Concrete referred - in particular as solid construction - the building industry a form of the structure , in the space-enclosing elements such as walls and ceilings also meet the static load-bearing function. Solid construction (wise) is the opposite of skeleton construction (wise).
In another meaning, solid construction is the name for a subject that deals with “solid” building materials ( masonry , concrete ). Solid construction serves here as a demarcation from other specialist areas such as lightweight construction and timber construction .
Solid construction includes building structures in which there is no separation between load-bearing and space-enclosing functions. The supporting structure and the room closure are an identical component in solid construction. The contrast is the skeleton construction or half-timbered construction, as in the historical half-timbered house , where the vertical load transfer is taken over by individual supports and struts between which the non-load-bearing compartments are located. Another alternative support and construction system is the bulkhead construction .
Stone works , for example, are a medieval form of solid construction . But also the masonry structures of the following centuries were mainly built in solid construction. In the case of exterior walls in solid construction, one speaks of a perforated facade in connection with the window and door openings.
The term solid construction does not make any statement about the materiality of the construction. However, the technical properties of some building materials determine their predominant use:
- Masonry is mainly processed in solid construction. In half-timbered construction, masonry can also be used as infills.
- Reinforced concrete is used both in solid construction and in skeleton construction.
- Because of its line shape, timber construction takes place predominantly as a skeleton or half-timbered construction. Solid construction can be found as a so-called block construction in the block house . Also solid timber construction systems play an increasingly important role.
- As a rule, steel can only be found in skeleton construction because of its line shape (e.g. I-beam).
Solid construction as a subject
Solid construction based on one material includes all building structures made of masonry, concrete, reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete . In contrast, there is lightweight construction or the use of other materials such as wood construction, steel construction or aluminum construction . For example, there are institutes and specialist areas for solid construction in teaching and research at colleges or universities. The testing engineers for structural engineering in Germany also specialize in solid construction alongside steel, metal and timber construction.
"Solid house" is a construction term that is also often used in the real estate industry. A “solid house” is usually understood to mean a building made of masonry and concrete or reinforced concrete that is constructed according to the principles of solid construction. In residential construction, this means that the walls essentially consist of masonry, concrete or reinforced concrete and the ceilings of reinforced concrete, lightweight concrete, aerated concrete or bricks.
Solid houses are usually built from scratch on the construction site . Pre-fabricated parts (e.g. for stairs, balconies and ceilings) are also used. Today, many companies also offer turnkey solid houses. With a turnkey solid house, the builder usually only has one contractual partner for the entire house ( developer / general contractor ).
The walls of solid houses usually consist of sand-lime bricks , lightweight concrete blocks , concrete blocks , aerated concrete blocks (formerly known as aerated concrete) or bricks . In the case of old buildings, they are also made of natural stones , cinder blocks , mud bricks or reinforced concrete . Concrete or reinforced concrete can also be used. The outer wall can have one, two or three shells. Non-load-bearing interior walls can also be constructed using drywall .
- cf. for example Fritz Baumgart: DuMont's small object lexicon of architecture , Cologne, 1977, Lemma Massivbau “Construction method in which the room closure and construction are identical. [...] "
- Fritz Leonhardt : Lectures on solid construction . Six parts, Springer-Verlag Berlin.