One also speaks of a wall pane , analogous to a window pane . From a static point of view, a wall is only a disc if it is a flat structure and is mainly subjected to forces along / parallel to the plane of the disc. If a wall is subjected to forces perpendicular to the wall plane (e.g. supporting wall, dam, wall as a windshield ), it is statically a plate .
The term comes from the Old High German want , which in turn is related to the modern verb winden , is derived from the Indo-European term uonedh and describes a network that is coated with clay (cf. wattle wall ).
Due to its geometry, a wall has a delimiting function, which can in particular be a protective or space-enclosing function. A wall separates two rooms , two areas or two room zones from one another - for example interior and exterior or two properties. In addition, a wall can also have a static function that is effective for the building (load-bearing / stiffening wall / supporting wall, etc.). Multiple walls can define a room . An interior that is enclosed on all sides, d. H. which is usually surrounded on all sides by walls, has a floor and a ceiling , is called a closed room. Wall openings such as doors and windows are important here in order to make a wall temporarily or permanently accessible or permeable to people, light or air.
A wall can be constructed in different ways and consist of different materials and thus also assume completely different functions. Here are some examples:
Material, construction and statics
Walls differentiated according to material and construction
Solid wall in solid construction ,
- of masonry as a wall called: In masonry construction, a distinction is single- or double shell exterior wall constructions . They consist of shells (masonry walls) that stand one behind the other and together form the wall component. Today, the space in between is usually filled with insulating material.
- made of reinforced concrete
- made of fiber concrete
- from rammed earth
- Block wall made of wood in log construction
- Palsade wall or palsade made of wood in palisade construction
- Wicker wall in earth building
- Half-timbered walls with infill or paneling z. B. by boards
- Lightweight wall , in dry construction , light timber-framed construction made of wood or sheet metal profiles with planking, for example made of plasterboard or wood-based panels .
- Board wall , plank wall in timber frame construction ,
- Wall made of glass blocks
Differentiated according to static function
- Load-bearing wall: A wall that also takes on static tasks, here mainly taking up vertical loads
- Shear wall: wall a building static stiffens .
- Non- load -bearing wall: Wall as a light partition wall or as part of the building envelope , but without a load-bearing or stiffening function.
- Retaining wall: A wall that, from a static point of view, mainly absorbs transverse forces , as a safeguard against a level jump in the terrain surface. (e.g. Krainerwand )
- Free-standing wall: Wall that is not part of a building and only supports itself.
Differentiated according to the position / arrangement :
- External wall : Wall that separates the outside space from the inside space.
- Inner wall: A wall in the building
- Side wall, back wall: relative to the position of the observer
Differentiation according to function
Walls can be differentiated according to their function in the most diverse ways :
- Partition wall: Partition walls are a critical area in building projects, especially with regard to statics , sound and thermal insulation .
- Fire wall as a fire protection measure between buildings and parts of the building: in addition, all walls are marked with a fire protection class and must meet certain requirements
- Commun wall (from the Latin communis "common"): A wall that isdividedby two buildings . In the past, this type of construction was used as a building partition wall between row houses or semi-detached houses . Today oneusually refrains from doing so due to the noise protection . In addition, the fire protection regulations no longerallowthis and each building must have a separate external wall ( fire wall ).
- During construction:
- Retaining wall : Wall that supports a steep slope, for example
- Sheet pile wall : Special retaining wall that is used on construction sites to secure construction pits or when building quay walls and quay systems, in order to protect the soil or backfilling, etc. from the permanent force of the water and its consequences (such as undercutting).
- Partition wall, Spanish wall = mobile wall for the temporary optical separation of rooms
- Billboard : a vertical wall surface used or constructed for the purpose of advertising in public spaces .
- Sports walls:
- Impact wall , safety wall, so that you can not injure yourself if you hit the wall during intensive sports exercises . Impact walls must have protective properties in order to avoid the risk of injury if the athlete comes into contact with the wall.
- Climbing wall , climbing facility on which you can practice sport climbing .
- Escalating wall , wall that should be overcome in a sporting way and is used, for example, in training for the military and public safety.