The building construction is that part of the building industry , which in the design and construction of structures is concerned, the majority of which lie above the center line (z. B. buildings such as residential buildings or towers ). Structures that are mostly below or on the terrain line are assigned to civil engineering .
The usual building construction projects differ essentially in their use and the associated requirements for design, economy, construction and technical facilities. They can be divided into the following eight categories by summer:
- Administration and bank buildings - high demands on the external appearance with flexible, uniform and functional interiors. Mostly rasterized.
- Buildings for teaching and research - lower demands on the design, here mostly economic and functional aspects are in the foreground.
- Buildings for the healthcare sector - mostly grid-like, economical buildings with special requirements in terms of function and technical infrastructure.
- Event buildings , museums , theaters , sacred buildings - high demands on design, technical facilities and construction.
- Residential buildings , dormitories , hotels - high demands on design and functional floor plan with simultaneous economic efficiency. Partly gridded or series production.
- Sports facilities , leisure facilities - high demands on function, economy and construction.
- Shopping centers , department stores - high demands on economic efficiency, almost always screened.
- Industrial and production buildings - Very individual, usage-oriented buildings with high demands on economic efficiency, almost always in a grid.
In addition to this basic classification, there are always mixed forms with combined uses such as residential and commercial buildings or production buildings with administration. Also, not all buildings can always be clearly assigned to civil engineering, strictly speaking, sometimes neither to one nor to the other. (e.g. bridges or locks). Deviating from this classification, historians usually only differentiate between sacred and secular buildings .
Those involved in a building project can be divided into five groups:
- Client ( builder ),
- Users (owners, buyers, tenants),
- Planners and consultants ( architects , civil engineers and other specialist engineers ),
- Authorities (approval, supervisory, approval bodies),
- Executors ( construction companies , craft businesses ).
The planning can also be taken over by the client himself, provided he has the appropriate skills and capacities; this also applies to the public sector.
Different areas of building construction
Only the following construction methods are used in building construction:
- Solid construction
- Frame construction , half-timbering
- Timber frame construction
- Bulkhead construction
- System construction
Which of these construction methods is used on a particular building project depends on individual factors.
Materials in building construction
Building construction is categorized into the following materials:
- Steel construction , reinforced concrete construction
- Earth building , masonry construction
- Timber construction , timber panel construction
- Mineral wool / insulation material
- Fritz Berner , Bernd Kochendörfer, Rainer Schach : Basics of construction management. Volume 1: Construction Management. In: Fritz Berner, Bernd Kochendörfer (Hrsg.): Guide of the construction company and the construction industry. BG Teubner Verlag / GWV Fachverlage GmbH, Wiesbaden 2007, ISBN 978-3-519-00385-4 .
- Hans Sommer: Project management in building construction . Springer-Verlag, 1994, ISBN 3-540-57422-0 .
- Dietmar Grütze: Building Lexicon . Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich 2007, ISBN 3-446-40472-4 , p. 126 .
- Hans Sommer: Project management in building construction . Springer-Verlag, 1994, ISBN 3-540-57422-0 , pp. 5 .
- Rüdiger Wormuth, Klaus-Jürgen Schneider: Baulexikon . Bauwerk Verlag, 2000, ISBN 3-934369-00-6 , p. 120 .
- Fritz Berner , Bernd Kochendörfer, Rainer Schach: Fundamentals of construction management. Volume 1: Construction Management . Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich 2007, ISBN 3-446-40472-4 , p. 126 .