A DIN standard or German industrial standard DIN is a voluntary standard developed under the direction of the German Institute for Standardization , in which material and immaterial objects are standardized. DIN standards arise at the suggestion of and through the initiative of interested parties (usually German business ), whereby agreement is established among all those involved.
DIN standards are based on the reliable results of science, technology and experience and serve the general public. They are developed in the standardization process.
DIN standards are recommendations and can, but do not have to be used. Basically, it is a matter of “private regulations with the character of recommendations”. As such, they may lag behind the state of the art , but have the assumption that they reflect the state of the art. This presumption can be refuted by expert evidence.
Occasionally, however, the legislature makes use of the existence of appropriate standards and stipulates the mandatory application through laws or ordinances. Of course, everyone is also free to use the existing set of standards for tenders, machine specifications, building descriptions and technical specifications and to use the written descriptions as setpoints.
The entirety of the DIN standards is called the German body of standards . International and European standards that have been adopted by DIN are also referred to as DIN standards and are part of the German set of standards.
Examples of DIN standards
- DIN 476 paper format (partly replaced by DIN EN ISO 216 since 2002)
- DIN 1301 SI system of units
- DIN 1505 title information of documents
- DIN 5008 writing and design rules for text and information processing, regulates, for example, the date format
In the First World War it was necessary to standardize the procurement of materials. Therefore, in May 1917, the standards committee for mechanical engineering was founded. A few months later, on December 22, 1917, this was renamed to the Standards Committee of German Industry (NDI), the results of which were henceforth referred to as German Industry Standard . The name DI-Norm for the results of the NDI was soon discarded. It was replaced by the symbol DIN. After the new name of the Standards Committee of German Industry in the German Standards Committee in 1926, DIN was no longer interpreted as a German industry standard, but temporarily as that is standard . Both interpretations are outdated, if they are still not forgotten. In some crossword puzzles it says e.g. B. still today: Abbreviation for German industry standard = DIN . Today the name DIN is a hallmark of the joint work of DIN, the German Institute for Standardization. V.
The first DIN standard appeared on March 1, 1918: "DIN 1 - Tapered Pins " and was in effect until 1992 when it was replaced by the European standard EN 22339. In 1927 the 3,000 appeared. Standard, the set of standards comprised 8,200 standards in 1948, and 33,149 valid DIN standards in 2012. There are DIN standards for many subject areas, including engineering , construction , aviation and aerospace , information technology , environmental protection , precision mechanics , optics and services .
The set of standards is constantly changing. Over 2,000 new DIN standards appear every year. Every five years at the latest, a regular check is carried out for each standard to determine whether it is still needed and whether it corresponds to the current state of the art . The standard then either remains unchanged, is withdrawn or revised. The oldest currently valid standard (as of July 2019) is DIN 1289 “Fire cupboard for tiled stoves; Filling door for filling firing ”with the date of issue April 1928. The DIN standards are increasingly made up of national adoptions of international and European standards. In contrast, the proportion of purely national standards is decreasing. Today there are only about 25% purely German standards.
Designation of DIN standards
DIN standards can be national standards, European standards or international standards. The origin and scope of a DIN standard can be seen from its designation. Every standard document has a DIN number. The DIN number is made up of the abbreviation and the serial number. Since 2004 the DIN number has been mentioned in the number field in the top center of the document, in the field to the right of it the "DIN" symbol. The title has been in the middle of the front page of the standard since 2004. Until 2004, the title field was in the top center and the number field in the top right. If a European or international standard is not adopted, the only abbreviation used is the DIN association symbol. The association symbol is followed by a maximum six-digit number. This count number has no classifying meaning.
The standard number shows the origin of a standard.
- DIN: ( e.g. DIN 33430 ) DIN standard that has exclusively or predominantly national significance or is published as a preliminary stage to a supranational document.
- DIN EN: (e.g. DIN EN 14719) German adoption of a European standard (EN). If they are adopted, European standards must be adopted unchanged by the members of CEN and CENELEC .
- DIN EN IEC: (for example DIN EN IEC 61265) German adoption of a standard developed under the leadership of IEC or CEN, which was then published by both organizations.
- DIN EN ISO: (for example DIN EN ISO 9921) German adoption of a standard created under the leadership of ISO or CEN, which was then published by both organizations.
- DIN EN ISO / IEC: (for example DIN EN ISO / IEC 7810) German standard on the basis of a European standard that is based on an international standard of ISO / IEC.
- DIN IEC: (e.g. DIN IEC 60912) Unchanged German adoption of an IEC standard.
- DIN ISO: (for example DIN ISO 10002) Unchanged German adoption of an ISO standard.
- DIN ISO / IEC: (e.g. DIN ISO / IEC 27009) Unchanged German adoption of an ISO / IEC standard.
- DIN CEN / TS or DIN CLC / TS: (e.g. DIN CLC / TS 50459-1) Unchanged German adoption of a European technical specification.
- DIN ISO / TS: (for example DIN ISO / TS 22002-1) Unchanged German adoption of an international technical specification.
- DIN CWA: (e.g. DIN CWA 14248) Unchanged German adoption of a CEN or CENELEC workshop agreement (technical rule).
- DIN VDE: Topics in electrical engineering, electronics and information technology are dealt with jointly by DIN and VDE through the DKE . See list of DIN-VDE standards .
- DIN SPEC: Development of specifications: no involvement of all interested parties and therefore much faster than standardization
If DIN standards are named after the designation "DIN" with additional letters - apart from "E" or "VDE" - then these have their own numbering system, for example: DIN 1 tapered pins , but DIN EN ISO 1 reference temperature for geometric product specification and - exam .
A part of the standard is noted with a hyphen (Part 1 of DIN EN 3 as DIN EN 3-1), earlier "Part 1" was written out or "T. 1 ”, even earlier the parts were called“ sheet ”and the standards were called“ standard sheet ”.
The date of issue of the version is noted after a colon , e.g. B. DIN 1301–1: 2002–10, but written out on the title page: October 2002.
Until around 1969, a standard retained its date of issue in the event of minor changes; the change was indicated by a small cross; “March 1953xx” means that a standard issued in March 1953 has been slightly revised twice. These "cross editions" should give the user the advantage of a handwritten correction for only minor changes instead of buying a new one.
Until 1940, standards in some specialist areas had a letter designation between the word "DIN" and the number, e.g. B. BERG for the mountain, HNA for the ship, LON for the locomotive and Kr for the automotive industry. After the introduction of five-digit standard numbers, certain number ranges were preferably provided for these subject areas, for example 70000 to 79999 for motor vehicle construction.
Anyone interested can apply for the initiation of standardization work by submitting a justified standardization application, if possible with concrete proposals, in writing. Once a need has been identified and the financing is secured, the application for the standardization project is assigned to a working committee.
The interested parties meet in the committee, whereby the number of experts should not be higher than 21, and develop a draft standard based on a standard template. This document should be produced by consensus. The draft standard is published. The public then has four months in which to comment on the draft standard. The working committee will discuss the statements in a further three months. An arbitration procedure regulates disputed cases. After the final version has been approved by the committee and checked by DIN, the result is published as a DIN standard.
The standardization process is regulated in detail in DIN 820-4 "Standardization work - business process".
Since the standards are also offered for download by Beuth Verlag , the different colored design of the standard levels was omitted a few years ago (indicated in brackets below). The status is clearly defined on the first page of the standard. A distinction is made between the following standard levels:
- Norm (formerly "white printing")
- Final version of a standard adopted by standards organizations.
- Selection norm
- According to DIN 820-3, a selection standard is a standard that "contains an excerpt from another standard for a certain subject area" without any factual changes or additions.
- Prestandard (formerly "blueprint")
- A pre-standard is the result of standardization work that has not yet been published as a standard by DIN due to certain reservations about the content or because of the establishment procedure that differs from a standard. (DIN V…, DIN V ENV…). By applying a pre-standard, the necessary experience should also be gathered, which can then form the basis for creating a regular standard.
- Draft standard (formerly "yellow print" or "red print")
- A draft standard is presented to the public when it is published for review and comment. These statements must be submitted to DIN within a defined objection period . After reviewing the objections and statements, the draft standard can be replaced by a final standard or lead to a new draft. The content of a draft can therefore differ from the final version of the standard with the same number. (E DIN…, prEN…) Draft standards therefore do not have the status of an approved standard, but they can be used by mutual agreement between contractual partners.
- A supplement to the standard contains additional information on a standard which, however, is not part of the standard; but selection series or application examples. Supplementary sheets have their own date of issue; they do not necessarily belong to an issue of a standard.
- Cross edition
- Until about 1969, cross editions were standard editions with minor changes; see the section on the designation of DIN standards for more information .
Standard template and standardization application: For both, it applies that "anyone can submit them, who must be justified and, if possible, should already contain a concrete proposal"; they are not levels of standards, but rather steps in the creation of a standard that precede the concrete levels of standards.
Types of norms
Some common types of standards are specified below; these are not mutually exclusive.
- Basic standard
- Standard that has a wide-ranging field of application or contains general specifications for a specific area. It can be intended for direct application or serve as a basis for other standards.
- Terminology standard
- Standard that deals with terms and contains their definitions.
- Test standard
- Standard that deals with test procedures and specifications, such as taking samples, using statistical methods or the sequence of the individual tests.
- Product standard
- Standard that specifies the requirements that a product must meet in order to ensure its usability . It can also include aspects such as terminology , testing , sampling, packaging , labeling, and manufacturing process requirements. Depending on the scope of the standard, a distinction is also made between dimension standards, material standards and delivery standards.
- Procedural norm
- Standard that specifies requirements that must be met by procedures in order to ensure usability.
- Service standard
- Standard that defines the requirements that must be met by a service . Service standards can be created in areas such as transportation , telecommunications , insurance , banking, and commerce , among others .
- Interface standard
- Standard that defines the requirements for the compatibility of products or systems at connection points.
- Declaration standard
- Standard that contains the data to be specified with which a product, a process or a service is to be described.
- Department standard
- Standard intended for a specific subject area. For example, GDR department standard TGL 30033/1
- Works standard
- Standard that is intended for internal use or for supplies.
The European standard EN 45020 defines as follows:
" 3.2 Standard
- Document that has been drawn up with consensus and accepted by a recognized institution and that lays down rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results for general and recurring use, striving for an optimal degree of order in a given context
- NOTE Standards should be based on the established results of science, technology and experience and aim to promote optimal benefit to society.
- 3.2.1 Standards available to the public
- NOTE Thanks to their status as standards, their public accessibility and their modification or revision as necessary to keep up with the state of the art , there is a presumption that international, regional, national or provincial standards (22.214.171.124, 3.2. 1.2, 126.96.36.199 and 188.8.131.52) are recognized rules of technology .
- international standard
- Standard that has been adopted by an international standards-creating institution / standards organization and is accessible to the public
- regional norm
- Standard that has been accepted by a regional standards-creating institution / standardization organization and is accessible to the public
- national standard
- Standard that has been adopted by a national standards body and is available to the public
- Provincial norm
- Standard that has been adopted at the level of a sub-area of a country and is available to the public
- 3.2.2 Other standards
- NOTE Standards can also be drawn up on other bases, e.g. B. Department standards or company standards. Such standards can also have geographical effects that affect several countries. "
According to DIN 820-2: 2008–05, a distinction is made between normative and informative content of a DIN standard. Normative elements are the specifications and the scope of the standard. The informative elements include: B. the document identification, the development background and the connection with other documents. In the past, the informative parts were referred to as non-standard parts of the standard.
Supplementary sheets may only contain further information on a DIN standard, but no additional normative specifications.
Access to DIN standards and draft standards
The currently valid standards, but also drafts and withdrawn standards, can be found on the website of the German Institute for Standardization e. V. (DIN) research. DIN standards can be ordered there for a fee.
DIN standards are usually subject to copyright protection. Since 2003, they have only been exempt from copyright protection as official works if their wording is printed in a legal standard (cf. Paragraph 3 Clause 1 UrhG ). In the private sector, however, as with other publications, use may be permitted as a private copy ( ) without authorization.
DIN standards can be viewed free of charge in standards info points - mostly university libraries. Sometimes, however, there are library registration fees.
Collections of standards for specific subject areas are marketed as DIN pocket books (DIN A5 format), for example pocket book 1 with the basic standards for mechanical technology . They are available in many libraries. Loose-leaf collections have been published on some subject areas , the standards in their original format or in a reduced format and can also contain comments.
In an online portal for standard drafts of DIN, after personal registration, free access to many current standard drafts is possible during the objection period; it is possible to submit comments on the draft standards online. However, some standards are revised without the publication of a draft standard; In these cases, a revision manuscript can be requested for a fee.
The NoRA database (research on occupational safety and health standards) is a broad-based research tool for occupational safety-related standards. The database is offered by the Occupational Safety and Health Commission (KAN) and DIN Software GmbH , produced from the DITR database. The database, which is updated monthly, contains information on over 15,000 standards and is available free of charge in German and English. The special search tool ErgoNoRA finds standards in the field of ergonomics . Additional offers allow research into draft standards and the free purchase of the NoRA ticker.
- Thomas Wilrich , The legal significance of technical standards as a safety measure: with 33 court judgments on recognized rules and the state of the art, product safety law and traffic safety obligations, Beuth-Verlag, 2017
- DIN EN 45020 standardization and related activities - general terms (ISO / IEC Guide 2: 2004) .
- DIN 820-2 standardization work - Part 2: Design of documents ( ISO / IEC directives - Part 2: 2004, modified); Trilingual version CEN / CENELEC Internal Regulations - Part 3: 2006 .
- DIN 820-3 standardization work - Part 3: Terms .
- German Institute for Standardization V. (DIN)
- List of display points
- Creation of a DIN standard
- Standards Committee for Aerospace (DIN NL)
- BGH judgment of June 14, 2007, Az.VII ZR 45/06 , NJW 2007, 2983, RdNr. 37 mw pers .; BGH judgment of May 24, 2013, Az.V ZR 182/12 , NJW 2013, 2271 (2272 f.)
- BGH judgment of May 24, 2013, Az. V ZR 182/12 , NJW 2013, 2271 (2272 f.)
- Gerd Weber: “German Norm, quo vadis? Statement on German standards ". In: DIN-Mitteilungen , Issue 9/2008, p. 4 ff.
- Georg Giersberg: Without norm there is chaos , FAZ from December 4, 2017
- standardization on din.de. Retrieved on May 16, 2020.
- current levels at DIN
- Rubric for standards of the Library Genesis
- A. Nordemann in Fromm / Nordemann, Copyright , 12th edition. 2018, § 2 Rn. 77; Katzenberger / Metzger in Schricker / Loewenheim, copyright , 5th edition 2017, § 5 marginal no. 79.
- Dreier in Dreier / Schulze, Copyright Act , 6th edition 2018, § 5 Rn. 15; Katzenberger / Metzger in Schricker / Loewenheim, copyright , 5th edition 2017, § 5 marginal no. 80, 38.
- Beuth Verlag: View standards on site. Retrieved April 25, 2019 .
- Standard draft portal draftuerfe.din.de. Accessed March 20, 2017
- Commission for occupational safety and standardization (KAN): NoRA standards research for occupational safety. Retrieved October 11, 2018 .
- Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Statutory Accident Insurance (IFA): Norms research work safety (NoRA). Retrieved October 11, 2018 .