxon rank sum test ) offers significant advantages in many cases compared to the analysis of the raw data with the t-test , because rank tests are much more robust against extreme values and nonlinearities. By forming ranks, the units to be examined are brought into an ordinal scale ; the amounts of the absolute differences between neighboring values then have less of an impact on the test result, which increases the ability to prove significance , especially in the case of multi-peak distributions of the raw data .
Rankings are usually based on several criteria that are offset against each other to form an overall value. This results in the fundamental problem that the accounting method can significantly influence the result.
- Ranking lists in sport
- Ranking list (army) and ranking table
- Restaurant rankings
- Ordinal number
- Problems with the Elo rating system
- statistical rank
- Zipf's law
- Rank function (probability theory)
- Kladroba, Andreas (2005), Statistical Methods for the Creation and Interpretation of Rankings and Ratings , Verlag für Wissenschaft und Research, Berlin, ISBN 3-89700-431-3
- Roger Newson: Confidence intervals for rank order statistics: Somers' D, Kendall's tau-a and their differences . ( PDF )
- Dominik Rohn, Karsten Weihe : Are rankings inherently arbitrary? Research & Teaching , No. 9/2013, pp. 740–741, online version in Wissenschaftsmanagement Online
- Dominik Rohn, Karsten Weihe : Are rankings inherently arbitrary? Research & Teaching , No. 9/2013, pp. 740–741, online version in Wissenschaftsmanagement Online .
- Ralf Lisch : Measuring Service Performance - Practical Research for Better Quality. Routledge, Farnham 2014, ISBN 978-1-47241-191-4 , pp. 82-91.