Cyprus, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
|Geographic coordinates :||35 ° 10 ′ N , 33 ° 21 ′ E|
|Height above d. M .:||
|Residents :||276,410 (2012)|
|LAU-1 code no .:||CY-01|
|Postal code :||1010-1107|
|Mayor :||Constantinos Yiorkadjis|
220,907 (2012) 61,378 (2011) 282,285 total (2011/12)
|Population density :||
4,332 inhabitants / km² 925 inhabitants / km² 2,490 inhabitants / km² total
Nicosia ( Greek Λευκωσία Lefkosía , [ lɛfkɔˈsi.a ], Turkish Lefkoşa , ancient Greek Λήδρα Lēdra ) is a divided city in the center of the Mediterranean island of Cyprus and the capital of the district of the same name . Nicosia is the capital of the Republic of Cyprus , the northern part is also the de facto capital of the internationally unrecognized Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus .
Nicosia has been around since the 7th century BC. Proven. The prism of Esarhaddon of 673 / 672 v. BC mentions a king Unasagusu of Lidîr. The ancient name was Ledra.
The title of Vice Count of Nicosia was also available to Greek aristocrats in the Venetian period , usually against payment to the Signoria of Venice . "Visconti" from Nicosia were among others:
|1503||Jano (Jacopo) Podocataro|
|1510-1511||Efgenios Singriticus||Attempt for a third term failed|
In the 1930s, the Venetian City Walls were restored by the Department of Antiquities under the direction of Peter Megaw , partly as a job creation measure . In 1949 the luxurious Ledra Palace Hotel was opened.
Status under international law
Under international law, the city belongs in its entirety to the Republic of Cyprus , which, however, has not exercised any de facto sovereign rights over North Nicosia since the occupation of northern Cyprus by Turkish armed forces and the proclamation of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in November 1983 . Since then the city by a "Green Line" ( English Green Line , Greek πράσινη γραμμή, Turkish yeşil has ) divided by United Nations peacekeeping , the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus ( UNFICYP is) monitored.
There is the US Embassy in Nicosia .
Districts and neighboring suburbs
Northern part ( Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus )
South part ( Cyprus )
In the southern part of the old town there is a lively cultural life with a few restaurants and pubs, especially in the area around the Famagusta Gate (πύλη Αμμόχωστου). Traditional shops and craft shops are scattered all over the old town. In the Ledra Street , which at the Freedom Square (Freedom Square; Πλατεία Ελευθερίας) and ends up to the Green Line leads, are the larger and more modern shops. The Laikí Jitoniá (Λαϊκή Γειτονιά; roughly: local / traditional neighborhood) is a district that is primarily used for tourism.
Both the north and south parts of the old town fell into disrepair due to the subdivision-related peripheral location. For several years, historical buildings, especially medieval Cypriot and Venetian ones , have been restored. On April 3, 2008, the first border crossing point within the old town (only for pedestrians) was opened in Ledrastrasse.
The almost five kilometers long Venetian fortress wall was built in 1567/1568 and surrounds the old town with eleven bastions in a star shape . Five bastions are in the south (clockwise): Caraffa , Podocataro , Constanza , D'Avila , Tripoli , five in the north: Roccas (Turkish Kaytazağa) , Mula (Zahra) , Quirini (Cephane) , Barbaro (Musalla) , Loredano ( Cevizli) , the Flatro (Sibeli) bastion is divided, on it there are border guards from both sides and a UN post.
South of the city
- The Liberation Monument on the Podokataro Bastion was erected shortly after the liberation from British colonial rule in 1960.
- The Faneromeni Church , built under Ottoman rule in 1872, is probably the largest church in Nicosia.
- The John's Cathedral was built in 1662 and in the 18th century to the cathedral raised.
- The Omeriye Mosque , which emerged from the 14th century Gothic monastery church of St. Mary of the Augustinian Hermits.
- The Icon Museum is housed in a side wing of the Archbishop's Palace . The museum houses more than 150 icons and is one of the world's most important icon collections.
- Museum of the National Struggle
- The Cyprus Museum (Archaeological Museum) is located southwest just outside the old town. It is the most important archaeological museum on the island and with its finds from the Neolithic to the Byzantine era provides a complete picture of the cultural history of Cyprus .
- The house of Kornessios is a town villa from the 18th century, which as a museum presents the lifestyle of the upper class of the time.
- The Armenian Genocide Monument Nicosia , a memorial to the genocide of the Armenians from 1915 in the Ottoman Empire
- The Cyprus Classic Motorcycle Museum in the old town documents the history of the two-wheeler on the island.
North of the city
- A lock of Muhammad's hair is kept in the 17th century Arabahmet Mosque .
- The Selimiye Mosque , built in the 13th century as the Hagia Sophia Cathedral , was converted into a mosque by the Turks in 1571 .
- The Bedesten , originally a Byzantine church, consecrated to St. Nicholas the English in the Middle Ages, market and granary since Ottoman times.
- The Gothic church of St. Catherine from the 14th century, now secularized.
- The Sultan Mahmut Library with a large collection of Islamic manuscripts.
- The central Ataturk Square with the Venetian Column in the center.
- The old Büyük Han caravanserai was built in 1572 shortly after the Turkish conquest of Cyprus and is probably the oldest Turkish structure on the island.
- Derviş Paşa Villa
- Fine tuning museum
- Turkish Ethnographic Museum (Mevlevi Tekke)
- Barbarism Museum
- Library of Sultan Mahmud II.
Nicosia is roughly in the middle of the island, and many roads lead from there in a star shape to the coastal cities. The A1 connects Nicosia with the south coast motorways , the A9 leads west to the Troodos Mountains. The municipal company OSEL operates inner-city bus routes, there is also the regional Nicosia bus .
In the west of the city, in northern Cyprus, is the Ercan airport , which is accessible via a 4-lane expressway; Larnaka airport on the south-east coast of the island is used for the southern Cypriot part of the city . The old Nicosia Airport has been closed since 1974 because it is in the UN protection zone.
The University of Cyprus is the oldest university in the country and is located in Nicosia, the University of Nicosia was founded in 1980 . In the north of the city are the International University of Cyprus and the University of the Middle East . The Cypriot Open University of Cyprus and the private European University of Cyprus are also based in the city.
The headquarters of the Bank of Cyprus , the largest Cypriot bank, is located in Nicosia-Strovolos .
Nicosia has 276,410 ( agglomeration 476,000) inhabitants, of which 220,907 people live in the southern part of the city and 55,503 people in the (Turkish) northern part (2012).
On October 1, 2001 there were 273,642 residents.
According to the census of January 31, 1879, the city, which was still undivided at the time, had 2,463 houses and 11,197 inhabitants. They were distributed among different religions as follows:
- Muslim 5628
- Orthodox 5251
- Armenians 166
- Catholics 121
- Anglicans 28
- Jews 3
The city's most internationally known sports clubs are APOEL Nicosia and Omonia Nicosia . These two clubs also dominate the most popular sport in the Republic of Cyprus, soccer . Both play their home games in the Neo GSP Stadium , the largest in the Republic of Cyprus, with a capacity of 23,400 spectators.
The list contains an alphabetical overview of important personalities born in today's Nicosia. It is irrelevant whether the people later had their sphere of activity in Nicosia or not. Many moved away after their birth and became known elsewhere. The list does not claim to be complete.
- Kâmil Pascha (1833–1913), Ottoman statesman
- Arthur Stephen Mavrogordato (1886–1964), British police officer
- Fazıl Küçük (1906–1984), Cypriot Turkish politician, Vice President of the Republic of Cyprus from 1959 to 1973
- Khoren I. Mesrob Paroyan (1914–1983), Catholicos of the Great House of Cilicia
- Alparslan Türkeş (1917–1997), Turkish politician
- Glafkos Klerides (1919–2013), Greek Cypriot politician and President of the Republic of Cyprus
- Vamik Volkan (* 1932), Cypriot Turkish psychiatrist and psychoanalyst
- Tassos Papadopoulos (1934–2008), Greek Cypriot politician, former President of the Republic of Cyprus
- Andreas Papadakis (1938–2008), Cyprus-Greek architecture critic
- Dakis Joannou (* 1939), Greek Cypriot industrialist, known as one of the most important collectors of contemporary art
- Mike Brant (1947–1975), Israeli chanson singer
- Christopher Pissarides (* 1948), winner of the Nobel Prize for Economics in Greece
- Ferdi Sabit Soyer (* 1952), Cypriot-Turkish politician and former Prime Minister of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
- Georgios Serghides (* 1955), Cypriot lawyer, university professor and judge
- Mick Karn (1958–2011), English bass player
- Serdar Denktaş (* 1959), Turkish Cypriot politician, former Vice Chancellor and Foreign Minister of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, son of Rauf Denktaş
- Neşe Yaşın (* 1959), Turkish-Cypriot poet and writer
- Harris Georgiades (* 1972), Greek Cypriot politician
- Constantinos Stylianou (* 1972), Cyprus-Greek composer and pianist
- George Kallis (* 1974), Cyprus-Greek composer
- Dome Karukoski (* 1976), Finnish film director, screenwriter, actor and film producer of Cypriot origin
- Andreas Pitsillides (* 1977), Greek Cypriot politician and theologian
- Ankara , Turkey (since 1988)
- Bursa , Turkey
- Gaziantep , Turkey
- Tokat , Turkey
- Komrat , Gagauzia
- Aračinovo , North Macedonia
- Karbinci , North Macedonia
- Kumanovo , North Macedonia
- Athens , Greece (1988)
- Odessa , Ukraine (1996)
- Shiraz , Iran (1999)
- Bucharest , Romania (2004)
- Shanghai , China (2004)
- Barcelona , Spain (2004)
- Beirut , Lebanon (2004)
- Mexico City , Mexico (2004)
- Milan , Italy (2004)
- Abu Dhabi , United Arab Emirates (2004)
Friendship cities (southern part)
- Moscow , Russia (2000)
- Nicosia , Sicily, Italy (2000)
- Qingdao , China (2001)
- Helsinki , Finland (2003)
- Zagreb , Croatia (2004)
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Nicosia
Source: Cyprus Meteorological Service ; wetterkontor.de
- Tassos Papacostas: Byzantine Nicosia. 650–1191 , in: D. Michaelides (ed.): Historic Nicosia , Rimal Publications, Nicosia 2012, pp. 77–109. ( academia.edu )
- www.nicosia.org.cy City of Nicosia (Greek, English)
- www.lefkosa.com (Turkish)
- Sights of Lefkosia
- ↑ Ktbb.org: Kıbrıs Türk Belediyeler Birliği
- ↑ Rykle Borger: The inscriptions of Asarhaddons, King of Assyria (= Archive for Orient Research . Supplement 9). Weidner, Graz 1956, pp. 59-61; Reinhard Senff: Soloi 1. In: Der Neue Pauly (DNP). Vol. 11, Metzler, Stuttgart 2001, Col. 703; AT Reyes, Archaic Cyprus: A Study of the Textual and Archaeological Evidence, Oxford 1994,58,160 and O. Masson, Encore les royaumes chypriotes de la liste d'Esarhaddon, Cahier du center d'études chypriotes 22, 1992, 27-29.
- ^ Thomas W. Davis, A history of American Archeology on Cyprus. The Biblical Archaeologist 52/4, 1989, 163-169
- ↑ Mof.gov.cy: Republic of Cyprus, Ministry of Finance
- ^ Samuel White Baker, Cyprus, as I Saw it in 1879
- ↑ Archived copy ( Memento of the original from April 2, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.