The term construction designates a field that deals with building in the narrower sense, i.e. H. deals with the entirety of the processes and facilities in the construction of buildings ( structures or structures ).
The term includes all topics, work areas and specialist disciplines that have to do with the construction of buildings, bridges and other constructions, both those involved in the construction process and the entire construction industry , architecture and construction technology . The individual specialist disciplines, on the other hand, generally look at construction from certain perspectives with different goals and specializations. In civil engineering, for example, the focus is more on technical issues, while architecture deals more with design and usage aspects. The building rights deals with the totality of the related to the construction legal regulations, such as the planning law with the orderly urban development ( building code ), the building regulations with the structural design and approval of individual construction projects or Bauarbeitsrecht with the special labor regulations in the construction industry.
The actors in the construction industry are "those involved in the construction" (common term): the client , the planners (architects and specialist engineers), the executing companies, the (later) users , the construction management and construction supervision as well as the building permit authorities , i.e. essentially all of them Contractual partners and influencers involved in construction. The construction industry in Germany is one of the most important economic groups in Germany with around 4% of real gross value added . According to the Federal Statistical Office in 2012, the construction industry in Germany comprised 15,288 companies, which in turn had 1,962,861 employees subject to social insurance contributions. The turnover of the entire construction industry in 2014 amounted to around 104 billion euros.
The definitions and terms vary, there are often overlaps and no clear delimitation of the sub-areas. You can structure and differentiate according to various aspects:
- Building construction , civil engineering , civil engineering , gardening and landscaping , town planning , railway construction , hydraulic engineering , geotechnical engineering
- Construction work
- Earthworks , concrete and reinforced concrete work, drilling work, well construction work, roofing and roof sealing work, masonry work, sheeting work, etc.
- Planning / specialist planning
- Architect , civil engineer , urban planner , building technician , landscape architect , interior designer
- Bridge construction , church construction , hospital construction, housing construction , school construction , road and path construction , tunnel construction
- Building material
- Timber , clay building , masonry , structural steel , reinforced concrete , earthworks , drywall ,
- Building construction
- Concrete , BIM , 3D printing in construction , skeleton , half-timbered building, Montagebau ( prefabricated ), foundation engineering , geotechnical engineering , composite construction
- Construction phase in the construction process
- Construction planning , building permit , construction ( shell construction , interior construction , conversion , dismantling ), maintenance
- Builder / client / user
- Social housing
- Building law
- General legislation on the design of buildings (building regulations); Commercial law relating to the construction industry, private building law between the parties involved ( building contracts , warranties, etc.), public building law for all matters that affect the general public and local authorities ( land-use planning such as developability, building specifications and dedications, property development )
The Central Association of the German Construction Industry (zdb.de) represents the interests of the building trade in relation to politics and public institutions. The employers' association also supports companies in negotiations with the social partners and in social policy and collective bargaining policy. As a technical association, members of the economy are also given extensive advice on many innovation issues in the building industry.
- Federal Statistical Office (Destatis) - subject area building and articles from the journal "Wirtschaft und Statistik" . Retrieved January 24, 2018
- The year of construction 2013 at a glance ( Memento from May 18, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- Companies, persons employed and turnover in the construction industry
- Key figures for companies in the construction industry 2012
- Companies, employees, turnover and investments in the construction industry
- In Germany, for example, according to the procurement and contract regulations for construction services - VOB Part C