|Province (län):||Stockholm County|
|Historical provinces (landskap):||
|Residents :||949,761 (December 31, 2017)|
|Area :||187 km²|
|Population density :||5079 inhabitants / km²|
|Telephone code :||+ 46-8|
|Postal code :||100 12 - 164 92|
Stockholm ( Swedish pronunciation ; from the old Swedish stokker and holmber , corresponding to Swedish stock "tree trunk, inventory" and holme "small island") is the capital of Sweden and with 949,761 ( Stockholm municipality ), 1.59 million ( katr Stockholm) or 2.1 million inhabitants ( Greater Stockholm ) the largest city in Scandinavia . It has a settlement history that goes back more than seven centuries and has been the king's residence since 1643 .
In a ranking of cities according to their quality of life, Stockholm took 23rd place out of 231 cities worldwide in 2018.
The landscape of Stockholm has changed significantly in the history of the city due to the Scandinavian land uplift . Parts that are now part of the mainland were still islands a few hundred years ago .
A bay of the Baltic Sea surrounds the city in the east with numerous bays, headlands and around 24,000 larger and smaller islands ( skerries ). This area is called the Stockholm Archipelago ( Skärgården ).
Stockholm is located at the outflow of Lake Mälaren into the Baltic Sea, the Riddarfjärden . The lake extends 120 kilometers to the west inland. Slussen , a lock in the middle of Stockholm, separates the fresh water of Lake Mälaren from the salt water of the Baltic Sea to the east .
Water makes up about 30 percent of the city's area. The city gets its drinking water from the Mälaren and the high water quality allows salmon to be caught in the middle of the city center . The city extends over 14 islands, which are connected by 53 bridges . A large part of the city consists of forest regions .
The municipality of Stockholm has been divided into 14 boroughs since January 1st 2007.
Location Stockholm and Metropolitan Region Stockholm
The “ Tatort ” (contiguous, densely built-up area) Stockholm includes the territory of the municipality of Stockholm as well as the surrounding municipalities of Solna and Sundbyberg (in full) and parts of the nine municipalities of Botkyrka , Danderyd , Haninge , Huddinge , Järfälla , Nacka , Sollentuna , Tyresö and Upplands Väsby .
The metropolitan area "Greater Stockholm" (Swedish Stor-Stockholm or Storstockholm ) comprises, according to the definition of the Swedish statistical authority SCB, since January 1, 2005, the entire province of Stockholm (Stockholm County). Previously, the municipalities of Nykvarn , Nynäshamn and Södertälje in the south and the municipality of Norrtälje in the north of the province were not included.
Stockholm is so far in the temperate climate zone ; the annual mean temperature is 6.6 ° C and the average annual rainfall is around 539 millimeters. The warmest month is July with an average of 17.5 ° C, the coldest is February with an average of −3 ° C. Most of the precipitation falls in July with an average of 72 millimeters, the lowest in March with an average of 26 millimeters.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, mean annual temperatures have fluctuated between 4 ° C and 8.5 ° C. Model calculations on the consequences of global warming from 2019 show that Stockholm would be relocated to a different climate zone if the RCP4.5 scenario, which is assessed as optimistic, occurs ; accordingly, the climate in Stockholm in 2050 would already be more similar to the previous climate in Budapest than the previous one in Stockholm.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Stockholm
End of 2017, the Capital Region (Stor-Stockholm) counted 2,308,143 inhabitants, of which 1,538,517 inhabitants (2016) in the contiguous populated area ( tätort ) around Stockholm and which 935,619 live in the city proper Stockholm (kommun). Stockholm's statistics agency predicts that the million mark will be exceeded in 2021.
Around 30 percent of the population (299,905 in 2016) were born abroad or have two parents who were born abroad, whereby there is a strong segregation. While 20.6% of the population in the inner city had a migration background, the proportion in the outer districts is 38.6% and in the Rinkeby-Kista district 81.9% (as of December 31, 2016). One reason for the segregation is the very tight housing market, which, according to real estate broker statistics, increased the average purchase price almost six-fold between 1997 and 2017 from 12,818 kr per square meter to 72,765 kr per square meter. In 2017, more than 570,000 people were on one of the waiting lists (bostadskö) for a regular rental apartment. However, since there are only 360,000 regular rental apartments, the current minimum waiting time is between 9.3 years (Tensta) and 23.2 years (Vasastan).
Unemployment was 3.0% in October 2017 and the median income for 2015 was 352,000 kr. 98.9% of a year attend a grammar school (2012) and 55.0% attend a university (2013). The educational level of the population is well above the national average: only 9% of the population between the ages of 25 and 64 do not have a high school diploma, but 58% of the population have a post-high school education.
The population of Stockholm Municipality is listed below by area.
The creation of the city
The place where Stockholm stands today is mentioned for the first time by the Icelandic poet and saga writer Snorri Sturluson (1179–1241): In the Ynglingasaga he describes a pole barrier over the current Norrström waterway , which he called Stokksunda . Excavations in the late 1970s uncovered remains of water stakes dating back to the 11th century and supporting this statement. Snorri also mentions a fortification tower from the 12th century, which is said to have been where the royal castle has stood since 1580 .
A letter of protection for Fogdö Monastery , issued in July 1252, is the oldest surviving document that mentions Stockholm, literally as Stokholm . The Erik Chronicle (Swedish: Erikskrönikan ), which was compiled between 1320 and 1335, states that the founder of Stockholm, the regent Birger Jarl , wanted to build a fortress around 1250 to protect Lake Mälaren from pirate looting.
There is no historical evidence that Stockholm existed before the mid-13th century. There may have been older defenses to secure the entrance to Lake Mälaren; however, no settlement can be proven.
Initially, the populated area was limited to the island of Stadsholmen, today's Gamla stan . The island itself was a third smaller than it is today and the streams were much wider.
In the following decades under the government of Birger Magnusson and King Magnus Ladulås , Stockholm developed into an important trading city, which was mainly promoted by contracts with the Hanseatic city of Lübeck . The Hanseatic League controlled Swedish overseas trade from the 13th to the 17th centuries. Around 1270 Stockholm was referred to as a city in documents and, although Stockholm did not emerge as early as the 13th century like many Swedish cities, it was described in a document in 1289 as the most populous city in the kingdom. The first reliable assumptions about the size of the city refer to the middle of the 15th century, when Stockholm had around a thousand households, i.e. around five to six thousand inhabitants. The first letter of privilege comes from the same century (1436).
In the Middle Ages, a significant part of Stockholm's citizenship consisted of Germans, and from 1296 to 1478 the city's 24-person council was made up of German-speaking and Swedish-speaking city citizens equally. Despite its size and convenient location, Stockholm was not yet the capital, because the king, like his son, Magnus Ladulås, did not yet have a permanent seat of government.
The main reason for the city's rapid development was its strategic location. Stockholm dominated the approach to Lake Mälaren, which in turn opened up an economically important region due to agriculture and iron production .
The Kalmar Union
The city's strategic and economic importance made Stockholm an important power factor in the clashes between the Danish kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. On October 14, 1471, Sweden under Sten Sture , near the town on Brunkeberg (today part of the Norrmalm district ) with the support of the Stockholm citizenship, defeated the Danish King Christian I , who tried to usurp Sweden. His grandson Christian II besieged the city in vain in 1518, but took it in 1520 after a new siege by treason. On November 8, 1520, as part of the coronation celebrations in Stockholm, there was a mass execution of opposition members at Stortorget (more than 80 nobles were executed), the Stockholm bloodbath . The young nobleman Gustav Eriksson escaped, had assembled an army towards the end of the year and was able to drive Christian II out of Sweden. On June 6, 1523, today's Swedish national holiday, he was elected king under the name Gustav Vasa.
The Wasa time
With the arrival of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a strong royal power, Stockholm also developed into an important residential city. In addition to the bourgeoisie, the royal court began to shape the cityscape. The city island no longer offered enough space, and in 1529 Södermalm and Norrmalm came under the rule of Stockholm. The city grew and by 1600 reached a population of 10,000.
In the 17th century Sweden rose to become a great power. This was also reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm - from 1610 to 1680 the population increased sixfold. Ladugårdslandet , today's Östermalm , and the island of Kungsholmen were incorporated. In 1634 Stockholm officially became the capital of the Swedish Empire. After the political rise, this event was soon followed by the city's economic rise. Stockholm received the stacking right and thus the monopoly for trade between foreign countries and Svealand , Norrland and Österbotten (today's Finland ).
During this time, some of the great buildings and palaces that were supposed to symbolize the power of the country and its nobility , such as Riddarhuset , the Oxenstiernasche Palais , the Tessinsche Palais and the old Reichsbank, were built. On the incorporated islands and in Östermalm, districts emerged in a right-angled street network.
The 18th century
Stockholm was ravaged by the plague between 1713 and 1714. After the end of the Great Northern War and the associated loss of territory in 1721, the city's development stagnated. The population barely grew and the economic recovery was very slow. Stockholm retained its role as the political center of the country and developed under Gustav III. also to the cultural center. The Stockholm Palace and the Royal Opera are architectural expressions of this era, which also saw the founding of the Swedish Academy for the Promotion of Swedish Language and Literature .
The 19th century
At the beginning of the 19th century, Stockholm's economic importance continued to decline. Norrköping became the largest manufacturing town and Gothenburg developed into Sweden's most important export port due to its favorable location on the Kattegat . It was not until the second half of the century that Stockholm resumed a leading role in the country's economy. On the one hand a number of important industrial companies were founded, on the other hand Stockholm developed into an important trade and service center as well as a transport hub.
The population also grew strongly in the second half of the 19th century due to immigration. By the end of the century, less than 40 percent of Stockholm's population was born. The settlement reached beyond the city limits and a number of slums emerged, but also residential areas in the countryside and on the coast.
Stockholm also expanded its position as a cultural center and efforts were made to get higher educational institutions to Stockholm. In the 19th century Stockholm got several scientific institutes, such as the Carolinian Institute and the Technological Institute, which became a technical college in 1877. In 1878 the first courses were held at the newly established Stockholm University, but it would be almost 100 years before it was promoted to university.
After 1910, large areas were incorporated, which were connected to the city by tram lines . Subsequently, suburbs, garden cities and areas with leisure homes emerged.
Functionalist ideas took hold in Sweden in the 1930s . The trigger was the Stockholm Exhibition 1930 ( Swedish Stockholmsutställningen 1930 ), a national exhibition for architecture , design and handicrafts .
During the Second World War there was a Soviet air raid on Stockholm and its surroundings on February 22nd, 1944 , during which around 30 bombs were dropped. The consequences were few injuries and mainly property damage. The background to the attack is unclear. It may have been a navigational error during an attack on Turku, Finland .
Economically, there was a restructuring in the 1940s and 1950s. Labor-intensive companies in low-wage industries disappeared, while capital-intensive and high-tech companies grew. One example of this is the Kista district , which developed into Sweden's IT center in the 1990s . Sweden followed the American example early on, including when it comes to motorization. It had - rather unusual for a country with poor population - around the middle of the 20th century over two financially strong automobile companies and in the center of Stockholm there were already 1931–1935 the creation of the then widely famous cloverleaf of Slussen and in the 1950s there were other initiatives in the sense a "car-friendly city".
Until the 1970s, the central district of Nedre Norrmalm , with buildings from the 17th to 19th centuries, was subjected to a large-scale demolition and renovation as part of the renovation of Norrmalm (Norrmalmsregelingen) . The consequences of this technocratic modernization policy, partly on the basis of the expropriation possibilities of the Lex Norrmalm of 1953, were discussed increasingly controversial from around 1960. This already concerned the central north-south connection with the character of an urban motorway , completed in 1959 along the Riddarholm Canal and Riddarhuset , but above all the extensive renovation of Norrmalm, which began in 1952, against the last - unsuccessful - public appeal of 39 Cultural workers had fared. As a result of this public criticism, the old town ( Gamla stan ) was initially placed under monument protection as a whole in 1965 . In 1971, in connection with citizens' initiatives, the so-called Elm War took place , which was waged to preserve a group of trees in Kungsträdgården . The Stockholm zoning plan of 1974, with its changed planning philosophy, can be seen as a success of the old town and green friendly protests. In the “post-modern” redesign of the formerly heavily industrialized district of Södermalm in the 1980s, a more green and less monotonous urban design was sought compared to Norrmalm.
From the 1950s onwards, the employment rate in industry decreased. Today it is around 10 percent; the service sector, on the other hand, continued to grow.
As early as 1936 there was a kind of underground connection between Slussen and Medborgarplatsen , which was operated with ordinary trams. In 1950 the first subway line was opened in Stockholm. Satellite cities , so-called ABC suburbs (A for Arbete 'work', B for Bostad 'apartment' and C for Centrum 'center'), such as Vällingby and Farsta , emerged along the underground lines and at their endpoints in the 1950s , and from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s the large estates such as Rinkeby , Tensta , Sollentuna and others built as part of the million-dollar program . Despite a relatively high proportion of immigrant fellow citizens in these parts of the city today (over 40 percent of the residents in Tensta, Rinkeby or Sollentuna come from outside Europe), one cannot speak of ghettoization , even if the tendencies towards segregation that have existed since the end of the 1990s have become clearer are noticeable.
From 1909 on, the Social Democrats, together with the Liberals, had a majority in the Stockholm City Council. In the first local elections under universal suffrage in 1919, the political left achieved a majority in the local council, which it retained until the 1950s. In the early 1920s, Stockholm received a new political organization, the main features of which are still valid today. In 1923 the Stockholm “government” moved to the newly built town hall ( Stockholms stadshus ). In 1967 Stockholm was incorporated into the administrative province of Stockholm County .
In 1986 Prime Minister Olof Palme was shot dead in the street on Sveavägen ; the murder was never resolved. In September 2003, Foreign Minister Anna Lindh was fatally injured by a knife bomber in the NK ( Nordiska Kompaniet ) department store , which is not far from the site of the Palme attack.
In May 2013, violent unrest broke out in the suburbs of Stockholm . Youngsters set fire to several cars and a police station.
Four people were killed in the attack in Stockholm on April 7, 2017 .
Stockholm has the largest population of the 290 Swedish municipalities and is located in the province of Stockholm County . The municipal activities of the City of Stockholm are politically organized as follows:
The highest decision-making political body is the city parliament , which is elected every four years and consists of 101 members of parliament (in Swedish: Kommunfullmäktige ). The term of office of the city parliament elected on September 9, 2018 began on January 1, 2019.
|Political party||Election 2002||2006 election||Election 2010||Election 2014||Election 2018|
|Left Party (V)||11||9||8th||10||13|
|Social Democratic Labor Party (S)||35||27||25th||24||23|
|Feminist Initiative (FI)||0||0||0||3||3|
|Sweden Democrats (SD)||0||0||0||6th||8th|
|Center Party (C)||0||1||3||3||8th|
|The Liberals (L)||17th||10||10||9||10|
|Christian Democrats (KD)||5||3||1||2||5|
|Moderate gathering party (M)||27||41||38||28||22nd|
The city government (Swedish communstyrelse ), which consists of 13 members (four moderates, three social democrats, two representatives of the Left Party, one each of the Greens, Liberals, the Center Party and the Sweden Democrats), is elected according to the principle of proportional representation; the parties represented in the city parliament are also represented in the city government.
The decisions of the city government are prepared and implemented by the city council commission (Swedish borgarrådsberedningen ), which consists of thirteen city councilors (Swedish borgarråd ), who are elected every four years by the city parliament. A distinction is made between ruling city councils (Swedish styrande borgarråd ) and oppositional city councils (Swedish oppositionsborgarråd ).
The City Councilor for Finance is usually also chairman of the city council commission and the city government - i.e. mayor. This has been Anna König Jerlmyr from the Moderate Collection Party since 2019. Karin Wanngård from the Social Democrats is her first deputy. Jan Jönsson from the Liberals is the second deputy.
A large part of the responsibility for the performance of municipal tasks lies with the district committees (Swedish : stadsdelsnämnd ). These tasks were assigned to the then 24 district committees on January 1, 1997 as part of the Stadsdelsnämnds reforms and were intended to give the residents the opportunity to participate more directly in local politics. The district committees, which consist of eleven or 13 members depending on the size of the district, are appointed by the city parliament and report directly to the city parliament. After the 1998 elections, the number of district committees was reduced to 18 with effect from January 1, 1999, and after the 2006 elections a further reduction to 14 committees was resolved and implemented on January 1, 2007.
Certain overarching areas of activity are covered by central technical committees (Swedish: facknämnd ), such as B. the Education Committee, the Sports Committee or the Election Committee.
Some of the municipal services were outsourced to joint-stock companies in which the city holds the majority of the shares. For example, the municipal housing, the water supply, the Stockholm City Theater and other things are managed by joint-stock companies that are grouped under one group management, Stockholms Stadshus AB .
- Belgrade , Serbia
- Istanbul , Turkey
- Sarajevo , Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Tirana , Albania
- Tunis , Tunisia
coat of arms
Blazon of the city coat of arms of Stockholm: "In blue, a gold looking crowned male head." The head represents the head of King Erik IX. , the saint, dar, also called Erik Jedvardsson, king from 1156 to 1160. The representation is based on the medieval seal of the city of Stockholm.
Stockholm has a number of theaters including the Royal Opera ( Kungliga Operan ), the Royal Dramatic Theater ( Dramaten ), and the Stockholm City Theater ( Stadsteatern ), as well as private theaters such as the Volksoper ( Folkoperan ), the Moderna dansteatern , the China, Göta Lejon, Mosebacke, Oscar theaters and many other theaters. The Orion Theater has existed as the largest avant-garde stage in the city since 1983 and presents several plays every year, which are often supplemented with live music.
Among the numerous museums in Stockholm there are national museums such as the Architecture Museum , which is affiliated with the Modern Museum , the ABBA Museum , the Biological Museum , the Stockholm Ethnographic Museum , the Historical Museum , the Maritime Museum , the Museum of Modern Art ( Moderna Museet ), the National Museum , the Natural History Museum , the Technical Museum , the Vasa Museum and others. The past and present of Stockholm is presented in the Medeltidsmuseet , the Stockholm City Museum and the Stockholm Länsmuseum. In Stockholm Palace are several museums on the history of kings . The Royal Coin Cabinet is located opposite the Royal Castle .
Of the sporting facilities, the Stockholm Olympic Stadium and the Globen Arena (officially Ericsson Globe since 2009 ) stand out. Both are also used for concert events. The Friends Arena in the municipality of Solna is home to AIK and the Swedish national football team. The old national stadium Råsunda Stadium was demolished in 2013. In the Tele2 Arena wearing Djurgårdens IF and Hammarby IF of their home games.
Three of the clubs from Stockholm have won national championships in men's football so far. Of these, Djurgårdens IF has eleven championship titles, AIK ten and Hammarby IF one, although AIK has not been a Stockholm club since 1937, as it is located in the neighboring municipality of Solna . The most successful internationally was the women's club Djurgårdens IF / Älvsjö , which made it into the final of the UEFA Women's Cup in 2005 .
The ice hockey department of Djurgårdens IF, some of which play their home games in Globen, has won the Swedish championship 16 times , most recently in 2001 . The teams Hammarby IF and AIK Ishockey , who play in Hovet next to the Globen Arena , have been eight and seven times Swedish champions respectively.
Hammarby IF HK has been the Swedish handball champion three times.
The Stockholm cityscape and its architecture are characterized by the special location of the city on the banks of the Mälaren river , which runs from west to east , the ridge of the glacier moraine running north-south and the central city island in the middle of the river.
There are numerous small parks in the urban area.
Some of the city's islands are highlighted below. The political division of the city into city districts is not taken into account.
Stadsholmen, Gamla Stan
The old town on the city island ( Stadsholmen ) still has the medieval street network with the streets running north to south across the island ( Österlånggatan and Västerlånggatan ) and narrow lanes sloping down to the water. In the middle is the German church ( Tyska kyrkan ). The palaces of the great power era in the north of the island, such as the Knight's House and the Bondesche Palais , the Oxenstiernasche Palais and the Tessin Palace near the Storkyrkan , the Stockholm Cathedral, and of course the Royal Palace , make a different impression The middle axis points to the Norrbro (north bridge), with which the old town is connected to Norrmalm, the northern bank, via the island of Helgeandsholmen. Much of the old town, however, is car-free.
Helgeandsholmen and Riddarholmen
The island of Helgeandsholmen (Holy Spirit Island) houses only two institutions, the Medeltidsmuseum (medieval museum ) and the Reichstag building , the seat of the Swedish Reichstag (which also occupies the former building of the Swedish Reichsbank).
The island of Riddarholmen in the west of the city island is a quiet corner in the middle of the city. Today it is the judicial center of the country, the seat of the Regeringsrätt and the Svea hovrätt . In Wrangel Palace and the other buildings there are various dishes. Next to it is the Riddarholm Church, the grave church of many Swedish kings.
From the Royal Palace you can look over Helgeandsholmen to Norrmalm and see Rosenbad , the seat of the Swedish government, the Sagersche House , the official residence of the Prime Minister, the Palais des Erbfürsten ( Arvfurstens palats ) - today the Foreign Ministry - and the Royal Opera with the famous restaurant Operakällaren .
Behind it begins the inner city, modern Stockholm, which emerged between the 1950s and 1970s after over 400 buildings in the Klara district had been demolished and replaced by a center that was modern in the style of the time. Eighteen- story buildings were erected and in the middle the Sergels torg (Sergelsplatz) was built as a symbol of the modern welfare state on two levels. To some today it may appear to be an eyesore, others see it as an attempt to give architectural expression to social visions. At its side is the Kulturhuset (culture house) with the city theater. The Drottninggatan is a modern shopping street with numerous department stores.
It is not uncommon to hear the somewhat sarcastic saying from Sweden: “Sweden didn't need a bomb carpet to destroy its beautiful capital. That is how we managed to do it. ”Similar renovation plans existed for the old town of Gamla Stan as for Norrmalm . However, these were never implemented.
The Kungsträdgården is a meeting place for young people. Concerts are often held here in summer, and in winter you can skate in the middle of the city center near the castle.
To the east of Norrmalm, Östermalm stretches out , shaped by the rectangular road network of the Swedish great power times. Above all, the waterfront, Strandvägen , was and is Stockholm's most representative address, as demonstrated by the Wilhelminian style houses. Where the Strandvägen begins is the Royal Dramatic Theater ( Dramaten ). In front of the theater is Berzelius Park, which is home to the Berns, theater and restaurant, the red room of which is made famous by Strindberg's novel The Red Room . The royal stables are nearby . In Östermalm are the star-shaped Karlaplan , the Östermalms torg (Östermalmsplatz) with the market hall Östermalms Saluhall and the Hedwig Eleonora Church .
The Narvavägen leads from Karlaplan over the Djurgårdsbrücke to the Djurgården peninsula , which is still mainly a nature park and excursion and recreation area for Stockholmers. You can cross the bridge along Djurgårdsvägen to a number of museums, such as B. the Vasa Museum , the Nordic Museum , Thielska galleriet and Liljevalchs Konsthall , amusement venues such. B. Gröna Lund and Circus , as well as inns from the 19th century, such as Hasselbacken, immortalized in literature . The main entrance to Sweden's first and largest open-air museum, Skansen, is also nearby . South of Gröna Lund is the historic district of Djurgårdsstaden with buildings from the 17th and 18th centuries. On the headland of Waldemarsudde is the villa of Prince Eugene , which is now a museum and shows pictures of the Prince and his contemporaries, giving an overview of Swedish painting at the turn of the century (1900). From Djurgården there is a ferry back to the city island.
Blasieholmen, Skeppsholmen and Kastellholmen
Blasieholmen, Skeppsholmen and Kastellholmen lie between the city island and Djurgården . The pompous Grand Hotel , whose main facade faces the city island, and the Swedish National Museum are located on Blasieholmen . Skeppsholmen and its appendage Kastellholmen used to house facilities of the Kriegsmarine, which were taken over by museums (e.g. East Asian Museum, Modern Museum, Architecture Museum) in the 20th century.
If you turn to the northwest on the city island, you can see the eastern tip of the island of Kungsholmen with the Stockholm City Hall ( Stockholms stadshus ), in whose Blue Hall the Nobel Festival takes place every year - the banquet in honor of the Nobel Prize winners following the ceremonial awarding of the Nobel Prizes Concert hall.
Kungsholmen is home to parks and bathing areas.
At the southern end of the city island is Slussen , the lock that you can use to get from Mälaren to the Baltic Sea by boat. Slussen also connects Stadsholmen with the island of Södermalm (popularly Söder ), which rises here over 50 meters above the water. The 38-meter-high Katarinahissen takes you from Slussen to Mosebacke torg , where there are two theaters. Nearby is the Katarina Church , a masterpiece from the 17th century. In the east of the island on the hills Åsöberget and Vita bergen with the Sofia church there are still small wooden houses, as they were typical for the settlement of the 17th and 18th centuries.
The interior of the island is built on with blocks of flats from the second half of the 19th century and the turn of the century - at this time St. Erik was built , now the Catholic bishop's church for all of Sweden - while the southern part has buildings from the 20th century. A completely new and architecturally interesting district was built at the end of the 1980s in the area of Stockholm Södra station (west of Medborgarplatz ).
The trendy district of SoFo ( So uth of Fo lkungagatan) is located in the southern part of Södermalm .
Economy and Infrastructure
According to a study from 2014, the greater Stockholm area generated a gross domestic product of 143.0 billion US dollars (KKB). In the ranking of the economically strongest metropolitan regions worldwide, it was 91st. The GDP per capita was $ 56,250. Stockholm was ranked 42nd in a list of the world's most important financial centers (as of 2018).
Stockholm is Sweden's service center. 85 percent of all employees work in the public and private service sectors, but only 10 percent in the manufacturing industry. Nevertheless, Stockholm is one of the largest industrial areas in Sweden. The lack of heavy industry made the city one of the cleanest metropolises in the world.
The increasing number of companies in the high-tech sector over the past few decades has offset the migration of traditional industries. Major industrial companies in the region today include Ericsson , IBM Svenska AB and Electrolux , the pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca , graphic companies of the Bonnier group and others. In the north of the city ( Kista ), one of the largest IT centers in Europe has emerged over the past decade.
Stockholm is also the country's media center with four national daily newspapers and a number of small newspapers, publishers (including the Bonnier Group), the headquarters of the state broadcaster ( SR ) and the public television company SVT, as well as other media companies.
The Swedish banks (such as Swedbank , Handelsbanken and Skandinaviska Enskilda banks , which are among the ten largest companies in Stockholm) have their headquarters in Stockholm, where the Stockholm Stock Exchange is also located. Together with the headquarters of insurance companies ( Skandia and others) and investment companies, they make Stockholm the main financial center of Sweden.
Overall, over 40 percent of all Swedish companies with more than 200 employees are headquartered in Stockholm. But not only corporate headquarters, but also the central authorities of state administration and the national political institutions (such as the government and the Reichstag ) in Stockholm make the city the center of power in the country.
In recent years tourism has also become an important branch of the economy. Since 1991 the number of overnight stays has increased by 80 percent from four to over seven million. Festivals like the Stockholm Waterfestival and major sporting events like the Stockholm Marathon are major attractions.
The European Center for Disease Prevention ECDC has been based in Stockholm since 2005 .
Stockholm also has a trade fair ( Stockholmsmässan ) so that the economy can present itself and make further contacts .
Stockholm is an important ferry port city with connections to Helsinki , Mariehamn , Saint Petersburg , Turku and Tallinn ; a ferry connection to Germany has not existed since 2002. In 2017, around 600,000 passengers were counted in the port of Stockholm with 263 calls by cruise ships . In 2016 there were 490,000 passengers with 230 calls.
On May 27, 2020, the port of Norvik opened about fifty kilometers south of Stockholm, initially for container handling . Construction of this port began in September 2016 and is intended to replace the facilities previously used in Stockholm's free port. The operator of the 32 hectare container terminal with a quay length of 800 m and a capacity of 500,000 TEU per year is Hutchison Ports . The water depth of the port is 16.5 meters. In autumn 2020, the 12 hectare facilities for RoRo traffic with a quay length of 525 m and a handling capacity of 200,000 units per year are to be put into operation.
There is a centrally located regional airport in the Bromma district . The nearest international airport is Stockholm / Arlanda Airport , which is 40 km north of Stockholm. The two airports at Stockholm-Skavsta ( Nyköping ) and Stockholm-Västerås are located about 100 km south and west of Stockholm, respectively, but still use the name Stockholm.
Public transport is served by the subway ( Tunnelbana ), suburban trains ( Pendeltåg , Saltsjöbanan , Roslagsbanan ), various bus lines, the Tvärbanan , Lidingöbanan and Nockebybanan light rail lines in the outskirts, as well as the historic and modern trams on the Djurgårds line and on from Spårväg City to Djurgården . The Tunnelbana, the light rail, the tram and the bus routes are operated by AB Storstockholms Lokaltrafik (SL).
If you wanted to travel south from Stockholm in the 16th century, Göta landsväg was the oldest and only existing road. This route connection had forerunners reaching back to the Middle Ages (in Scandinavia approx. 1100 to 1500 AD); A path was probably created here as early as the Bronze Age (in Scandinavia approx. 1800 to 550 BC), long before Stockholm existed.
The main artery of modern times is the Essingeleden , part of the E4 motorway ; it runs west past the city center and was inaugurated in 1966. A large part of car traffic is to be put underground in the next few decades. In October 2004, a 4.6 kilometer long tunnel ( Södra Länken ) was inaugurated south of the city center. A section of a similar project in the north ( Norra Länken ) went into operation in 2014. A 21-kilometer western bypass of Stockholm, 17 kilometers of which is in tunnels, has been under construction since 2014 under the project name Förbifart Stockholm (literally bypassing Stockholm ) and is not expected to be completed before 2022 . An eastern bypass motorway ( Österleden ) , which would complete the motorway ring around Stockholm ( Ringled Stockholm ) , has been discussed since the 1950s.
Since August 1, 2007, a road toll has to be paid for entering and exiting the city center by car . The fee period is on weekdays between 6:30 a.m. and 6:30 p.m., with a higher amount to be paid during the morning and evening rush hours . The so-called “scramble tax” ( Trängselskatt ) is part of a traffic development concept with the aim of reducing traffic and improving the environment; the measure is therefore accompanied by a cost allocation of the fees to an increase in the availability of local public transport . The introduction of the toll was one of the most important international projects of this kind on an international scale. Before the system was introduced, a seven-month test run was carried out in 2006; Afterwards, the residents of Stockholm voted in a referendum with 51.3% for the permanent introduction. A corresponding tax is also levied when passing Stockholm via the Essingeleden.
Stockholm has a large district heating network that covers a heat demand of more than 12 TWh annually and supplies around half of the households in the region with heat. It has its origins in the 1950s, then it was expanded and it grew together from different cells. Even today it still consists of two independent systems operated by different companies; a technical merger of the two networks is being planned. Overall, the network has an installed thermal output of 4.8 GW. In addition to several thermal power stations with an electrical output of 556 MW, the Stockholm heating network is one of only a few district heating systems in the world to be supplied with heat by a series of large heat pumps . These get their heat u. a. from seawater and waste water from sewage treatment plants and deliver a thermal output of 660 MW with an electrical output of 200 MW. The COP of these plants is between 3.3 and 3.5. Electric boilers with an output of 300 MW are also installed.
There are 18 colleges and universities in the greater Stockholm area. The University of Stockholm ( Stockholms universitet ) with its approximately 27,000 students (as of 2020) and the Royal Stockholm University of Technology ( Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan ), probably the largest technical university in Scandinavia with almost 15,000 students (as of 2020), are of outstanding importance .
All state and private universities are listed below:
- Beckmans Design Academy (Beckmans designhögskola)
- Enskilda Högskolan Stockholm (for theology and human rights)
- Ersta Sköndal Bräcke Högskola (College for Social Services and Theology)
- Stockholm University of Commerce ( Handelshögskolan i Stockholm )
- University of the Red Cross in Huddinge (Röda Korsets högskola)
- University of Film, Radio, Television and Theater (Dramatiska Institutet)
- College of Art (Stockholm's Konnärliga Högskola)
- University of Music Education (Stockholm's Musikpedagogiska Institute)
- University of Sports (Gymnastik- och Idrottshögskolan)
- Södertörn University of Applied Sciences ( Södertörns Högskola in Huddinge )
- Royal Academy of Art (Kungliga Konsthögskolan)
- Royal College of Music Stockholm (Kungliga Musikhögskolan i Stockholm)
- Royal Technical University ( Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan KTH, Royal Institute of Technology)
- Art College ( Konstfack )
- Medical University in Solna ( Karolinska-Institutet )
- Military College (Försvarshögskolan)
- Sophiehemmet University (Sophiahemmet Högskola for Nursing and Health)
- Stockholm University (Stockholms universitet)
In addition to the research facilities at colleges and universities, there are a number of other public and private research institutions in Stockholm. In this context, the Kungliga Biblioteket (Royal Library) should be mentioned in particular, with around five million volumes. Due to the immense Swedish spoils of war in the Thirty Years' War, the library not only has an excellent collection of early modern books, but has also had a state-certified mandate to collect all material printed in Sweden since 1661. The library also manages the World Heritage Archives of the Swedish children's author Astrid Lindgren .
Stockholm is also home to the Swedish Academy , the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences , the Royal Academy of Literature, History and Antiquities, the Nobel Foundation and other cultural and scientific institutions.
Well-known personalities born in Stockholm include the composer, musician and ABBA co- founder Benny Andersson , the DJ, remixer and music producer Avicii , the poet Carl Michael Bellman , the singer Neneh Cherry , the field marshal Erik Dahlberg , the author and activist Lizzy Lind-af-Hageby , the explorer Sven Hedin , the actress Greta Garbo , the politician Anna Lindh , the children's book author Barbro Lindgren , the chemist and inventor Alfred Nobel , the poet HC Nordenflycht , the two-time Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme , the author Maj Sjöwall , the composer, pianist and conductor Wilhelm Stenhammar and the scientist and mystic Emanuel Swedenborg .
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