# Wall (component)

Sketch of a wall with two wall openings for windows and doors

A wall is a vertical flat component . With a wall, the expansion in length and height is very much greater than in depth (also (wall) thickness or (wall) width in section ).

One also speaks of a wall pane , analogous to a window pane . From a static point of view, a wall is only a disc if it is a flat structure and is mainly subjected to forces along / parallel to the plane of the disc. If a wall is subjected to forces perpendicular to the wall plane (e.g. supporting wall, dam, wall as a windshield ), it is statically a plate .

The term comes from the Old High German want , which in turn is related to the modern verb winden , is derived from the Indo-European term uonedh and describes a network that is coated with clay (cf. wattle wall ).

Due to its geometry, a wall has a delimiting function, which can in particular be a protective or space-enclosing function. A wall separates two rooms , two areas or two room zones from one another - for example interior and exterior or two properties. In addition, a wall can also have a static function that is effective for the building (load-bearing / stiffening wall / supporting wall, etc.). Multiple walls can define a room . An interior that is enclosed on all sides, d. H. which is usually surrounded on all sides by walls, has a floor and a ceiling , is called a closed room. Wall openings such as doors and windows are important here in order to make a wall temporarily or permanently accessible or permeable to people, light or air.

## Wall types

A wall can be constructed in different ways and consist of different materials and thus also assume completely different functions. Here are some examples:

### Material, construction and statics

Walls differentiated according to material and construction

Hole in a solid wall

Differentiated according to static function

• Load-bearing wall: A wall that also takes on static tasks, here mainly taking up vertical loads
• Shear wall: wall a building static stiffens .
• Non- load -bearing wall: Wall as a light partition wall or as part of the building envelope , but without a load-bearing or stiffening function.
• Retaining wall: A wall that, from a static point of view, mainly absorbs transverse forces , as a safeguard against a level jump in the terrain surface. (e.g. Krainerwand )
• Free-standing wall: Wall that is not part of a building and only supports itself.

Differentiated according to the position / arrangement :

• External wall : Wall that separates the outside space from the inside space.
• Inner wall: A wall in the building
• Side wall, back wall: relative to the position of the observer

### Differentiation according to function

Walls can be differentiated according to their function in the most diverse ways :