A detached (Swiss Reiheneinfamilienhaus ) is a single-family house , which forms a closed succession with other similarly configured worldwide.
Row houses can be set up slightly offset from one another or in exact rows. The row thus formed is aligned parallel to a street or delimits a square. Terraced houses can take up an entire block if they are closed , or they can be broken down into individual groups of houses if they are open . If only two uniformly designed single-family houses meet with their side walls, one speaks of a double house . If the last building in the row of houses is not a corner building and is free on three sides, it is called an end-row house.
Mid-row houses are built up to the two side property boundaries. These two lateral communal walls must be windowless, double-shell and fire walls . Row end houses may only be built on the side up to the lateral property boundary, on which the other row houses follow. On the free-standing side of the house, the respective regulations for neighboring buildings and thus usually a minimum distance to the property line must be observed. Furthermore, an end-row house only has one communal wall. Houses that are not built at the end of the row do not have to be thermally insulated on the side walls and in the past it was often possible to save one side wall per house.
The term row house says nothing about the size of the building. Often, smaller terraced houses are a series of almost identical type houses, which were built on the edge of a street or block or arranged offset like a staircase. These building types, which only have one or two apartments on top of each other, usually have their own garden behind the house.
The row house has enjoyed great popularity in England for centuries and came to Germany as part of the garden city movement , for example to Frankfurt under Ernst May . Many of the New Frankfurt settlements were colonies of terraced houses, and as a special feature all houses were equipped with a Frankfurt kitchen . However, only a small part was intended as residential property.
In Schleswig-Holstein , planned by the consortium for contemporary building as a type building , terraced houses with 2–3 small apartments were built as (so-called) duplex houses in the 1950s , which could be converted from small rental apartments to single-family terraced houses if the housing shortage declined .
Private terraced houses in terraced housing estates were particularly popular in the 1950s and 1960s, as a home could be built on a relatively small plot of land. In addition to the lower production costs due to the fire walls, this had a better heating energy balance than a comparable, detached house .
Row houses are popular in Germany; The new buildings are based on the model of the pre-industrial, multi-storey town house on a small, narrow area, whereby the group of houses may be a maximum of 50 m long according to (2) of the Building Use Ordinance . Row houses are particularly widespread and more common than tenement houses in north-western Europe (British Isles, the Netherlands, Belgium and north-western Germany; especially in Bremen: Bremer Haus ). The residents of these houses are mostly also the owners .
In the industrial areas mostly 1850-1900 England with elements of Victorian architecture built row houses of brick tile be Terraced houses called. A row of houses can have more than 50 houses; Two neighboring houses always share a chimney and are therefore arranged in mirror image. The reason for the uniformly made brick facades is the formerly heavy air pollution in the industrial areas from carbon soot, which quickly turned the limed facades black; a dirty brick facade is cleaned by grinding. Town houses built after the Second World War are called town houses in England .
- Daniel Arnold (Ed.): In German terraced houses. Texts by Hartmut Häußermann, Werner Sewing and Inken Herzig. Photos by Albrecht Fuchs and Marcräder. Callwey, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-7667-1790-0 .
- Guido Brendgens: The new urban trend townhouse. A suitable instrument for reurbanization? In: Expression and Use. Dresden scientific half-year books for Architektur Wohnen Umwelt, 8th issue, II / 2007, pp. 15–28; Shaker, Aachen 2007, ISBN 978-3-8322-7014-8 .
- Klaus Theo Brenner, Helmut Geisert, Anke Bruse: The urban row house. History and typology. Krämer, Stuttgart / Zurich 2004, ISBN 978-3-7828-1518-5 .
- Stefan Muthesius: The English row house. The development of a modern form of living. (= The Blue Books ). Langewiesche publishing house , Königstein im Taunus 1990, ISBN 3-7845-8071-8 .
- Ernst Seidel (Ed.): Lexicon of building types. Functions and forms of architecture . Stuttgart 2006, p. 429.
- Hans-Joachim Kadatz: Sailor encyclopedia of architecture. Leipzig 2000, p. 208.
- z. B .: Working group for contemporary building eV (Ed.): Building in Schleswig-Holstein Issue No. 13: “Apartment types for the priority program and self-help”, Kiel February 1951; and: Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Zeitungsgemes Bauen eV (Ed.): Building in Schleswig-Holstein Issue No. 17: “Apartment types for the priority program 1952”, Kiel 1951
- Tamms / Wortmann: Urban development. Environmental design. Experiences and thoughts. Darmstadt 1973, ISBN 3-87179-066-4 , p. 112.